Parry, John Jay/ Brut Y Brenhinedd, Cotton Cleopatra version.
Edited and translated by J. J. PARRY. Medieval Academy Books, No. 27 (1937).

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edited and translated by
Associate Professor of English
University of Illinois




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The publication of this book was made possible by grants of
funds to the Academy from the Carnegie Corporation of
New York and the American Council of Learned Societies





Printed in U. S. A.

printed by the waverly press, inc.

baltimore, maryland

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Under the auspices of the Mediaeval Academy, a conference of persons interested in the study of Geoffrey of Monmouth was held on 1 and 2 January 1933, at the University of Chicago. Among the subjects discussed at this meeting was that of the Welsh versions of the Historia Regum Britanniae, and it was agreed that from the literary point of view, which is the one of most interest to scholars in the United States, the text most deserving of publication was that found in the Cotton Cleopatra manuscript and in the Book of Basingwerk, and the next in interest was that of Llanstephan 1 and Havod 2. The present volume has grown out of that discussion. The general form of it was determined by the conference, the only departure of any importance from the plans there outlined being in the matter of the publication of the Welsh text itself. The conference recommended that, since the manuscript is clearly and regularly written and is in a good state of preservation, the reproduction should be by a photographic process, giving to the users of the book the exact text of the original. Unfortunately this method of reproduction proved to be too costly, and it was necessary to substitute a text printed from type.

It was the sentiment of the conference that any Welsh text published in the United States should be accompanied by a translation, and that this translation ought to follow the original closely if it were to be of any use to scholars. With this admonition in mind I have followed the original more closely than I might otherwise have done. Many of my sentences are bad because they are bad in the Welsh; others are awkward because I did not feel justified in recasting sufficiently to get away from the wearisome repetitions of the same word or the loose and ambiguous references of the pronouns, faults which seem to have troubled the mediaeval story-teller less than they do the modern stylist.

In making my translation I met with a number of problems which I was unable to solve. That few of these remain is due to the kindness of Professor Mary Williams and Mr Stephen Williams of The University College of Swansea, who devoted much time and thought to answering my numerous questions. Neither one saw my translation, however, so that neither is in any way responsible for any errors that remain. Professor F. N. Robinson of Harvard University also gave me a number of helpful suggestions.

My work on the Welsh manuscripts of Geoffrey of Monmouth has been possible only because of the kindness of the Curator of Manuscripts at the British Museum and of two successive Librarians of the National Library of Wales who arranged to have photostatic copies made, and of the Librarian and the Dean of the Graduate School of the University of Illinois who authorized the purchase of these copies. Lastly I am indebted to the Carnegie Corporation of New York and to the American Council of Learned Societies, as well as to the Mediaeval Academy of America, for the grant of funds which made publication possible.

John Jay Parry

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The History of the Kings of Britain has often been called one of the most influential books of the Middle Ages, and there is much justification for such a claim. Its popularity in its original form is attested by the fact that nearly two hundred manuscript copies are still extant,1 and in translations or extracts it reached into practically all countries of Western Europe. Of all the versions in the vernacular the most numerous but least studied are those in Welsh. Upwards of fifty manuscripts, representing at least three independent translations, are still in existence,2 and although many of these are very late they may preserve material that is centuries older, and they certainly attest to a popularity that lasted through the period of the Tudors. The Welsh people looked upon Geoffrey’s fiction as preserving the true history of their race, so that Henry the Seventh found it to his advantage to claim descent from Brutus, the first king of the island, and to trace his descent through the heroes of Geoffrey’s book.

The Welsh seem to have first become acquainted with these stories through the cyfarwydd or native story teller. Except in a few special cases such a man did not trouble himself to memorize the exact words of a story. He learned the names of the characters and a rather detailed summary of what they did, but he himself supplied the words in which the story was told, and he might not tell the story a second time in exactly the same way. Thus the standard version was early contaminated by material drawn from other sources, native and foreign, and, on the other hand, bits of Geoffrey’s narrative passed into local tradition. Corwen, for example, was named for “the famous Corwenna,” and on a hill near by are the stones she collected for its fortification but never used. In the neighborhood also is Moel Athrywyn, the “Bare Hill of Reconciliation,” so called because it was here that she brought about a peace between her two warring sons. A little further up the Alwen are Llys Dinmael, where Bran, marching from Dinas Bran, and Y Maes Mawr, where Beli, marching from Bala, first drew up their armies for battle.3 To assume that these stories were current before the time of Geoffrey seems to me to be beyond the bounds of reasonable probability.

It appears that the first written translation of the Historia into Welsh was made about the year 1200; the oldest known manuscript, which seems to contain the earliest version, is the so-called Dingestow Court Manuscript now in the National Library of Wales with the number Addit. 5266 B.4 Dr J. Gwenogvryn Evans in his introduction
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to the Red Book Bruts calls this “early XIIIth century,” and Mr Griscom (Y Cymmrodor, XXXV, 57) expresses the opinion that it is a copy of a still earlier manuscript, since on folio 2v (i.e., page 4) a whole sentence was written too soon and was expuncted and then written again in the proper place. Precisely the same thing happened on page 181, and on page 222 three words are written twice, but I cannot see that any of these examples precludes the possibility that the scribe was working from a Latin text and translating as he went along. On the other hand, on page 161 (which corresponds to folio 62v of the present edition) the scribe wrote “E calamistreit” which has been changed to “E pengrychion,” but the numerous corrections in this part of the manuscript are very probably by another hand. I cannot see that the evidence is conclusive either way.

Evans lists a number of later manuscripts which he believes belong to the same group as the Dingestow Court Manuscript, but he notes, “From the concluding words of Merlin’s prophecy to the end of the Brut the text of Nos. 5 and 6 [B. M. Addit. 19, 709 and the Red Book] differs from that of Nos. 1-4 [Dingestow Court, Peniarth 45, Peniarth 46, and Peniarth 22] and yet we have not even here independent translations. Certain agreements and differences in the wording of the six MSS. point to the probability of their being independent transcripts of a lost original.”1 In my opinion the kinship of this latter part of the Red Book is with the version of Llanstephan 1 rather than with that of Dingestow Court. Additional Manuscript 19, 709 I have not seen, but I believe that it agrees with the Red Book in changing from one version to another, since Kuno Meyer says in his introduction to John Strachan’s Introduction to Early Welsh (page ix), “He had brought back from Peniarth, from MSS. No. 22, 44, 45, and 46, a large number of variants to the Story of Lear, and that of Arthur, which he would no doubt have used for his notes. Those to Lear I have printed in an Appendix; but the Peniarth versions of Arthur seem to differ so much from those of the Red Book and the Additional MS. 19, 709, that they would have to be printed in full.” On the other hand, the variants from Addit. 19,709 which Strachan himself printed show few differences between that text and the Red Book in the story of Arthur. Evans believed that the British Museum manuscript was the source of this part of the Red Book.

Of only slightly later date are two other versions, Llanstephan 1 (formerly Shirburn Castle 113. C. 18), and Peniarth 44 (formerly Hengwrt 315). The first of these, which Evans dates as “1200-40,” and again as “second quarter of the XIIIth century,”2 impresses me as being a wholly different text from Dingestow Court, except in the prophecy of Merlin, where the two versions are similar. A large part of this manuscript has been lost, but those parts that remain are reproduced with remarkable fidelity in the almost complete Havod 2 in the Cardiff Public Library, and this seems to be a faithful copy made before the Llanstephan manuscript became imperfect. I believe we are justified in relying upon the Havod manuscript to fill the gaps in the
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other and in assuming that we have practically the whole of this version.1 Peniarth 265 (Hengwrt 439), which was written by John Jones while imprisoned in the Fleet in London in 1641, represents the same version but shows the variations characteristic of most Welsh manuscripts of the Historia. The Llanstephan version contains a considerable amount of additional material, such as the Lludd and Llevelys story, and some additions that seem to derive from classical sources.

I believe that a third independent translation from the Latin is represented by Peniarth 44 (formerly Hengwrt 315), which Evans calls “1200-40” and “first half of the XIIIth century.”2 Two gatherings of this manuscript are now bound up with Llanstephan 1 (pages 102-145), but even with these restored the text would be far from complete. It lacks, among other things, Merlin’s prophecy and most of the story of Arthur, and I have not yet found another manuscript which can be relied upon to fill the gaps. The parts that we have agree rather closely with Geoffrey’s Latin, but in words which often differ greatly from those used by either of the other early versions. There is an occasional attempt to reconcile native traditions with Geoffrey’s account, as in the statement, on what is now called page 143 of Llanstephan 1, that the mother of Gwalchmei (Gawain) was Anna, daughter of Uther, “and she was also called Gwyar.”

What seems to be still a fourth text is that presented in MS. Peniarth 21 (formerly Hengwrt 50) which Evans dates as “circa 1330-40,” and “? first half of the XIVth century.”3 Its version, he says, “does not agree verbally with that in any other MS. that is older,” but, in view of the great freedom with which a Welsh scribe was accustomed to treat the manuscript he was following, it is possible that this is merely one of the earlier versions distorted by a century of copying. If it is, I am unable to say which it was derived from; I find a few minor points which might suggest relationship to that of Dingestow Court, while Evans thought he detected a few resemblances to Llanstephan 1. The manuscript is very imperfect, and in places difficult to read, but the part dealing with Arthur is nearly complete. I have given selections from this in Appendix A, and the two facsimile plates give further samples from this manuscript. Evans believes that the late fifteenth-century Peniarth 23 is a transcript of Peniarth 21, but if one can judge from the brief passage he gives, it is not a literal copy, although it may represent the same version.

A fifth version is that found in Cotton Cleopatra B v and the Book of Basingwerk, which form the basis of the present edition. This text is so full of alterations and additions that it might almost be considered as presenting a new work in the same sense that the poems of Wace and Layamon do; its literary value is, however, very slight.

For the sake of convenience we may class the so-called Brut Tysilio as a sixth version, although I am convinced that it is nothing but an abridged and greatly corrupted
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form of the version found in more nearly its original form in Peniarth 21. The oldest manuscript to which the name Brut Tysilio has been applied is Jesus College 8 (formerly Jesus 61) at Oxford, a manuscript probably written about the year 1500. The same library possesses also a close copy, Jesus 19 (formerly Jesus 28), made in 1695 by Hugh Jones, and it appears to be from this manuscript that the Brut Tysilio was printed in the Myvyrian Archaiology in 1801.1 It was reprinted in the second edition in 1870, and a translation by Peter Roberts was published in London in 1811 under the title of The Chronicle of the Kings of Britain. A closer translation, preserving all the spellings of the proper names as they occur in Jesus 8, was made by Canon Robert Ellis Jones and included in Griscom’s edition of the Latin text.

A number of manuscripts contain compilations of history which include a considerable amount of material from Geoffrey but are not properly versions of the Historia; they are therefore not included in the present list.

The Cotton Cleopatra Version

The present edition takes as its basis the text found in manuscript Cotton Cleopatra B v in the British Museum, which is reprinted with the kind permission of the Curator of Manuscripts, Dr Robin Flower. Regarding the date of this manuscript there is considerable disagreement. A writer in the Cambrian Register for 1795 (I, 26) thought that it might be of the time of Richard I, the date at which the Brut y Saesson stops. Madden,2 de la Villemarqué,3 and W. F. Skene4 all attribute it to the latter part of the thirteenth century, T. D. Hardy5 calls it fourteenth-century, and Edward Owen6 and J. Gwenogvryn Evans7 believe it was written in the fifteenth century. This last is doubtless the most authoritative dating, although the handwriting certainly resembles that of a considerably earlier period; Evans explains this by saying that the manuscript is “written in an archaic style.”

There are three different styles of writing in the part of the manuscript devoted to the Historia, but all, I believe, are the work of the same man. He began in a large hand which may be seen in Plate XI of Griscom’s edition of the Historia, or Plate II of his article in Volume XXXVI of Y Cymmrodor. On folio 7r, in the middle of the first line, the writing suddenly becomes smaller, as though the scribe realized that he was using too much space, and the number of lines on a page increases from twenty-eight to thirty. On the remaining pages there are twenty-nine lines and this size of writing (illustrated in Plate I of this edition) predominates. There are a number of passages, most of them short, in a cramped and still smaller hand; Plate II shows
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this and how the scribe gradually slipped back into the freer style, as he often did. The idea that different men had a hand in the writing must accordingly be rejected.

The man who wrote this manuscript must have known Welsh, but his training had been mostly on Latin manuscripts. His conception of the duty of a scribe is not that of a man accustomed to working on Welsh texts. Such scribes were inclined to paraphrase rather than to copy, but our scribe, although careless at times, seems to have aimed at reproducing faithfully his exemplar; it is to this quality that I attribute variations in style and spelling that seem to bear no relation to the changing styles of writing. The abbreviations are more numerous than in most Welsh manuscripts and all are the common Latin abbreviations, although all of them occur at times in other Welsh manuscripts. The appearance of a page of Cotton Cleopatra B v is unlike that of any other Welsh manuscript that I have seen but is not greatly different from that of many Latin ones.

Another and inferior copy of the same version is found in the Book of Basingwerk, recently purchased by the National Library of Wales (after having been deposited in the library on loan) and given the catalogue number 7006.1 Like the other manuscript this contains also the Ystoria Daret and Ystoria Brenhined y Saeson. Of this manuscript John Williams ab Ithel wrote in 1860, “The prior part of this manuscript contains an imperfect version of the Chronicle of the Kings, written about the end of the fourteenth century; to supply the deficiency Guttyn Owain added the remainder from a dissimilar copy.”2 The changes in the handwriting and the spelling are obvious at a glance, yet in 1923 some one at the National Library informed Mr Griscom that the manuscript appeared to be throughout in the handwriting of Guttyn Owain and that it was certainly not written before the fifteenth century.3 The most recent official description says, however, “The first 88 pages are in a fourteenth century hand and the remainder was written by Gutyn Owain, a fifteenth century Welsh bard who is generally associated with the abbeys of Basingwerk and Strata Florida.”4 In my opinion this manuscript is not, as it has been said to be, a copy of Cotton Cleopatra B v, but both are derived from a common source, and occasionally the Book of Basingwerk has preserved what seems to be a better reading than the other; in general, however it is clear that both of the Basingwerk scribes treated their original with considerable freedom after the usual practice of Welsh copyists, so that we cannot rely upon them for the letter of their original. If there are still other manuscripts which follow this same version, as Evans suggests, they are all so late that they can hardly be of value and I have not examined them.5

Of this version only portions have hitherto appeared in print. Folios 1 to 21 of
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Cotton Cleopatra B v were printed with a translation in the Cambrian Register in 1795 and 1796 (I, 26-48; II, 25-52), and in 1811 a translation of pages 43-54, 101-103, and 123-126 of the Book of Basingwerk was included by Peter Roberts in his Chronicle of the Kings of Britain. Both are competent translations in the light of the Welsh scholarship of the time when they were made, but both are too free according to present standards.

The text of this Cotton Cleopatra version is a composite of various elements not elsewhere found together. The dedicatory chapter here appears in Welsh for the first time; such earlier versions as have it at all have it in Latin. Because of the mutilated condition of some of the manuscripts it is impossible to say that no version earlier than this ever had the dedication in Welsh, but I believe that the version the compiler was following did not.

The two prophecies also seem to be from a different source than the narrative portions of the text. That which is here called the Prophecy of the Eagle was known to Giraldus Cambrensis under another name by the year 1200 or thereabouts, for he gives extracts from it in the Expugnatio Hibernica1 as a prophecy of Merlin Sylvester. The full text is found in a number of later manuscripts, and from two of these I have reprinted it in Appendix B. Of the Welsh versions, I know but three that may possibly be earlier than that given here. That in the Red Book, columns 585ff., is very different from this. There is a fragment in Peniarth 16 (this part is of the fifteenth century) so stained that Evans found it practically impossible to read, and a text in Peniarth 47 (? fifteenth century), likewise difficult to decipher. Among later copies are one in Peniarth 27 which may be in Guttyn Owain’s own hand, and four different versions in the seventeenth-century Peniarth 311.

The Prophecy of Merlin is here given in a translation entirely different from the version of Dingestow Court and Llanstephan-Havod, and seems to be the work of the same man who translated the other Prophecy. Both are marked by the inadequacy of the translator’s knowledge of Latin. Doubtless the text from which he worked was corrupt and we can sometimes conjecture what stood in it, but more often we can see that his text was the same as ours and he misunderstood it. These two prophecies are also marked by common peculiarities of spelling and style. The most striking of these is the translator’s fondness for the verbs ending in -hau, and his invariable use of the third person singular of these verbs in its longer form. Forms like gwanhaa, newydhaa, cadarnhaa, ovynhaa, marwhaa, nessaa, blinhaa, daa, nythaha, and many others occur over and over again in these two parts but practically never elsewhere. Also noticeable is the frequent use of e for obscure y (rare in the rest of this text), which may indicate that it is a copy of a thirteenth-century manuscript,2 and the more frequent use of id for yd.

Other items in this version which I do not find in any other versions of the Historia are the elaborately worked out chronology, the chronicle on folios 39-40v (which
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must have a Latin source although I have not found it), and minor items such as those concerning Saint Bride and Theophilus the Scholar.

The remaining narrative portions bear every evidence of antedating this version and, as seems to be the case with so many of the Welsh translations of Geoffrey, appear to be drawn from two sources, as though the scribe had borrowed one manuscript to copy, had been obliged to return it before he finished, and had completed the work from another copy. The first part bears some resemblance in substance, but little in expression, to the Llanstephan-Havod version and may possibly be a much altered form of that. That version already contained the story of Lludd and Llevelis and the incident of the gods of Ascanius returning to Lavinium from Alba Longa which are included in the Cotton Cleopatra version. The narrative part here is mostly in simple straightforward Welsh with a good many stereotyped expressions into which the translator falls whenever conditions permit. The latter part of the narrative seems to be written in a somewhat more ornate style; the stereotyped expressions are still used but the translator is consciously striving for rhetorical effect. One mark of this is the more frequent use of those long strings of descriptive adjectives and adverbs which form so characteristic a feature of some Irish romances. There are also slight differences in vocabulary and in spelling, but nothing conclusive. Taking all the evidence together I am convinced that the different parts of the narrative are drawn from two different sources.

This conviction is strengthened by the fact that in the latter part I see a fairly close resemblance to the version of Peniarth 21, a resemblance that I do not detect in the first part. Just where the shift comes I cannot say, for Peniarth 21 has lost a number of pages between 16v and 17 (which correspond to 54 and 72v of Cotton Cleopatra) and the parallelism apparently begins somewhere in that interval. The Cotton Cleopatra text is the fuller of the two and appears to be the more correct; the Peniarth scribe evidently followed the usual custom of abridging and paraphrasing, while the other, I have assumed, copied what he had before him. To facilitate comparison of the two texts I have given in Appendix A a number of passages from Peniarth 21; I believe that any one who is familiar with the usual variations in Welsh texts will recognize many parallels. Some of the proper names seem to me particularly significant and I have included an unusually large proportion of passages in which these appear. One other point may be worth comment. On folio 85 Cotton Cleopatra tells us that the women showed themselves to the men “very willingly”—yr gweith diodev, which is literally “in spite of the work of suffering.” The Book of Basingwerk has or gwaith goddef, which means the same thing, but the scribe of Peniarth 21 evidently did not recognize the somewhat unusual idiom and wrote merely yr gweith, “in spite of the work,” which is hardly appropriate.

This text common to these two versions is represented in much more corrupt form by the Brut Tysilio. I find no indication that this and Peniarth 21 do not correspond throughout, although with the two diverging in different directions it is difficult to compare them except where we have something like an approximation to their common
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source, as we do in the latter part. Here it is even possible to show that one of the omissions in the Brut Tysilo (pages 469-474 of Griscom’s edition) is due to the fact that the scribe jumped from what corresponded to folio 88 of Cotton Cleopatra, “Telling him (yn menegi idav) that a giant of marvellous size had come from Spain,” to what corresponded to 89v, “Then he was told (y menegit idaw) that Lucius the emperor had camped near them.” Lesser omissions and variations are of the kind we find in the Book of Basingwerk, although the corruption is greater. One can observe a steady deterioration of the text from Cotton Cleopatra through Peniarth 21 and the Book of Basingwerk1—which stand on about equal terms although they have gone separate ways—down to Jesus 8, and I presume manuscripts might be found which depart even more widely.

Although the Cotton manuscript gives us a much better text than the Book of Basingwerk and, in the later part, a text better than that of either Peniarth 21 or Jesus 8, there are passages where it is clearly at fault, and in a few of them the Book of Basingwerk preserves what seems to be the correct reading, showing thereby that it is not copied from Cotton Cleopatra. On folio 6v the Cotton Cleopatra scribe jumped from gorvu to gorvu, and the Book of Basingwerk fills the gap; on 22 he jumped in a similar way from a oed to a oed. On 89 the sentence represented by note 10 seems to be part of the original, since Peniarth 21 has here Ac ynyr ymlad hwnnw y gorvv arthur hevyt. On 64v the fervebit of the Latin is better represented by Guttyn Owain’s a gymerw than by the Cotton a gymer chwa, and on 59, 70, 70v, B. B. distinguishes between Eidol Earl of Gloucester and Idwal the Bishop, and C. C. does not. Some of these passages are found in Guttyn Owain’s part and some in the earlier section, and there are others only slightly less convincing. At times it is difficult to distinguish between such cases and ones where the more difficult reading may be the better. On 100v I should be inclined to accept Guttyn Owain’s athrod (note 7) were it not for the fact that the Cotton Cleopatra text is supported by Peniarth 21 which has here (37r), y darvv yrwng edelflet ay wreic briawt. Guttyn Owain evidently took the other meaning of darvod and, thinking that the subject had dropped out, supplied one.

In a number of cases both manuscripts seem to be at fault, and unless the Book of Basingwerk is a copy of Cotton Cleopatra, which I do not believe, both must have been made from a common source which contained these errors. It is not impossible that this was the original manuscript of the version, but if so these errors must have been taken over from one of the sources. Most of the examples I have found are in the prophecies, where the Peniarth text is not available as a check. On 62 Cotton Cleopatra has yny bo llithredic y llawr, and the Book of Basingwerk, mistaking the construction (for which see B.B.C.S., I, 9) has oni vo llithredic yr llawr, yet the correct form almost certainly should be yny bo llithredic y llauur (emenso labore). On 62v a dygir and a ddygyrch must stand for a vygir (suffocabitur), and on 65v both manuscripts have chwyd, which must be an error for chwyth (anhelabit). On 67v corunawc and
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korvniawc seem to stand for cornawc (cornutus), while on 15 the a etiang of both manuscripts probably should be a diang, an attempt to translate the superstes of the Latin. On 90 Cotton Cleopatra has avnbyn deylu, the Book of Basingwerk has byddwch ddyvn a glewion, while Peniarth 21, which also has the passage, has (34r) A vn at the end of one line and byn deulu at the beginning of the next. It has been suggested to me that the proper form of the word was anu6yn, the modern anfwyn, and that it was miscopied from a manuscript which used the tall w, shaped somewhat like the numeral 6.

Since I consider the Cotton Cleopatra text very much closer to the original than is that of the Book of Basingwerk, I have reproduced the Cotton Cleopatra text as closely as type will permit.1 The abbreviations present few difficulties and there seemed to be no good reason why I should not expand them without comment.2 It may perhaps be noted that although the scribe occasionally uses a line over the vowel to indicate a nasal he does not do so often enough; his fairly frequent use of g for ng might be explained by the fact that he was copying from a manuscript that did this consistently, but the use of y for yn can hardly be due to anything but carelessness. When he divides a word at the end of a line it is his common practice to write a consonant twice—er-reidir, gym-mryt, ohon-nam, ryd-dit, yd-dunt, dec-get, pet-deir, caf-uas, chwit-theu, medyl-liaw, ell-lyt—which makes the word appear strange in my text. Sometimes these doubled consonants are found in the manuscript in words which are not divided, a fact that may indicate that in the exemplar they too came at the end of a line. The spacing is also confusing in this manuscript. Words which are closely connected in thought are written with a very narrow space or none at all between them; often it is impossible to determine whether the scribe intended any division at all, but where I thought there was the slightest justification I have, for the convenience of the reader, inserted a space. I did not, however, feel justified in doing so when there was no trace of division in the manuscript. Words added in the margin or between the lines I print within parentheses, marking them with a * if the addition seems clearly a late one.

In the foot-notes I have given a number of the more important variants from the Book of Basingwerk, and some of these I have included in the translation, where they are printed in italics to distinguish them from matter that is in Cotton Cleopatra. In many cases no change of meaning is involved, the two texts saying the same thing but in different words, and in such cases I have given the variant without a translation. To note all the differences between the two manuscripts would be impossible unless the two texts were printed side by side, and this would not be worth the cost. Except in special cases I have not recorded variants of the following kinds\.

  • 1.  Variations in spelling; variations in the spelling of proper names will be found in the index.
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  • 2.  Variations in the use of initial mutations, except where they seem to indicate a difference in meaning. Some other cases seem to indicate difference in grammatical practice, but most of the differences are merely orthographical.
  • 3.  Variations in word order except where these materially affect the meaning.
  • 4.  Minor variations in grammatical construction.
  • 5.  Omissions of words, phrases or clauses where such omissions seem to be due merely to the haste or carelessness of the scribe or to his desire to compress. Sometimes I have recorded such omissions merely to show why I cannot clear up a difficult passage by reference to the other text.

I have added also a few variants from Peniarth 21, but have not made a full collation of this text; the state of the manuscript would render this exceedingly difficult even for the parts that remain.

My translation is intended for those who wish to know what is in the Cotton Cleopatra version but have not an adequate knowledge of Welsh. For this reason I have made it as literal as I could without doing violence to the English language. Bad constructions and awkward or incomplete sentences in the Welsh are rendered by similarly bad English ones, but where the idea is expressed by a normal Welsh idiom I have had no hesitation in using the corresponding English one, believing that “very great love had their father for them” is a more accurate, as well as a more elegant, rendering of dirvawr gariad oed gan eu tad arnadunt than is “very great love was with their father on them.” Similarly “embrace,” is a better translation of mynet dwilaw mynwgyl than “go two-hand neck.” A few stereotyped expressions I have paraphrased. Y kavas yn y gynghor (“he got in his council”) I render “After consultation, he decided,” and Y kowssant yn ev kynghor by “After deliberation, they decided.” Yn hedwch tangnevedus (“in peaceful peace”) I render “in peace and quiet,” and llad yn olofrud (“kill murderously”) by “murder” or “kill without mercy.” Llawen wrtho oed Arthur sometimes means “Arthur made him welcome,” as well as “joyful to him was Arthur.” Minor errors of the scribe I have passed over without comment, but I have considered it no part of my duty to correct his errors in translating from the Latin.

The forms of proper names which I have adopted in the translation are not always the most correct but are those sanctioned by custom. One expects Goneril and Regan, Gawain and Guinevere, no matter how little justification there is in the Welsh for such forms. Sometimes I have approached nearer to the Welsh form, but in many cases my choice has been a purely arbitrary one. In the index, I have given all the forms which the name takes in the manuscripts, the most common ones being given first. When a form occurs only in the Book of Basingwerk I have given it in italics. The forms in parentheses are those of the Latin text for which these Welsh forms are used; in many cases they are not exact equivalents and in some they are not equivalents at all. For the sake of convenience I have adopted the forms preferred by Professor Faral in his edition of Geoffrey, but I have occasionally given others also if they agree more closely with the Welsh. In the case of these Latin names, italics are used to indicate that the name is not found at all in the manuscripts of the Historia—at least so far as these have been published—but is taken from some other Latin source.


 [1 ] Acton Griscom, The Historia Regum Britanniæ of Geoffrey of Monmouth (New York, 1929), pp. 550-584. A few additional manuscripts have come to light since Griscom’s census was taken.

 [2 ] Ibid., pp. 585-599.

 [3 ] Cofnodion a Chyfansoddiadau Buddugol Eisteddfod Blaenau Ffestiniog, 1898 (London, 1900), pp. 86, 89.

 [4 ] An edition of this manuscript has been prepared by a Welsh scholar and is now awaiting publication.

 [1 ] The Text of the Bruts, John Rhys and J. Gwenogvryn Evans eds. (Oxford, 1890), pp. xiii ff.

 [2 ] Text of the Bruts, p. xvi; Report on Manuscripts in the Welsh Language (London, 1898-1910), II, 419-20.

 [1 ] Evans (Report, II, 301) calls this “XVth century.” I have collated the two manuscripts and find that the differences are mostly minor variations in spelling. The two have some peculiarities in common, such as the irrational use of capitals in certain words.

 [2 ] Text, p. xvi; Report, I, 378.

 [3 ] Text, p. xvi; Report, I, 347.

 [1 ] Griscom, Historia, pp. 596-597.

 [2 ] Brut (London, 1847), III, 434.

 [3 ] Notices des principaux manuscrits des anciens Bretons; cited by Griscom in Y Cymmrodor, XXXVI, 3.

 [4 ] The Four Ancient Books of Wales (Edinburgh, 1868), I, 25.

 [5 ] Descriptive Catalogue of Materials Relating to the History of Great Britain and Ireland (London, 1862-71), II, 529.

 [6 ] Catalogue of the Manuscripts Relating to Wales (London, 1900-22), I, 35.

 [7 ] Text of the Bruts, p. xvi, and Report, II, 952.

 [1 ] Communication from Mr William Ll. Davies, the Librarian. To his kindness I am indebted for permission to reproduce facsimilies and portions of the text of the Book of Basingwerk and also MS. Peniarth 21.

 [2 ] Edition of Brut y Tywysogion in the Rolls Series, No. 17 (London, 1860), pp. xlvi-xlvii.

 [3 ] Y Cymmrodor, XXXV, 69-70.

 [4 ] National Library of Wales, Annual Report for 1933-1934, p. 35.

 [5 ] For example, Peniarth 264, Llanstephan 149, Jesus 6 (141), and B. M. Addit. 15,566. Peniarth 25 follows the Book of Basingwerk up to fol. 31 of this edition; from there on, it is greatly abridged and breaks off on 70 v.

 [1 ] Rolls Series, No. 21 (London, 1861-91), V, 276, 279, 300-301, 366, 381.

 [2 ] B.B.C.S., II, 283.

 [1 ] Departures from the Cotton Cleopatra text are more numerous in Guttyn Owain’s part of the Book of Basingwerk than in the earlier part (although there are many here too), and they become still more numerous as he goes on.

 [1 ] The original plan was to reproduce the text by photography, and for this reason all of the variants were placed with the translation; financial reasons made it necessary to change this plan and print the text from type.

 [2 ] There are only two cases where I felt any doubt. In the name Hymyr I have rendered the -er sign -yr, since the name is so written whenever it is spelled out, and in dates I have rendered ann as annorum (Welsh o vlwynyded).

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Fol. 1y llyuyr hwnn aelwir y brut nyt amgen noc ystoriaeu brenhined ynys brydeyn ac ev henweu or kyntaf hyt y diwethaf.

Pan yttoedwn yn vynych yn treiglaw medylieu llawer. ac am lawer o betheu vy medwl adigwidws yn ystoriaeu brenhined ynys brydein. ac y bu anryuet gennyf am draetheaut gildas. a beda. mor dywyll. ac na choffaassant or brenhinet a vuant yn ynys brydein kyn dyuot crist yn gnawt. nac o arthur nac o lawer o vrenhinet ereill a vuant gwedy knawtdoliaeth crist. Ry gawsswn inheu ac yr glywsswn bot ev gweithredoed yn deilwng o uoliant ac yngoffadwy trwy lythyr y gan lawer o bobloed. ac yn didanwch ganthunt traethu onadunt ac ev dydwyn ar gof. Ac ual yr yttoedwn yn yssmalhau am hynny. y rodes ym gwallter archdiagon ryt ychen llyuyr kymraec ac yndaw gweithredoed brenhinet ynys brydein. o vruttus y brenhin kyntaf or bryttannieit hyt ar gadwallawn vab katuan. a gweithret pob vn gwdy y gilit ol yn ol. o ymadrodyon trwiadyl llwybreit yndaw hard urth eu datkanu. Ac o arch ac annoc yr athro hwnnw kyt gorfei arnaf kynullaw geirieu ystronawl o ardeu ereill. eissioes om coydiawl ethrylit am priaut binnieu vy hvn y prydereis trossi ac ymchwe lut y llyuyr kymraec hwnnw yn lladin.Fol. 1v canis pei llanwn y lletwynebeu o amgylchion geirieu; magu blinder a wnay mwy no digrifwch neu grynodeb yr ae darllenei. canys blinach oed dyall y geirieu ystronawl no darllein yr ystoria. Ac urth hynny Robert tywyssauc caer loyw canorthwya ym gweithreti. yny vo tydy yn ganmolwr ac yn dysgwr yn emendaher yr hynn ny barner y dyuot yn llwybreid ofynhonic Gwallter o aber Mynw[] namyn gan ganmawl dy doethineb di dywetter pan yw y llyuyr ae draethaut yw yr hwn a enis yr arderchawc henri vrenhin lloygyr. yr hwn yssyd dysgedic o doethineb yrydyon geluydodeu. yr vn a wnaeth yanyanawl voledigrwyd yn ragoredic ym milwriaeth ymplith ymarchogion. o honadunt yma ynys brydein yn an amseroed ny yn llawenhau odragywydawl diheuwyt.

Brytain yw henw yr orev or ynysset a elwit weith arall gynt albion. sef oed hynny y wen ynys yssyd ossodedic y rwng freinc ac ywerdon. wyth cant milltir yny hyt. a deu cant yny llet. ac a ymwassanaetha o aniffigiedic frwithlonder a vo reit y aruer yr rei marwaul. frwythlawn yw y bob ryw genedyl adwyn. Meisyd lly dan ehang. a brynnyeu eglur goruchel adas y bop ryw diwyll.Fol. 2 yny rei ydeuant amrauaelon frwitheu ofrwithlonder y dywarchen yn ev amseroed. yndi y mae coydyd aforesteu kyflawn o amrauaylion bwystuilet. ac yn eithauoed y rei hynny lleoed adas y borueyt aniueilieit gwylt a dof. a chyflawn o amrauaelion blodeuoed amryw lliwioed adas ywenyn kynullaw eu frwitheu. ac adan yr awyraul vynyded y mae fynhonyeu eglur. ac yn eu kylch wynt gweirglodieu gwastat bonhedigeit kyflawn o vlodeu. trwy y rei y kerda dwfyr yfynhonyeu yn frydeu gan lithraw o araf odwrd gan didanu y hunaw a orwedo ar ev glanneu. ac yd ardymherant eu kylchyn. y am hynny frwithlawn yw y pysgodlynneu. ac auonyd o bysgawt. hep y mor yssyd yny chylch ogylch. ac y wrth y deheu teir avon bonhedic o brif auonyd yssyd yndi. nyt amgen. temys. ahumyr. a hafren. megys tri breich yn ystynnu ar y hyt. Ac ar eu hyt wynte y deuant y kyfnewidieu yr ynys drwy uordwy o ynyssoed ereill y gan pob ryw genedyl. Ac yndi yd oed gynt wyth prif dinas argueint yny thecgau. a rey onadunt a diwreidwyt ac adiuahwyt. ereill onadunt yssyd gyuan gyuannet athemleu seint yndunt.Fol. 2v achestyll athyreu goruchel. ac yny temleu hynny y mae kwuennoed kreuydus o wyr agwraged yn rodi eu gwassanaeth y duw herwyt cristionogaul aruer. Ac yny diwet hwn pymp kenedyl yssyd yny chyuanhedu nyd amgen. normanyeit. bryttannyeit. saesson. fichtieit. ac ysgottieit. ac o hynny oll nyd oed gynt yny medu or mor pwy gilyd namyn bryttannieit eu hun. yny doeth dwywaul dial arnadunt am eu pechodeu. ac yn bennaf am eu syberwyt y darystyngassant yr fichtieit ar saesson. Mal y doethant ac or lle y doethant ef ageffir rac llaw.

Eneas ysgwydwyn gwedy ymlat troea a distriw yr gaer ef adoeth odena hyt vor tu ar eidial ef ac ascanius y vab er hwn a enessyt o creusa verch priaf vrenhyn tro. wynt adoethant wyth long arugeint or llongeu a athoed gan alexander paris gynt hyt yn groec y gribdeiliaw Elen vannawc gyt ac eneas. Sef riuedi a doeth gyd ac ef wyth mil a phedwar vgein rwng gwyr a gwraged a hen a ieuweing. A gwedy eu ryuod yn kylchynu amrauaylion draetheu y doethant hyt ymron y tir. sef oed yr eidial gwlat ruuein. a latinus a oed brenhyn yn yr eidial yna. a gwedy gwelet y llynges anvon a oruc y wybod pryw wyr oedynt. a gwedy y venegi idaw.Fol. 3 eruynneit a orugant idaw ganneat ydyuot yr tir ybrynu ev anghenreidieu drwy gedernyt na wnelyd argywed y neb or kyuoeth. ac wynt ay caussant. ac y gwahodes latinus brenhin yr eidial. eneas eu gastell ay oreu gwyr gyd ac ef. ac yna ygwelas eneas lauinia verch latinus vrenhin. a diheu oed gan bawb or ay gwelas na welsant erioed dyn gyuiret a hi. ac yna y kyflenwys eneas oy charyat hyt nat oed idaw beuwyd hebdi. a gwedy ymadnabot ar brenhin ac ymgedymeithaw ac ef erchi y vorwyn a oruc yn wreic bwys idaw. ac yna ymenegis y brenhin ry daruot y hadaw y turnus brenhin rutil. gwedy gwybod o eneas hynny ervynneit aoruc gadel ryngthaw ef a turnus am y vorwyn. ac adaw aoruc latinus hynny rac meynt y carei ef eneas. A gwedy gwybot o turnus hynny lluhudaw aoruc am ben kyuoeth latinus. ac yny erbyn ydoeth eneas ay lu. agwedy dyuot ydeu lu wyneb yn wyneb. erchi aoruc turnus yeneas canys ryngthunt ell deu yd oed ymrysson am y vorwyn. gadel yr deu lu bot en segur. ac ymlat onadunt wynteu yll deu ar ostec rwg y deu lu ar neb a orffei onadunt kymeret y vorwyn. nyd oed well gan eneas dym no hynny. Ac yna ymgyrchu or deu wr ac ymlat yn wychyr creulon yny dorres eu gwaeuwyr hyt eu dyrnneu.Fol. 3v ac eu cledyfeu hyt eu clowynneu a oed diayreb eu cadarnhet yn ystoria gwyr ruuein. ac yna ymauel ell deu oangerd amilwriaeth corf yn erbyn corf. ac ual yteruyna duw pob tynghetuen y goruu eneas ar turnus ac ylladawt ef turnus. ac y kymmyrth gwriogaeth y wyr. ac y goresgynawd y holl gyuoeth. ac y kymyrth lauinia yn wreic bwis idaw. ac y bu yn kyt wleduchu a latinus brenhin yr eidial pymp mlyned. ac yna y bu varw latinus. ac y kymyrth eneas llywodraeth ydyrnas yn eidaw ehun. ac awnaeth dinas ac ay gelwys yn lauinium. ac y beichioges lauinia ac agauas mab a elwyd siluius. ac y gwledychawt eneas en er eidial gwedy latinus pedeir blyned. A gwedy marw eneas ac na allei lauinia llywiaw ydyrnas. ef arodet siluius ar vaeth ar ascanius y vraud allywodraet y deyrnas ganthaw. yny vythei oedran ar y mab. ac ef agarei lauinia yn vwy no y vam ehvn. aphob peth or auynnei hi ef ay gwnay. ac ef a wnaeth dinas ar avon tyberis ac ay gelwis y wen hir. ac ef aberis kyrchu er ysteuyll awnathoed y dad ar geu dwyweu o lauinium hyt y wen hir. ar dwyweu a ymchweiliassant hyt yn lauinium dracheukeuyn. ac y peris ascanius eu kyrchu yr eilweith hyt yno. Ac vn mab a oed y ascanius oy wreic briawt a rac meynt y carey ef y vrawd y peris ef dodi henw y vrawd arnaw siluius.Fol. 4 a phan yttoed yn gallu kerdet adywedud y ducpwyt y mab hyt yn llys lauinia ydysgu moes a mynud. ac yna y beichioges ef nith y lauinia. ac yna ykeisiwd dewinion y wybot ar pabeth yd oed hi yn veichiawc. ac ymenegit pan yw ar vab. armab hwnnw aladei y vam ay dad ac yny diwed ef a ymdrechauei yngoruchelder teyrnassoed. ac nys twyllawd ev dewindabayth. ac ascanus a wledychawd yn er eidial teirblynet ardec arugeint. ac yno yd edewis llywodraeth y dyrnas y siluius y vrawt. ac ny chongles ynteu ar siluius y nei vab y vrawt ac a aethassei ar y henw ynteu. namyn rodi idaw ran vawr oy gyuoeth. a phan oed amser geni ymab a dywetpwyt vchot. y mab a anet yn diargywed ay vam a uu varw or beichiogi. ac y rodet y mab ar vaeth. ac ydodet henw arnaw brutus. Aphan yttoed y mab yn oedran pymthegmlwyd ydoeth ef y ymwelet ay dad. a diwyrnawt mal yr yttoedynt yn hely mewn forest. ar mab adan brenn. ay dad a dan brenn arall. ef adoeth yr hydgant ryngthunt yll deu. ac y byriawd y mab vn or hydgant a saeth. ac y neidiawt y saeth iargeuyn vn or keiriw yny vu adan vron y dad. ac or ergyt anodun hwnnw y bu uarw y dad. Gwedy gwelet o doeth eon gwlat ruuein mor dybryt ydamchweineu ef ahynny.Fol. 4v y alltudaw a orugant ef or ynys. Ac yna y kyrchawt brutus groec ac ymrodi a oruc ef y arueu. y ymwaneu. ac y tornemanneu. yny yttoed y glod yn hehedec dros wyneb y teyrnassoed. canys hael oed a doeth a thec athelediw. achryf adewr. adigryf acharedic gan bawb. a phop da or byd or adamchweinei idaw. ef ay rodei y bawb or ay mynney. Agwedy gwelet o weligord. Elenus vap priaf yr hwnn adugassei pyr uab achel ganthaw gynt o droea y dial angheu y dad. brutus mor lwydiannus ac ydoed. dyuot a orugant attaw ac ymgystlwn ac ef ev hanuot or vn genedyl a menegi meynt oed eu kaythiwet ac ev poen adan pandrassus vrenhin groec. ac eruynneit yr duw keisiaw ohonaw ev dwyn or gaethiwet honno. canys gwell oed ganthunt diodef gloes angheu no bod yn y geythiwet honno. A gwedy dyall o brutus eu kerennyt ac ef. a meint oed eu poen ac eu gouyt. kyt doluriaw ac wynt a oruc. hyt nad oed well ganthaw y vew no y varw. Agwedy medyliaw llawer am hynny menegi aorugant y assaracus canys mam hwnnw ahanoed o troea. ay dad ahanoed o roec. aphan uw varw ydad ef a edewys y assaracus y vab tri chastell canys o garadas y cat. ay vraut yr hwnn a hanoed or gwely priawt yn vynych yn keisiaw dwyn y kestill hynny yarnaw.Fol. 5 canys y vam ef ay dad ahanoed o roec. ac ynteu yn deduawl. A gwedy ymgynghor o brutus ac assaracus. yn eu kynghor y cawssant edrych pa amkan o wyr ymlad y gellit dyuot ydaw. sef y caffant o wyr da hep gwraged na meibion seith mil. A gwedy dyuot hynny o wyr y gyd yn eu kyghor y caussant gwneithur brutus yn dywyssawc arnadunt. achadarnhau tri chastell assaracus o wyr ac arueu. a bwyd a diawt. ac ermygion ymlad. a gwedy daruot ydunt hynny. kyrchu a oruc brutus ac assaracus ac eu niueroed ac eu hanreithieu y diffeith coedyd. ac anuon llythyr ar pandrassus vrenhin groec. a llyma mod y llythyr.

This book is called the Brut, that is, the Histories of Kings of the Isle of Britain and their names, from the first to the last.

41When I was often turning over many thoughts and about many things, my thought fell upon the histories of the kings of the Isle of Britain, and it was a marvel to me that the treatise of Gildas and Bede was so obscure, and that they made no remembrance of the kings who were in the Isle of Britain before the coming of Christ in the flesh, or of Arthur, or of many other kings who were after the incarnation of Christ. I was finding and hearing that their deeds were worthy of praise and of being remembered in writing among many peoples, and that to those it was a delight to speak of them and to keep them in mind. And while I was dallying over these things, Walter Archdeacon of Oxford gave me a Welsh book in which were deeds of the kings of the Isle of Britain from Brutus, the first king of the Britons, / to Cadwaladr son of1 Cadwallon son of Cadvan, and the deeds of each,41b one after the other in order, in thoroughly straightforward language, beautiful for recitation. And at the request and exhortation of this master, although I was forced to gather strange words from other men’s gardens, yet with my sylvan talent and my own pens, I took the trouble to turn and render
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this Welsh book into Latin. For if I should fill the pages with circumlocutions it would make more trouble than pleasure or profit for those who might read it, since it was more troublesome to understand the strange words than to read the history. Therefore, Robert Prince of Gloucester, give aid to my work so that you may be a praiser and an instructor until1 that is amended which may not be judged to come readily from the little fountain of Walter of Monmouth, but with praise of your wisdom it may be said that it is this book and its contents which were born to the noble Henry King of England who is learned in the wisdom of the liberal arts,42 / the same whose natural praiseworthiness made him notable for his military prowess among the knights, those in whom, here in our days, the Isle of Britain rejoices2 in everlasting affection.3

Britain is the name of the best of islands, which at another time used to be called Albion—that is the White Island—which is placed between France and Ireland, eight hundred miles in its length and two hundred in its breadth; and out of unfailing fertility it provides whatever is necessary for the use of mortals. It is fruitful in all manner of kinds of metals,
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immense broad fields and splendid high hills, suitable for every kind of cultivation, in which, from the fruitfulness of the turf, come all sorts of fruits in their season; in it are woods and forests filled with different kinds of beasts, and in their depths places suited for pasture for animals, wild and tame, and full of all sorts of flowers of different colors, whose fruits are suitable for the bees to gather. And beneath the airy / mountains are clear springs, and about them noble level meadows,42b full of flowers, through which the water of the springs runs, gliding along with slow murmur, diverting to slumber those who lie on their banks, and they temper their surroundings. Furthermore it is fruitful in fish-ponds and rivers of fish, besides the sea which circles it about; and toward the south, among the chief rivers that are in it, three noble rivers, namely, Thames and Humber and Severn, like three arms, stretch across it. And along them commerce comes from oversea to the island from all sorts of nations of other islands. And in it there were formerly twenty-eight chief cities which adorned it; and some of them have been uprooted and destroyed; others of them are completely inhabited1
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with temples of the saints in them, and castles and high towers: and in those temples are devout congregations of men and women, giving their service to God according to the Christian practice.43 And / in this latter day five nations inhabit it, the Normans, the Britons, the Saxons, the Picts, and the Scots; and of all these formerly only the Britons themselves possessed it from sea to sea, until the divine vengeance came upon them for their sins. And especially on account of their pride were they subjugated to the Picts and the Saxons. How they came and whence they came will be found hereafter.

Æneas Whiteshield, after the fight of Troy and the destruction of the city, came thence over sea to Italy, he and Ascanius his son who was born of Creusa, daughter of Priam King of Troy. There came with Aeneas twenty-eight ships of the ships that formerly had gone into Greece with Alexander Paris to take by violence Helen with the Spot. The number of people1 who came with him were eight thousand and eighty,2 between men and women, and old and young. And after they had coasted about various shores they drew near to the land, that was Italy in3 the land of Rome,43b and Latinus was then king / in Italy. And after he had seen the fleet he sent to know what sort of men4 they were. And after
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he had been informed, they asked him for permission to land to buy their necessities, on the pledge that they would do no harm to any one of his dominion, and they got it. And Latinus King of Italy invited Aeneas to his castle with his leading men. And there Aeneas saw Lavinia, the daughter of Latinus the king, and all who saw her were sure they had never seen a woman as beautiful as she. And then Aeneas was filled with love of her, until there was no life for him without her. And after he and the king had come to know each other and had become friends, he asked for the maiden as a bride. And then the king informed him that she had been promised to Turnus King of the Rutulians. When Aeneas knew this he asked that the matter of the girl should be left between him and Turnus, and Latinus promised this, so greatly did he love Aeneas. And when Turnus knew this, he mustered his army against Latinus’s dominion, and against him came Aeneas and his army.44 And after / the two armies had come face to face, Turnus asked Aeneas, since the dispute over the maiden was between the two of them, to let the two armies stand at ease while they fought publicly between the two armies, and the one of them that was victorious should take the maiden. Nothing was more pleasing to Aeneas than that. And then the two men rushed together and fought boldly and fiercely, until
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their spears were shivered to their hilts and their swords to their guards, and the might of them became a proverb in the history of the Romans. And then the two seized hold of each other, body to body, in rage and hardihood. And as God brings to an end every destiny, Aeneas defeated Turnus; and he slew Turnus and took the homage of his men, and conquered his whole dominion, and took Lavinia to himself as a bride. And he was co-ruler with Latinus King of Italy for five years, and then Latinus died and Aeneas took the government of the kingdom into his own control. And he made a city and called it Lavinium. And then Lavinia conceived and bore a son who was called Silvius.44b And / Aeneas reigned in Italy after Latinus four years.

And after Aeneas was dead and Lavinia could not govern the kingdom, Silvius was given to his brother Ascanius to foster, and the government of the kingdom with him, until the boy should come of age. And he [Ascanius] loved Lavinia more than his own mother, and everything she wished he would do. And he made a city on the River Tibur and he called it the Long White [City]. And he had the chambers which his father had made, and the false gods, taken from Lavinium to the Long White [City]. And the gods returned to Lavinium again,1 and Ascanuis had them taken there a second time.

And Ascanius had one son by his wedded wife
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and he loved his brother1 so much that he caused him to be named Silvius after his brother. And when he was able to walk and talk the boy was taken2 to the court of Lavinia to learn manners and morals. And there he got with child a niece of Lavinia. And then the soothsayers were sought, to know with what she was pregnant. And it was announced that it was with a boy, and that this boy should kill his mother and his father, and at length rise to high things / in the kingdoms.45 And their divination did not deceive them.3

And Ascanius reigned in Italy thirty-three years, and then he left the government of the kingdom to his brother Silvius. And he, in his turn, did not stint (?) his nephew Silvius, his brother’s son who went under his name, but he gave him a great part of his kingdom. And when the time had come for the birth of the boy who was mentioned above, the boy was born unharmed and his mother died in bearing him.4 And the boy was given out to foster and was named Brutus. And when the boy was fifteen years of age he came to visit his father. And one day, as they were hunting in the forest and the boy under one tree and his father under another tree, the deer came between them and the boy shot one of the deer5 with an arrow. And the arrow glanced from the back of one of the stags6 so that it lodged under his father’s breast, and of this accidental shot his father died. After the wise
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men of the land of Rome had seen that such a terrible thing as this had happened to him,45b they banished him from the island. And / then Brutus went to Greece and devoted himself to arms, to jousts, and to tournaments, until his fame flew over the face of the kingdoms, for he was open-handed, and wise, and handsome, and comely, and strong, and brave, and agreeable, and loved by all; and all good things in the world that fell to him he would give to any one who desired them.

And after the tribe of Helenus Priam’s son, which Pyrrhus the son of Achilles had earlier taken with him from Troy to avenge his father’s death, saw that Brutus was so successful as he was, they came to him and allied themselves to him [because of] their descent from the same nation; and they told him how heavy were their servitude and their suffering under Pandrasus the Greek king, and they asked him for God’s sake to try to deliver them from this servitude, for they would rather suffer the pain of death than remain in that servitude.1 And after Brutus understood their kinship with him and how great were their suffering and their affliction, he sympathized2 with them so that it was all one to him whether he lived or died. And after they had thought about this a great deal, they sent word to Assaracus, for his mother was sprung from Troy and his father / from Greece.46 And when his father died he left three castles to his son3 Assaracus, for he got him4 in a liaison. And his brother who
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was born of the marriage bed often tried to take these castles away from him, since his own father and mother were of Greek descent and he was legitimate. And after Brutus and Assaracus had conferred, they decided to see how many1 fighting men could join them; and what they found was seven thousand good men, besides women and children. And after these men had assembled and consulted together, they decided2 to make Brutus prince over them and to fortify the three castles of Assaracus with men and arms and food and drink and engines of war. And after they had done that, Brutus and Assaracus and their troops and their spoil with them3 went to the wastes of the woods, and sent a letter to Pandrasus the Greek king. And this was the style4 of the letter.

Pandrassus vrenhin groec. brutus tywyssawc gwedillion kenedyl tro. yn anuon annerch. canys anheilwng oed. y eglurder kenedyl dardan traethu eu buched yth teyrnas di. yn amgen noc ydissyuei eglurder eu boned wynt. am hynny y kymyrth y genedyl tywyssawc y coedyt y eu cudiaw yndunt. gan dewissaw ymborth ual aniueilieit ar gic amrwt allyssieuoed achynnal eu buched gan ryddit nogyd diodef avei hwy dan wed de geithiwet di ac ymborth ar bop kyfryw drythyllwc. ac os hynny agoda goruchelder dyuediant ti. ny de leir nae ygerydu na y liwiau ydunt namyn y vadeu pan vo kyffredyn ynni y bop caeth mynnu ymchwelut ar y hen deilyngdaut ay ryddit.Fol. 5v ac vrth hynny kyffroa odrugaret atheilynga canhyadu oth ehelaethder y ryddit agollassant. agad vdunt presswyliaw ydiffeithwch a achubassant y fo rac eu keithiwet. ac ony wnei hynny canyhatta vdunt gan dy vod ath cariat mynet ywladoed ereill y geissiaw eu ryddit.

A gwedy menegi ystyr y llythyr y pandrassus vrenhin groec. ennydu aoruc dieithyr mod. aryuedu llauassu onadunt anuon kyfriw lythyr a hwnnw. Ac yna kynullaw llu aoruc hep olud y dyuot am ev penn y ev llad yn olofrudd. a gwedy eu dyuot ar auon ascalon oed y henw. kyrchu yr auon a orugant herwyd eu llit ac eu hangerd. a gwedy gwelet o brutus wynt gwedy eu dyuot drwot yr amkan y gallei ef ymerbynneit ac wynt. kyrchu aoruc yn eu plith ay lu gyt ac ef megis llew diwal ymplith llawer odeueit. ac oeu holl nerthoed eu llat yn olofrud. ac ar ny las onadunt. wynt a gymellwyt yr auon y eu bodi. A gwedy gwelet o antigonus brawt y pandrassus vrenhin groec yr aerua honno. neilltuaw a oruc ay oreugwyr gyd ac ef. y geisiaw ev hamdiffin. Ac yna y dalpwyt antigonus. ac anacletus y ged ymeith. ar lleill a las.Fol. 6 A phan oed nos ymoralw a oruc pandrassus ay wasgaredic llu. ac yno pebyllu y nos honno. a gwaeth oed ganthaw colli antigonus y vraud no y holl lu. A thrannoeth yn eu kynghor y caussant mynet am ben kestill assaracus o dybygu bot y carcharoreon yno. A gwedy eu bod tridieu yn ymlat ar kestyll o bop ryw vod. ar gwyr. y mewn yn ymlad ac wynt yn wraul ac yn llauurus. anvon a orugant ar brutus y erchi idaw dyuot eu hamdiffyn. canys ny ellynt wy ymderbynneit ac wynt rac meynt y nyueroed allan. Ac yna y cafas brutus yny gynghor dwyn anacletus ar neilltu y ouyn idaw pvn oreu ganthaw ay eneid arhwn antigonus y gedymeith ac eu ryddit. ae ynteu diodef gloes angheu. ac y dewissawt yntheu eu heneidieu. Ac yna y dywat brutus urthaw. reid yw ytti gwneithur vyngorchymyn o pob peth. ac ynteu arodes y lw ay aruoll y gwnay (ef) pob peth or a orchmynnyt idaw. Ac yna ydywat brutus urthaw reit yw ytt pan vo nos mynet hyt ar lu pandrassus vrenhin. aphan del y gwilwyr ythala di. manac vdunt yr didor ohonawch o garchar a dwyn ohonot antigonus hyt mewn glyn coedawc ar yford arac pwys er heiern na allut y dwyn pellach hynny. ac eruyn vdunt dyuot gyd athi eu gyrchu. ac o cheissiant deffroi neb or llu. dywet nat reit vdunt namyn dyuot wynt eu huneyn.Fol. 6v Aphan oed nos y kerdaud anacletus megis y harchassey brutus ydaw. ac y y goruc pob peth yny mod yd erchyt ydaw. yny doeth hyt y glyn coedawc. ac yna galw ar antigonus. ac yno y doeth brutus ay lu ac eu llad hep diang vn dyn bew onadunt. Ac odena y brutus ay lu adoethant hyt y lle ydoed llu pandrassus vrenhyn groec ynkylch castell assaracus. ac yno gwahard pob dyn na dywettev neb onadunt vn geir yny glywit y gorn ef. A gwedy y clywyt y gorn ef erchi y bop (dyn) mynet am ben y pebylleu a llad a alley vwyaf onadunt. A gwedy dyuot brutus hyt yn drws pepill pandrassus vrenhin canu y gorn a oruc arwigaw y pebyll adaly pandrassus vrenhin groec. ac yna ssyrthiaw pawb am ben y pebyllieu allad aallassant vwiaf yny uu dyd drannoeth. ac y doeth y castellwyr or tu arall allan a llat vwyaf ac y gellynt onadunt. ac ocheisieu yr vn onadunt fo ef a ssyrthieu dros ysgythir kerric yny vytheu yn drylleu man. ac val hynny y goruu arnadunt diodef eu hangheu tynghetuenaul. Athrannoeth pan uu dyd anryued oed gan bawb meynt uu yr lladua ac yna y diolches brutus y wassanaeth y bawp oy wyr.

Ac yno y kymyrth kynghor beth a wneit am pandrassus vrenhin groec. rei ay kyghorei kymryt ydiffeith coedyd aachubessynt yn ryd y breswyliaw yndunt.Fol. 7 ereill a gynghoras kymryd traean y gyuoeth yn ryd y bresswyliaw yndaw. Ac yna y dywat gwr doeth onadunt na ellynt gyt oeisi yn hedychaul yn er vn kyuoeth yndragywydaul. sef achos oed pan deley cof vdunt y lladuaeu awnaethessit vdunt ar galanasseu; y dodeynt en ev bryd yny geffeynt ymdiala. gwedy delei llawer o amseroed. ac amylhau yr bobyl. athyuu ryuel ryngthunt. ny bydei ryued heuyt goruot o deu parth yr ynys ar ytraean. a bod yn waeth an kyfle yna no gyd gynt. a bod yn well yn yr awrhon canys goruuam arnadunt. kymryt y gan pandrassus vrenhin groec ignogen y verch yn wreic y brutus an tywyssawc ny a digawn o eur ac ariant. a gwin a gwenith. a meirch ac aruew. a llongheu yn dwyn y ynys arall lle mynno duw yn bresswyliaw yn hedwch. yndragywydawl. A gwedy edrych onadunt pob peth ar y kynghor hwnnw y trigwyd. Ac yno y kyrchwyt pandrassus vrenhin groec y ofyn ydaw awnay ef eu ewyllys wynt. yr gadel y eneit ydaw ay gyuoeth. ac yntheu a edewys pob peth vdunt canys yn eu mediant yd oed. Ac yno y managassant ydaw ev damvned mal y dywetpwyt vchot. ac y bu dir idaw vfudhau ydunt. ac ef agynygawt hanner y gyuoeth yr trigaw oy uerch yn vn ynys ac ef. ac nys mynnynt.

Fol. 7vA gwedy bod eu kyfreidieu yn barawt kyrchu y llongheu a orugant ac ignogen gyd ac wynt hep allel o nep y gostegu o dryc yruer[th] ac wylaw yny doeth y geuyn gweilgi hyt na welei hi yr tir. ac yna y ssyrthiawt marw hun arnei o tra blinder achysgu. Sef riuedi llongheu a aeth ganthunt o roec. pedeir llong arugeint athrychant. yn llawn o wyr ac arueu a meirch. ac eur ac aryan. a gwin a gwenith. ac y doythant hyt yn lygesti ynys diffeith oed honno ac auuassei gyuanned gynt. ac yno yd aeth llawer onadunt yr tir y edrych ansawd y tir ac y hely canys amyl oed coydid aforesteu agwydlydnot yndunt. ac yno y caffant hen demyl ry daruoed y aberthu gynt y diana dwywes. ac yn dyuot tu ar llongheu y lladassant ewic wen ay dwyn yn anrec y brutus. amenegi idaw ansawd y tir. ac erchi idaw mynet y offrymhu yr dwyweu kyn mynet pellach hynn[y] Ac yna y kymyrth brutus gyd ac ef gerio dew[in] a deudengwyr o hynafgwyr ac a oed reid yr offrvm. agwedy eu dyuot yr demyl troi coron o lawrwyden yg kyllch y ben rac bron drws y demmyl mal y gnottheit o hen deuawt. a chynneu teir kynneu o dan yr tri duw. nyd amgen y iubiter [amer]curius. a diana. ac y bob vn onadunt y gwnaeth aberth gwahanredawl. ac yna y kymyrth brutus llestyr yr aberth yny llaw deheu idaw yn llawn o win a gwaet or ewic wen. a dyrchauel y wyneb yn erbyn ydwiwes a dywedud val hyn.Fol. 8 Ae tydy gyuoethawc dwiwes aruthret koedolyon ysyt ganyat yt kerdet llwybreu. awyraul ti a ryd dylyet yr daear ac y uffern. dywet pa daear avynnech y bresswyliau o honam. dywet yn eistedua diamheu yth anrydedwif yn dragywyd ohonei. ac y gwnelwif temleu anrydedus ytt; o werynyaul goryeu. A gwedy dywedut hynny nauweith ohonaw. kylchynu yr allawr a oruc pedeirgweith. a dineu y gwin a oed yny llaw rac bron yr allaur yny gynne. ac odyna gorwed ar groen yr ewic wen. rydynhassei rac bron yr allaur. gwedy yorthrymu o hun kysgu a oruc. ac ual am draean nos y gwelei ef drwy y hun yn dywedud urthaw ual hyn. Brutus heb hi a dan ygorllewin or tu hwnt y freinc ymae ynys yny mor. a uu gyuanned gynt gan kewri. a diffeith yw weithion onyd vgeint kawr. a honno a vyd adas ytti ac yth kenedyl ev gwledychu. ac albion yw yhenw. sef oed hynny y wen ynys yn gymraec. Agwedy dyffroi brutus ef a venegis yw gedymeithion y weledigaeth ry welsei. ac yna kyrchu eu llongheu a orugant dan diolch yr dwyweu. a dyrchauel hwylew a rwigaw moroed ar vn tu yspeit degniwyrnawd arugeint kyn dyuot hyt yr affric. ac odyna y doethant hyt ar lloryeu y phylistewydyon. ac odyna y doethant ar hyt llyn yr helic. ac odena y doethant rung rusgan a myned azare ac yna yr ymladassant achenedyl y pirate ac y goruu brutus arnadunt.Fol. 8v Ac odena y doethant ar hyt auon malue. ac odena ydoethant hyt yngwlat Mauritanya ac anreithiaw honno a orugant or mor pwy gilid. ac odena y doethant hyt ygcolofneu ercwlff ac yna y caffant diruawr gouyd gan y mor vorynnyon. yn canu kywidolaetheu yn y vytheu dir ybawb or ay klywei kysgu. ac yna y deuweint am ben y llongheu y geissiaw ev sudaw ac ev bodi. yna oruu ar gwyr todi kwyr yn ev klusteu ac ymlat ac wynt o nerth eu holl arueu. ac o breyd y dianghassant odi ganthunt. ac odena y doethant hyt y mortiren. Ac ar ystlys y mor hvnnw wynt a doethant ym plith pedeir gweligord o genedyl tro or rei a foassei gyt ac antenor gwedy distriw caer dro. A gwedy ymouyn or dwy genedyl ymadnabot awnaethant. ac yna yd oed yn dywyssawc arnadunt corineus. achryfaf gwr adewraf or byd oed hwnnw. a gwedy ymadnabot ef abrutus. ymgaru aorugant yn diamadaw yr vn ae gilid onadunt o hynny allan. ac odyna ydoethant y gyt hyt yn angyw. a hyt ymporth liger. Ac yna ybuant wythnos ar vn tu. a gwedy menegi hynny y Goffar fichti brenhin y wlad honno. anuon kennadeu aoruc yerchi vdunt kiliaw ywrth y tir. ac ony chilieint ywrth y tir oc ev bod ef ac eu gwrthladeu oc eu hanuod. A phan doeth y kennadeu yno. yd oed corineus yn hely forest ac yn llad gwydlydnot.Fol. 9 agwedy gwybot or kennadeu hynny dyuot yr forest a orugant y geisiaw ydaly ay dwyn yngharchar ganthunt. ac am nad vfudhae corineus vdunt. vn onadunt ay bwriawt a saeth imbert oyd y henw. ac y gochelawd corineus y saeth. a chyn kail ohonaw bwrw yr eil. corineus ay trewis ef ay vva ehun yny dorres y ben yn dryllieu. ac yfoas y lleill hyt ar goffar fichti a menegi idaw ev holl damchwein. a gorthrum y kymyrth goffar hynny. Ac yna lluhudaw y holl kyuoeth aoruc a dyuot am ben brutus. ac erchi idaw ymrodi y garchar ac ef ay wyr. am dyuot yw gyuoeth hep ganyat. a hely y foresteu. a llad y wyr. ac onyd ymrodei oi vod. ef ay kymelle oy anvod. o nerth aruev. A gwedy kymryt o vrutus ygyghor y nackau ar gwbyl a oruc. Ac yna bydinaw aoruc goffar y lu. A brutus yr eidaw yntev. yn llywyaw y vydyn gynthaf y goffar yd oyd siward y oruchel ystiward achryuaf gwr yn freinc oed. Ac yny erbin ynteu ydoeth corineus ay vydin. Ac yno y bu kyuaruot cadarn ac vn creulon rwng ybydinoed yn ymadoydi. ac yna y llas siward. a rac tewet y bydinoed yn ymgymysgu y colles corineus y gledyf. ac y damchweiniawt idaw bwiall deu vinniawc. ar lle trawei ef a honno nys attalieu dim yny elei hyt y dayar. ac a honno y gyrrawt ef fo ar y trychant marchawc. ac ny wydeint wy na bei yr holl lu yn eu hymlid ac yn eu llad.Fol. 9v yny ymorelwys ef ac wynt. ac eu hangthreiftiau am ffo o trichanwr rac vn gwr. ac yna y keisiassant ymchwelut. ac ny thygiawt vdunt. Ac yna yfoas goffar fichti ac adienghis oy wyr. hyt ardeudec gogyuurd freinc y gwynaw wrthunt ry dyuot gormes arallwlat ay digyuoethi. ac ervynneit yr duw vdunt y amdiffin ef ay gyuoeth. Aphawb onadunt a ymedewis ac ef. A gwedy gwybot o vrutus hynny y peris ef gwneithur ydaw castell rac ruthyr y elynnion yn lle ygwnaeth omir dinas gwedy hynny val y tystia ehvnan. A gwedy klywet o goffar hynny gwaeth oed ganthaw noc awnaethessit o holl sarhaedeu idaw kyn no hynny. Ac yna kynullaw aorugant ev holl kedernnit o freinc y wrthlad brutus or ynys. A gwedy eu dyuot hyt yno; y doeth brutus ay lu y eu herbyn. ac yna ymgyrchu or deu lu yny glywyt eu godwrd ar ydaear ac eu peleidyr yn torri yn neyntyrch awyr. ac wynt yn disgrechu yndiodef gloes angheu o bop tu. hyt na alley neb y uenegi. A gwedy treulaw llauwer or dyd. y goruu ar ybryttanyeit kiliaw yr castell o dra lluossogrwyd y freinc. Ar nos honno ydaeth corineus artheyr mil o wyr aruawc ford dirgeledic hyt mewn glyn coydiawc a llechu yna hyt trannoeth. A phan uu dyd drannoeth y doeth brutus ay lu. ac yn y erbyn yntheu y doeth goffar ay lu adeudec gogyuurd freinc ac eu lluoed ac yna ymlad yn wychyr creulon. aphan ottoydynt cadarnhaf yn ymadoydi.Fol. 10 y nychaf corineus ay vydyn y dyuot or tu ol vdunt. ac yn ev llat yn olofrud. a gwedy gwelet or freinc hynny digalonni a orugant afo y amrauaylion leoed mal y tangosseu eu tynghetuenev. Ac yna y llas turnus nei i vrutus yn was ieuanc ac yn gryfaf gwr or llu eithyr corineus. ac ynteu aladawt chwechannwr ay vn cledyf kyn y lad. Ac yna y clathpwyt ef. ac ydodet yhenw ef ar ylle hwnnw. yr henne hyt hediw.

A gwedy caffel o vrutus y vudugoliaeth yna. ef agauas yny gynghor kyn colli gormod oywyr mynet lle yd oed yaruaeth. ay weledigaeth. ac yna ymgyweiriaw a orugant achyrchu eu llongheu ahwylaw ragdunt tu argorllewyn yny doethant hyt yn traeth totneis. ac yna anuon y edrych ansod ytir. a gwedy menegi y vrutus ansawd y tir bodlawn oed ganthaw. athrossi eu llongheu yr tir aorugant. ar lle y doeth brutus kyntaf yr tir. y dechreuawd temyl ydiana dwywes yr hon avenegys yweledigaeth y vrutus. A thra uu ef yn aberthu yr dwyweu: yd aeth corineus ygeisiaw yr kewri hyt yngherniw ganys yno y klywssei ef eu bod. a phan doeth ef yno. wynt a aethasseint ford arall yymgeisiaw abrutus ae lu. ac awnaethant kynhwrf yn yllu a llad llawer onadunt. A gwedy mene gi hynny ybrutus ny deuei yny kyuyl yny daruu ydaw aberthu.Fol. 10v ac yna kyweiriaw y lu aoruc a dyuot y ymlad ar kewri. ac yna yllas y kewri oll dieithyr vn gocmaegoc oed y henw. a deudec kuvyd oed yny hyt. a phedwar yny led. achryfaf dyn or byd oed hwnnw. ac am hynny y peris brutus y adel yn vew y ymdrechu a chorineus. A gwedy dyuot corineus o rodiaw yr ynys. y menegys brutus idaw eu kyfranc am y kewri. abodlawn vu corineus y hynny. ac yna yducpwyt y cawr mawr y ymdrechu a chorineus hyt ar ben kreic uchel gwastat ar lan ymor. Ac yny kyhwrd kyntaf y cawr ay cafuas ef gauel ardwrn adan y deu vreich ay wasgu yny dorres teir assen yndaw. vn or ystlys deheu. a dwy or ystlys assu. ac yna y dyrchauel ay daraw ar dal y lin yr llawr. Ac yna kyuodi yn llym aoruc corineus ac yn llidiawc. ac ymauel yny cawr ay wasgu vrthaw yny laysawd y holl gauayleu. ac yna y dyrchauel ar y ysgwyd achyrchu lan y mor ac ef aoruc. ac yar carrec vchel y uwrw dros ysgithir kerric yny uu yn dryllieu kyn dyuot yr mor. ac yny goches tonneu yr mor oy waed. ac yr hynny hyt hediw y gelwir y lle hwnnw llam y cawr. Sef oed hynny. deu cant mlyned a mil. gwedy dwfyr diliw y doyth brutus kyntaf yr ynys hon.

Ac yna y mynnws brutus dilehu

yr henw a uuassei ar y ynys kyn no hyn ny sef oyd hynny albion.Fol. 11 dodi henw arnei oy enw ehwn. mal ydelei cof yr genedil rac llaw mae brutus kyntaf ay gwledychawt. ac yna y dodet ar y ynys henw brutayn. ac ar y genedil brutanyeit o hynny allan. Ac yna ef arodes y corineus y ran y dewisei or ynys. ac y dewisawt ynteu y ran y buassei yn y rodiaw ac yn y hedrych. Ac yna ydodes corineus ar y ran ef or ynys oy henw ef ehun kerniw. ac ar y genedil corneueit o hynny allan. Odena y doeth brutus ay lu hyt arlan avon bonhedic temys oed y henw. agwedy gwelet lle adas y adeiliat. ef a wnaeth dinas yna ac ay gelwys yn tro newyd. ar henw hwnnw abarhawt arnei hyt yn oes llud vab beli vab manogan. A gwedy gwneithur y dinas kysgu aoruc brutus yna gyntaf gan ignogen ywreic. A thri meib auu idaw o honei. nyt amgen. LLocrinus. Camber. ac Albanactus. A gwedy gwledychu o vrutus ar ynys brydein yn hedychawl pedeyr blyned arugeint y bu varw. ac y cladpwyt ef yny gaer a adeiliassei ehunan yn anrydedus.

Ac yna y rannwyt yr ynys yn deir ran rwg y tri broder. nyd amgen. nogyd y locrinus canys hynaf oed agauas ohen deuawd gwyr groec y lle pennaf. sef oed hynny lloygyr mal y dycho yteruynev o vor humyr hyt yn hafren. Ac oy henw ef ehun y dodes ar y ran lloygyr. Ac y Albanactus y doeth o humyr hwnt. ac y dodes ynteu oy henw ehvn ar y ran ef or ynys yr alban.Fol. 11v ac y Camber ydoeth or tu arall y hafren. ac ydodes ynteu ar y ran kymre oy henw ehvn. A gwedy ev bot uelly y(n) dagnauedus yn hir. ydoeth humyr brenhin hunawt a llynghes ganthaw hyt yr alban yr tir. gwedy y ryuot kyn no hynny yn anreithiaw germania. Agwedy gwybot hynny o albanactus ef adoeth a bychydic nyuer gyt ac ef. ygeisiaw y wrthlad or tir. Ac yna ybu kyfrang kalet alladua uawr. ac yno yllas albanactus ac a dienghis oy lu a foas hyt ar locrinus. A gwedy gwybot o locrinus hynny. anvon a oruc ar camber y vrawt y uenegi hynny idaw. Ac yna o gyt kynghor kynullaw llu aorugant adyuot yr alban. ac yn ev herbyn wyntheu y doeth hvmyr ay lu. ac yna y bu ymlat kadarn ac aerua vaur o bop tu. ac or diwed yfoas hvmyr y geisiaw y longheu ac ny atpwyt idaw onyd gymell yr avon y ymvodi. ac ohynny allan y dodet y henw ef ar yr avon hvmyr ual y delei cof yr genedil a deley racllaw y kyfrang hwnnw.

A gwedy caffel o locrinus a chamber yvrawt y uudugoliaeth. wynt adoethant lle yd oed llongheu humyr. ac yny llongheu y caussant teir morwyn anryued ev tegwch. ar bennaf or teir oed essillt verch brenhin germania a dugassei humyr ganthaw pan vuassei yn anreithiaw y wlat honno. ac yna y kymyrth locrinus essillt yn wreic gwely idaw.Fol. 12 A gwedy gwybot o corineus hynny llidiaw aoruc. am ry adaw olocrinus kyn no hynny kymryt gwendoleu y verch yn wreic bwys idaw. ac anvon attaw aoruc ac erchi idaw ydillwng ymeith hi or wlat. a gwedy nas dillynghei kynullaw llu a oruc corineus y dyuot am ben locrinus ac y gymell y dehol or wlat. a gwedy (gwibot) olocrinus hynny peri a oruc gwneithur daear dy yn lle dirgeledic a dodi essyllt yndi heb wybot y neb. ac yna anvon ar corineus y venegi ry daruot idaw dehol essillt or ynys. a gyssot oet dyd cariat ryngthunt. A gwedy ev dyuot y oet y dyd ydoeth corineus a dan droi bwyall deu vinyawc yny law a dywedud yn llidiawc vrthaw. ay tydi vabyn drythyll. am tremygei. vi am merch gwedy genifer gweli ageueis yn ennill kyuoeth ytti ac yth tat kyn no thi. ac yn mynassu y gyrchu ar vwyall. ac yna ydaeth kedymeithion ryngthunt ac eu tagnefuedu. ac yna y kymyrth locrinus gwendoleu verch corineus. yn wreic bwys idaw ac yn vrenhines. ac a gauas mab ohoney a Madauc oed y henw. Ac yn yr vn amser hwnnw y ganet merch y essillt ac y dodet henw arney hafren. Ac val hynny y bu locrinus yn hir. ac yn rith mynet y aberthu yr dwyweu iday ef ar essill pan elei. ac a drigei yno ay dwy nos ay teir heb wybot dim ywrthaw yny delei ehvn drachefyn. Agwedy marw corineus y gwrthladawt ef gwendoleu y wrthaw. ac y dyrchauaud ef essyllt yn vrenhines.Fol. 12v Ac yna ydaeth gwendoleu ynghwyn hyt yngkernyw ar y chenedyl yvenegi yr amharch a wnaethessit ydi. Ac yna y cafsant yn ev kynghor kynullaw llu ydial ar locrinus amharch ev kares. Agwedy gwybod hynny olocrinus kynullaw llu aoruc yntev yn ev herbyn wynthev. A gwedy dyuot y deu lu y gyd hyt ar lan avon sturham oed y henw ym saethu a orugant yn gadarn. ac o ergyt saeth y llas locrinus. A naw mlyned y gwledychassei kyn no hynny.

A gwedy caffel o gwendoleu y uudugoliaeth hi agymyrth llywodraeth y dyrnas yny llaw yhvn. ac aberys kymryt essyll ay merch ac ev bodi mewn avon a oed yn teruyn rwng kymre alloygyr. adodi henw y merch ar yr avon. ydwyn argof yr genedyl adelei rac llaw ygweithredoed hynny. Ac yna y dodet hafren ar yr avon yr hynny hyt hediw. A gwedy gwledychu o wendoleu pedeir blyned ardec gwedy locrinus. hi arodes llywodraeth y deyrnas y vadawc y mab. A hitheu agymyrth kyrnyw yn ossymdeith ydy hi tra vei vew. Ac yn yr amser hvnnw yd oyd daniel prophwit yn gwledychu yn wlat iudea. A Siluius eneas yn yr eidal. ac omir yn traethu oy vardoniaethev.

A gwedy urdaw Madawc yn vrenhin gwreicka aoruc. adeu vab a uu ydaw ohoney. sef oed ev henw. Mymbyr. a mael. Ar MadawcFol. 13hwnnw awledychawt y hedwch dagnauedus chwech blyned arugeint ac yna ybu varw. sef oed hynny o vlwydynet gwedy

A gwedy madawc y kyuodes teruysc rwng y veybion Mymbyr a Mael am rannv yr kyvoeth. a gwedy mynhu ymlat onadunt. ydoeth gwyrda ryngthunt (a*) gyssot oyd dyd y dagneued ryngthunt. Agwedy ev dyuot y oyd ydyd y doeth mymbyr o dissyuyt creulonder a llat mael y vrawt. ac yna y kymyrth y kyuoeth yn eidiaw ehvn achlan. ac agymyrth creulonder yndaw yny ladawt deledogyon yr ynys kenmwyaf. ac adaw y wreic bwys yr hon y ganet mab idaw ohoney a elwyd yn efrawc. ac yd ymrodes y bechawd sodoma yr honn a oed gas gan duw. Ac ual yd oed diwyrnaw gwedy y vynet y hely mewn forest ef a ymgolles ay wyr ac adoeth hyt mewn glyn coedawc ac ydoeth bleidieu idaw ac y lladassant ef. Sef oed hynny gwedy diliw.M.ccc. o vlwydynet. Sef y gwledychawt .xxvi. o vlwydyned. Ac yn yr amser hwnnw yd oed saul yn vrenhyn yn yr israel. ac euristeus yn lacedemonia.

A gwedy Mymbyr y kymyrth efrawc y vab y dyrnas. ac ay gwledychawt pedeir blyned arbymthec a rugeint. a chyntaf gwr gwedy brutus a aeth a llynghes y ymlad ar freinc uu ef. ac ef a gauas y uudugoliaeth ac ay daristyngawt idaw. Ac yn yr amser hwnnw yd oed dauid broffwyt yn vrenhyn yngaerussalem. a siluius latinus yn yr eidal.Fol. 13v A gad a nathan ac assaf yn broffwidi yn yr israel. Ac yna y gwnaeth y brenhin caer efrauc. A chaer alklut. A chastell myned agnet yr hwn aelwyr yr awr hon castell y morynyon ar mynyd dolurus. Ac ef a uu idaw vgein meib o vgein wraget a oed idaw. a deng merchet arugeint. henweu y veibion oed. Brutus darean las. Maredud. Seissill. Rys. Morud. Bleidud. Iago. Botlan. kyngar. Spaden. Guaul. Dardan. Eidol. Iuor. hector. kyngu. Gereint. Run. Asser. howel. Enweu y uerchet oedynt. Gloywgein. Ignogen. Eudaus. Gwenlliant. Gwaurdyd. Angharat. Gwendoleu. Tangoystyl. Gorgon. Medlan. Mechael. Ofrar. Maelure. Camreda. Regau. Guael. Ecub. Nest. kein. Stadud. Efren. Blaengein. Auallach. Angaes. Galaes atheckaf morwyn oed honno or a welat yn ynys brydein yn vn oes a hi. Gueiruyl. Perweur. Eurdrec. Edra. Anor. Stadyald. Egron. A hynny oll o verchet a anuones efrauc hyt ar siluius y gar brenhin yr eidal. y ev rodi yr gwyr dyledockaf or ahanoedynt o genedyl tro. Ar meibion oll onyd yr hynaf onadunt a anuonet allynghes ganthunt hyt yr eidal ac asser ev brawt yn dywyssawc arnadunt. Ac odyna yd aethant hyt yn germania. ac o ganorthwy siluius wynt a oresgynnassant y wlat honno ac ay gwledychassant hi o hynny allan. Brutus darean las a drigawd gyt ay dad yn ynys brydein yny deruynawd buchet ydat. Sef oed hynny gwedy diliw Mo. ccco.xxoxixo. o vlwynyded.

A gwedy efrawc y kymyrt brutus darean las y uab yntheu y deyrnas.Fol. 14 ac ay gwledychawt yn hedwch dagnauedus deudengmlyned gwedy y dad. ac ef a garei gwirioned achyuyander. ac vn mab a oed ydaw oy wreic briawd a lleon oed y henw. Ac yna y bu varw brutus. Mo.ccco.ljo annorum. gwedy diliw.

A gwedi brutus y kymyrth lleon y vab llywodraeth yr ynys ac ay gwledychawt yn hir o amseroed yn hedwch dagnauedus. ac ef awnaeth dinas yngogled yr ynys. ac ay gelwys oy enw ehun caer lleon. ar henw hwnnw adrigawd ar ydinas yr hynny hyt hediw. A gwedy llithraw talym o amser y ssyrthyawt gorthrwm heint arnaw hyt na allei na marchogaeth na cherdet. ac yna y kyuodes kiwdaudawl deruysc yny deyrnas oy lesged ef hyt yn diwet y oes. ac yn yr amser hwnnw yd oed Selyf vab dauid yn adeiliat temyl crist yngaerussalem. ac y doeth Sibilla brenhines saba y warandaw ardoethineb selif. A gwedy gwledychu o leon pymp mlynet arugeint y bu varw. sef oed hynny .Mo.ccco.lxxvi. annorum gwedy dilew.

A gwedy lleon y gwledychawt Run baladyr bras y vab. vn vlwydyn eissieu o deugeint. a hwnnw aduc y bobyl ardagneued. Ac a adeiliws caer geint. a chaer wynt. a chastell mynyd paladyr. yr hwnn a elwir yn saysnec ssefftysburie. ac yna tra uuwyd yn adeiliat y gaer honno ybu yr eryr yn proffwydaw ac yn dywedut daroganneuFol. 14vynys brydein ar ymadrodion yny mod hwnn:

Megis ygwrthlat y wen. y dreic coch; velly Prophwydoliaeth yr Erir. ybwrw y dywyll ywen. Dreic aruthyr waethaf a ehetta ac ochwythat y geneu o flamawl dan alysc yr holl ynys gan y llynu. O arennev hwnnw ydaa maharen man yguv. adiwyllya dyrnodieu y gyrn yny dwyrein. O dyna ydaa ystlvm gwenwynic y olwc ac ar y edrychiat ydechryn fyd achreuyd. O dena ydaa llew a nessao yr ystlwm lluchyadenawc. ac a dan ylywodraeth y llygryr ssycher gwirioned. Crang or mor adynessa yr llew ac adan y vediant ydivlanna rydit o rydit. gwedy y trosser y keibieu yn waywyr. Baed danhedawc anessa yr crang ac a walhaa yny mieri tew ac a lymhaa y danned yngkedernyt y deyrnas. O chwant y baed y kynnyd kenev er hwn a ryd am angheu y dad megis am angheu ki. Enwiret ytat a gymrydy meibion ar kyntaf o nadunt aesgyn y oruchelder y deyrnas yn disyuyd hagen vegis blodeuyn gwaenwyn kyn noe frwyth y gwywa. O bechawt yr hen ypecha ymeibion wrth eu tat. ar karet kyntaf a vyd defnyd yr rei ol. Meibion agyuodant en erbyn ev tat ac amdial pechawt. emysgaroed a gyffroant en erbyn y groth. Gwaet a gyuyt yn erbyn eu gwaet yny daruo yr alban wylaw penyt yperheryn ac anobeithus boen avyd. yna ydaw kynhwrf kadarn owynt dwyrein. ac a ruthra yr gorllewin ac adiwreida holl gedernyt iwerdon.Fol. 15 Rac bron hwnnw ygostwng y twyssogion. a gwedy y kyngreirier tagneu[ed] yd ymgarant. Dolur adrossir yn llewenyd. pan drychont y tat yngkallon y vam. Ef a nessa linx adisgynno o hat y llew ae lymder adylla kedernyt haearnawl ac vn elechawl. ymynediat hwnnw ygedeu normandi ydwy ynys. ac odiruawr vod symudedigaeth y gwehenir ykledyf ywrth ygoron. O achaws anvhvndep y brodyr ygwledycha vn adelei ole arall. kerbyt ypymet adreiglir yr petweryd agwedy y dyrchauer yllinieu priawt ysarret aetiang asathyr y tyrnassoed. yndydyeu diwethaf y dreic (wen*) ygwesgerir y hetiuet yn deir rann. Ran adynn yr pwyl odwyreiniawl swllt y kyuoethogir. Rann adisgin y iwerdon. o orllewiniawl ardymyr y digrifheir. y dryded rann adric yn y wlat dielw a gorwac y keffir. Tanawl bellen a disgin ordwyrein allydaw yny kylch ogylch a lynga. Wrth ylluver yd ehetta adar yr ynys. arei mwyaf onadunt wedy yd ennynner eu hesgyll adigwydant yn dalyedigaeth. Or tan hwnnw y genir gwreichioneu; ac oe chynnwrf y dechrynant yr ynyssed. yngwyd y rei mwiaf ygwelir yr absent: ar eil mynedyat avyd gwaeth nor kyntaf. Gwedy bo marw llew y wirioned. ykyvyt y brenhyn gwyn bonhedic yn ynys brydein yn gyntaf yn ehedec. odena yn marchogaeth. odenaFol. 15vyn disgynnv. ac yny disgynyat hwnnw ykeir ef yny glud. Odena y dygir ac adangossir abys ac ydywedir mae ybrenhin gwyn bonhedic. yna y kynullir y vydin ef agwystyl drostaw agymerir. ac yna y byd porthmanyaeth y dynyon megys am eidion neu am dauat. ac ymendaat hynny ageisir ac ny byd yr vn; onyt penn dros penn. Ac yna y kyuyt ygwynn ac ydaa yr lle ykyuyt yr heul. ar lle digwyd heul arrall. yna ydywedir yn ynys brydein brenhin na vrenhin. Gwedy hynny ydyrcheif y ben ac adengis y uot yn vrenhin ar lawer o weithredoed dybryt. ac nyd arvn elwedic. Gwedy torrer llawer ny byd atkyweirdeb. yna y byd byt y barcutanot; adycko pawb ydreis a vyd eidaw ehvn a hynny abery seith mlyned. Ac yna y byd treis a gordineu gwaet. ar fyrnev a gyfflybir yr eglwiseu. ar hynn a heo vn arall ay met. ac ar y uuched druan y goruyd angheu ac yn ychydic odynyon ybyd karyat kyuan. a hyn agyngreirer ar osper y bore y llygrir. Odena ydaw or deheu ar veirch prenn ar ewyn mor kyw eryr ac ymordwya ac y daw y ynys brydein yr tir. ac yny lle ef asaetha y dy yr eryr. ac aygoresgyn. ac yna y byd ryuel yn ynys brydein blwydyn a hanner. ac yna ny thal dim dwyn kyfnewit. namyn paub abrydera pa furyf y kattwo yr eidiaw ehun ac y keisio da arall. Odena ydaa y brenhin gwann bonhedic tu argorllewyn ay vydyn yny gylch yr henn lle gar llaw ydwfyr rydegauc. ac yna yda y elynion yny erbyn.Fol. 16 ac y llvniethir pawb yny le yny gylch ef. A llu y elynion a furfheir ar lvn taryan. yna yd ymledir oc eu taleu ac eu hystlysseu. ac yna y llithyr y brenhin gwynn bonhedic yr awel. Odena y nytha kyw yr erir yngoruchelder kreigeu holl ynys brydein. ny digwid yn ieuang. ny daw ynteu ar heneint. yna gogonyanus fynniant ny odef amrenit na sarhaet idaw. agwedy ytagnauetter y dyrnas y digwyd.

Ac ynyr amser hwnnw yd oed capis siluius yn vrenhin yn yr eidial. ac aggeus ac amos ahieu a ioel a zacharaas yn broffwydi yn yr israel. a selyf ap dd. yn gaerussalem. ac yna yteruynawd buchet Rvn sef oed hynny gwedy diliw Mo.cccc.xv. Mlyned.

A gwedy Run y doeth Bleidud y uab ynteu ac y bu yn vrenhin vgeint mlyned. Ahwnnw a addeilws caer vadon ac a oruc yndi yr enneint twymyn yr medegynniaeth ac ardymhyr yr rei marwaul. ar gweithret hwnnw a aberthws ef yr dwywes a elwit Minerua. Ac adan yr enneint hwnnw y gyssodes ef tan andiffodedic byth nac yn wreichion nac yn lludu. namyn pan dechreuo diffodi yna ydechreu y enni o newyd yn bellenev kerric tanvydaul. Ac yn yr amser hwnnw y gwediws helias broffwid hyt na bei law yn gwlad gaerussalem. ac y by hep dyuot glaw chwemis atheir blyned ar vn tu. o dial enwired ar y bobil. Ac ydaeth pawb ydorwestu ac y professio ac ywe diaw yny gaussant ardymhyr afrwithlonder yr daear megis y gnottae gynt.Fol. 16v Ac ethrelithus vu y bleidud hwnnw yngkeluydyt nigromans. ac yn llawer ogeluydodeu ereill. ac ny orfwissei ef byth o dechmygu amrauailion keluydodeu a chywreinrwyt. yny wnaeth esgyll ac adaned idaw ehun y broui ehedec. A gwedy kymryt y ehedua yar ben twr uchel yn llundein ef asyrthiawd ar dempmyl apollo yny vu yn yssic oll. ac yn llundein yclatpwyt ef en enrededus. Sef oed hynny gwedy dwfyr diliw. Mo.cccco.xxxvo.

A gwedy bleidud y doeth llyr y uab ef yn vrenhin ac ygwledychawt yn hedwch tagnauedus pymp mlyned arugeint. ac ef a wnaeth dinas ar avon Soram ac ay gelwis yn gaer llyr. ac o ieith arall leir cestyr. Ac nybu vn mab idaw namyn teir merchet. sef oed henw y merchet. Goronilla. Regau. Cordeilla. a diruaur gariad oed gan ev tad arnadunt. ac eisywys; mwy y carei ef y verch ieuaf nor dwy eraill. Ac yna medyliaw a oruc pa furf y galley ef adaw ygyuoeth yw verchet gwedy ef. Sef a oruc proui pwy mwiaf oy verchet ay carei ef yn wahanredawl. val y gallei yntev rody y honno y ran oreu or ynys. A galw attaw a oruc Goronilla y verch yr hynaf agouyn idi pa veint y carei hi ythad. tynghu aoruc hitheu yr nef ac yr daear. bod yn vwy y carei hi ythad; noc y carei y heneit yhvn. A chredu aoruc ynteu bod hynny yn wir.Fol. 17 ac adaw idi traean yr ynys ar gwr adewisei o ynys brydein. yn wra idi. Agwedy hynny y gelwys attaw Ragau y verch yr eil hynaf agouyn idi pa veint y carei hi ythat. athyngu a oruc hitheu y gyuoetheu nef adaear hyt na allei ar y thauot leuerid menegi meynt y carei hi ythat. achredu a oruc ynteu hynny yn wir. ac adaw idi traean ynys brydein gyd ar gwr adewisei or ynys yn wra idi. Ac odena ygelwys attaw Cordeilla y verch y ieuaf a vwyaf agarei ynteu onadunt. a gouyn idi pa veint y carei hi ythat. Ny thybygaf vi bod merch agaro ythat yn vwy noc y dylyo. a mivi athkereis di ermoyt megys tat ac ath caraf ettwa. Ac arglwyd o mynne gwibot pa veint yth kerir; sef yw hynny y meint y bo dy gyuoeth. ath yechyt. ath dewred. Achyffroi a oruc ynteu ar lid adywedud. canys kemeint a henne ytremygeist ti vyheneint i. ac nacharut ti vi megis dy chwioryd; Mynneu ath diuarnaf di yn diran o ynys brydein. Ac yna yn diohir y rodes ef y dwy verchet hynaf ydeu dywyssawc nyt amgen tywyssawc kernyw ar hwnn yr alban. a hanner y kyuoeth ganthunt hyt tra vei vyw yr brenhin. A gwedy ynteu yr ynys yn deu hanner ryngthunt. Agwedy mynet y chwedyl honno dros wyneb y teyrnassoed y kigleu aganipus brenhin freinc doethineb cordeilla ay phryt ay thegwch. anvon a oruc kennadeu hyt yn ynys brydein y eruynieit yr brenhin cordeilla y verch yn wreicka idaw.Fol. 17v ac ynteu ae hedewis. ac a venegis yr kennadeu na chaffei ef na thir na daear na da arall o ynys brydein genthi. Ac aganipus adyuat nad oed reit idaw ef wrth ydir na ydaear na yda. onyt y verch vonhedic dyledawc y planta o honei etiuedion deduawl. Ac ny (bu*) golud yny gymyrth aganipus y vorwyn y briawt. ac ny welas neb yn yr oes honno morwyn kyn decget na chyn doethet a hi.

A gwedy llithraw talym o amser adechreu o lyr llesgu oheneint. y doeth y dowion gan y dwy verchet ac y goresgynassant yr ynys or mor pwy gilid. ac y rannassant yr ynys ar llywodraeth rygthunt yll deu. sef oed hynny gwedy diliw. Mo.cccco.lx. mlyned. Ac yna y kymyrth Maglaun tywyssauc yr alban ybrenhin attaw a deugeint marchauc gyd ac ef yeu gosmeithaw ar y ossymeith ef. ac ny doeth penn y dwy vlynned kwbyl yny lidiawd Goronilla rac meint niveroed ythat. a dyuot a oruc attaw ac erchi idaw ellwng y niveroed hynny ymeith oll dieithyr vgein marchauc. a dywedud bod yn digawn hynny y wr ny bei ryueloed arnaw na chyfrangheu. Ac yna llidiaw a oruc llyr wrth y verch am y dremygu yn gymeint a hynny. Ac adaw llys Maglaun a oruc. a chyrchu llys Henwyn tywyssawc kernyw o dybygu caffel kynnal y vreint ay anryded ganthaw yna yn well nogyt yn llys Maglawn.Fol. 18 A llawen vu henwyn wrthaw ay dreithu yn enrededus mal y dylyei. ny doeth hagen penn y mis ablwyddyn. yny lidiawd Ragau y verch wrthaw rac meint y niuer. ac erchi idaw ellung y holl niver ymeith eithyr pump marchawc. athyghu na chynaliei hi onyd hynny wrth y osgord ef a digon oed genthi hynny. A gwedy goruod arnaw ellung y uarchogion ymeith doluriaw a oruc am y hen deilygdawd. ac ymchwelud eilweith ar y verch er hynaf o debygu ytrugarhae wrthaw a chynnal ydeilyngdawt ganthaw. ac yna y tynghawd hitheu y gyuoytheu nef adaear na chynhaliei hi onyd vn marchawc gyd ac ef. a hynny oed digon genthi. gyd a bod marchogion y harglwyd hitheu wrth y orchymyn ef. A gwedy na chaffei ef dim oy adolwyn. ellwng a oruc yuarchogyon ymeith oll dieithyr vn marchauc a drigawo gyd ac ef. Ac yna gwedy medyliaw am y hen deylyngdaud ry gollassei ay digrifwch ay gedernyd goueilieint a gymyrth yndaw athristau hyt ar angheu. Ac yna ydoeth cof idaw geirieu y verchet ac ev hedewid. Ac yna y gwybu vod yn wir adywedassei Cordeilla y verch wrthaw. mae val y bei y iechit ay gedernyt ay gyuoeth y kerid ef. Ac yna medyliaw aoruc gouoyaw Cordeilla y verch y ervynneit ythrugared. ac y edrych o chaffei ef amdiffin yny byd gen thi y geisiaw ennyll y gyuoeth dracheuyn.Fol. 18v Agwedy kychwin yr mor ohonaw ar y dryded gan doluriaw yboen ay anghyfnerth yny wed honn adan wylaw agriduan. Och awyr pan ym ardyrchauassauch ar oruchelder enryded canys mwy poen coffau enryded gwedi coller. nogyd diodef achanoctit heb ordyfneit pryduerthwch. Oy adwiweu nef a daear a daw amser ettwa y gallwif vi talu chwyl yr gwyr a oruc ymynheu bod yn yr achanoctit hwnn. Och Cordeilla vyg caredic verch mor wir adywedeist wrthyf. pan yw val ybei vyngallu am mediant am kyuoeth ym kerit. ac am dywedut ohonott y sorreis wrthit. Och vig caredic (verch*) pa furyf y gallaf vi rac kywilid kyrchu attat ti weithion. gwedy yth ellynghwn mor diran o ynys brydein ac y gwneithym. Ac adan doluriaw y boen ay aghyfnerth yny wed honno ef a doeth hyt ym baris. yr dinas yd oed y verch yndaw. ac anvon kennat a oruc attei y venegi y uod ef yn dyuot yn wr tlawd gwan gouudus ygeissiau ythrugared ac y ymwelet a hi. Aphan gigleu hi hynny wylaw aoruc agouyn pa sawl marchauc aoed gyt ac ef. Adywedud or gennat nad oed onyd vn ysgwier. Ac yna drychyruerth yn dostach no chynt aoruc. ac anvon eur ac arean idaw. ac erchi idaw vyned yn dirgeledic hyt yn Amias. nev y dinas arall lle mynheu. y gymryd ardyhereu ac enneint ac ireidieu gwyrthuawr. asymudaw yansawd ay orueu ay dillat.Fol. 19 a chymryt attaw deugeint marchauc yn vn wisg ac ef ehun. aphan vythynt yn gyweir ac yn barawt. anvon kennat ar Aganipus brenhin freinc y venegi idaw y vot ef yn dyuot gwedy ry dehol oy deu douyon ef. yn amharchus o ynys brydein. Ac y ervynneit y nerth ef y oresgyn y gyuoeth dracheuyn. A hynny oll aoruc llyr megis yd archassei Cordeilla y verch idaw. Aphan doeth y gennat y venegi yr brenhin bod llyr yn dyuot y ymwelet ac ef. llawen vu ganthaw ac ef adoeth yny erbyn a niver tec advwyn gyt ac ef hyt ymphell odieithyr ydinas yny gyuaruu llyr ac ef. ac yna disgynnv aorugant amynet dwilaw mynwgyl yn garedic amynet ygyd hyt ympharis. Ac yna ytrigassant y gyt hir amseroed yn hyvryt lawen. Agwedy menegi y Aganapus amharch llyr yn ynys brydein gorthrwm y kymyrth arnaw. Ac yna y caffant yn y kyghor lluhudaw freinc a goresgyn yr ynys dracheuyn. Ac yna y rodes aganipus llywodraeth freinc y lyr tra vythei ynteu yn lluhudaw eithauioed freinc. A gwedy bod ev llu yn baraud ac ev kyureidieu. yn eu kyghor ycaussant ellwng Cordeilla gyt allyr rac na bythei y freinc vfyd y lyr. A gorchymyn a oruc aganipus yr freinc ar eu heneit ac ev hanreith eu bod kyn vfydet y lyr ac yw verch. ac y bythynt idaw ef ehvn.Fol. 19v A gwedy kymryt ey kannyat kychwyn aorugant tu ac ynys brydin. ac yn ev herbyn wynt y doeth Maglawn tywyssawc yr alban. ahenwyn tywyssawc kernyw ac ev holl allu. ac ymlad yn wychyr calet ac wynt. a rac lluossocget y freinc ny thygiawt ydunt. namyn eu gyrru ar fo ac ev hymlit a llad lluossogrwid onadunt. A goresgyn yr ynys aoruc llyr ay verch erbyn penn y vlwydyn or mor pwy gilyd. a dehol y deu dowion ymeith or ynys.

A gwedy goresgyn o lyr ynys brydein ydoeth kennat ofreinc y venegi y cordeilla ry varw aganipus brenhyn freinc. A gorthrwm y kymyrth arnei hynny. ac ohynny allan y bu gwell genthi trigaw yn ynys brydein gyd ay that. nogyd myned y freinc ar y thraean. Ac yna gwedy ystwng yr ynys ydunt. wynt ay gwledychassant hy yn hir amseroed yn hedwch dagnauedus: yny vu varw llyr. agwedy y varw y clathpwyt ef yn enrededus mewn temmyl awnathoed ef ehun yn gaer llyr adan avon soram yr enryded y ryw duw a elwit bifrontis iani. A phan delei gwilua y demphyl honno. y deuweint holl creftwyr y dinas yw hanrydedu. ac yna y dechreuweint pob gweith or adechreuwyd hyt ymphen y vlwydyn.

A gwedy marw llyr y kymyrth Cordeilla llywodraeth ynys brydein. ac ae gwledychws pymp mlyned yn hedwch dagneuedus.Fol. 20 ac yn y chwechet vlwydyn y kyuodes y deu neint meibion y chwioryd yn weissyon ieueing clotuawr. nyt amgen margan uab maglaun tywyssauc yr alban. achuneda vab henwyn tywyssauc kernyw. achynullaw llu attadunt a ryuelu ar Cordeilla. a gwedy mynych kyfrangheu rygthunt. y goresgynassant wy yr ynys. ac ydalyassant hittheu ac y dodassant yngharchar. A gwedy medyliaw ohoney am y hen deilyngdawd ry gollassei. ac nat oed obeith idi ymatkyuot ohynny. o diruawr dolur hynny ygwnaeth hy hun y lleith. nyt amgen nogyd y brathu hy hun a chillell adan y bronn yny gollas y heneid. ac yna ybarnwyd mae dybrytta agheu ydyn yllad ehun. Sef oed hynny. Mil. a hanner o vlwynyded gwedy diliw.

Ac yna y kymyrth. Cuneda a Margan ac y rannassant yr ynys y rynthunt. ac ydoeth vargan or parth draw y humyr ar goglet adan ytheruynev. Ac y guneda or parth yma lloegyr a chemre a chernyw canys odyno yr hanoed. A gwedy eu bod velly yn hedwch pedeir blyned y doeth teruysc wyr drwc ryngthunt. adywedud wrth vargan bot yn gywilid idaw kynnal ydagnefuyd ay gevynderw. ac yntev yn vab yr verch hynaf y lyr. ac yn lleiaf y ran or kyuoyth. A gwedy ylenwi ef o lid y geirieu hynny. kynullaw llu a oruc a ryuelu ar guneda y geuynderw. Ac yn y erbyn ynteu y doeth cuneda ay lu.Fol. 20v Ac yna ybu ymlad girad creulawn. ar gwyr goreu assyrthiassant yn gyntaf. ac ybu dir y vargan ffo ay wasgaredic llu. gan eu hymlid o guneda ay lu owlat iwlat. A gwedy fo o vargan yny doeth yr maes maur ynghemre. y bu well ganthaw y varw yngwryd gwyr. nogyd mynet ir mor y ymuodi. canys nad oed le y fo pellach hynny. Ac yna ymchwelud a oruc a rodi cat ar vaes. ac yna ybu kyffranc kalet. ac aerua vaur oboptu. ac yn y kyffranc hwnnw y llas Margan. Ac yr hynny hyt hedyw y gelwir ylle hwnnw maes margan. ac yno y cladpwyt ef yn lle mae manachloc margan yr aurhonn. Sef oed hynny. Mil. a hanner. a phym mlyned gwedy diliw.

Ac yna y kymyrth Cuneda yr ynys yn eidaw ehun. ac ay gwledychawd teir blyned ar dec arugeint. Ac yn yr amser hwnnw yd oed ysaias ac osee yn prophwidi yn gwlad garussalem. Ac yd adeilwyt Ruueyn ygan ydeu vroder Remus a Romulus.

A gwedy cuneda y kymyrth Riwallawn llywodraeth yr ynys y vab ynteu. ac ae gwledychawt deudeng mlyned yn hedwch dagnauedus. Ac yny amser ef y doeth glaw gwaet teir nos a thridieu. a ryw bryued val etnot trwy yr glaw hwnnw. a ryw vall gyt ahynny. ac aladassant llauwer o dynyon. Ac yna y bu varw Riwallawn deng mlyned adeugeint a phymp cant a Mil gwedy dwfyr diliw.

Ac yna y kymyrth Gorwst y vab ynteu llywodraeth y deyrnas.Fol. 21 ac ay gwledychawd seith mlyned yn hedwch dagnauedus.

Ac yny ol ynteu y gwledychawd Seissill uab gorwst chwech blyned.

A gwedy yntheu y gwledychawd Iago nei i gorwst seith mlyned.

Ac yny ol ynteu y gwledychawd kynuarch vab seissill. naw mlyned.

Ac yn nessaf y hwnnw y gwledychawt gwruyw digu vab kynuarch. Ac yhwnnw ybu deu vab. nyd amgen no feruex a phorrex agwedy ssyrthiaw eu tat en heneint. y kyuodes teruysc rwng y meibion am y kyuoeth. Ac y keisiaud porrex llad feruex y vraud. A gwedy gwybod o feruex hynny ef a foes hyt ar siward brenhin freinc y geisiaw y borth ay nerth y oresgyn ynys brydein iar y vraud. A gwedy caffel ohonaw hynny gan brenhin freinc. ef a doeth ay lu hyt yn ynys brydein. Ac yny erbyn ynteu y doeth porrex ay lu. Ac yna y bu kyffranc calet ac aerua vawr o boptu. Ac yno y llas feruex ay lu. A gwedy gwybot o indon eu man ry lad o porrex feruex y vraud. Sef a oruc hitheu medyliaw llad ymab bew yn dial y mab marw. Ac val ydoed porrex yn kysgu yn y ystauell diwyrnawd gwedy y vwyd. ef adoeth y vam yr ystauell ayllau vorynnyon gyd a hi.Fol. 21v ay fustiaw yny gwsg yny vu yn dryllieu man. Ac odena drwy llawer o amseroed y bu kywdaudaul deruysc ymplith y bobil. ar deyrnas a dan pymp brenhyn yn rannedic. Ac wynteu yn ryuelu pob vn onadunt ar y gilid.

A gwedy treulaw llawer o amseroed yny mod hwnnw ydoeth Dyuynwal moyl mud vab dodiein tywyssauc kernyw. ac o bryt a gwed adewred y ragorei ef rac paub. A gwedy marw y dad; kyuodi a oruc ef yn erbyn pymer brenhin lloygyr aryuelu arnaw ay lad aoruc. Agwedy llad pymer duhunaw a oruc. Nidawc brenhin kymry. ac ystadyr brenhin y gogled ygyd. a ryuelu ar dyuynwal moyl mud. ac yn eu herbyn wynteu y doeth dyuynwal adegmil arugeint o wyr aruawc ganthaw a rodi cat ar vaes ydunt aoruc. a gwedy treulaw llawer or dyd drwy ymlad kreulon. neilltuaw aoruc dyuynwal a chwechanwyr gyt ac ef or gweisyon dewraf agauas. a gwisgau arueu eu gelynion ryledessit a ymdanadunt. acherdet drwy bydinoed eu gelynnyon yny doethant hyt yn lle yd oed Nidawc ac ystadyr. ac ymherued eu bydin eu llad yll deu. agoresgyn yr ynys or mor pwy gilid. agwedy hedychu pob peth. yperis dyuynwal gwneithur coron eur idaw amein maurweirthauc yndi. ay gwisgaw aoruc a gossot kyfreithieu or rei yd aruer y saesson etwa. a rodi noduaeu abrei nieu yr dinessyd ac yr temleu megys y hyscriuennws gildas vab chaw gwedy hynny. mal y gallei y neb awnelei gam caffel diogelwch yndunt.Fol. 22 ac yr ereidir ac ydiwyllodron y tir. ac yr briffyrd y rwg y dinessyd ahynny oll yn (vn) vreint ar temleu. Ac yny oes ef y pylwyt kledyfeu ylladron achripdeil y treiswyr. ac ny lauassei neb gwneithur cam ay gilid. a seith mlyned arugeint y gwledychws ef gwedy kymryt y goron. ac yna y bu varw yn llundein ac y clatpwyt ef ger llaw temphyl gyuundab yr hon awnathoed ef ehun urth cadarnhau y kyfreithieu ry wnathoed. Sef oed hynny. Mil.vic.vij. mlyned gwedy diliw.

A gwedy marw dyuynwal y kyuodes teruysc rwng y deu uab am y kyuoeth. nyd amgen no beli a bran. Agwedy llauwer ogynhenheu rygthunt y tagneuedwyt wynt. ac y rannwid ydyrnas rygthunt. Sef mal y rannwyt gadel i veli canis hynaf oed coron y dyrnas alloegyr achemre a chernyw. canys herwyd hen deuaut gwyr troia y mab hynaf adylyei y teilygdawt. Ac y bran canys yeuaf oed. or parth arall y humyr adwyn darystyngedigaeth yw vraud. Agwedy daruot cadarnhau henne y rygthunt. pym mlyned y buant yn llywyaw eu kyuoethieu yn hedwch dagnauedus. Ac yna y doeth teruysc wyr drwc yscumvnllyt abwrw athrot yrygthunt. achyghori y vran torri ydagneued a oed waradwyd idaw y chynnal. canys goruydei idaw daristwng yr neb ny bei ewch o waet noc ynteu.Fol. 22v A menegi vod yn degach idaw kymryt merch y vrenhin o ynys arall yn wreicka idaw; ac o nerth hwnnw ennyll y deilyngdawt ry gollassei. dracheuyn. Agwedy llenwy bran olid achyghoruynt ygeirieu hynny. ef aaeth hyt yn llychlyn ac a gymyrth merch yesling vrenhin llychlyn yn wreicka idaw. ac o nerth hynny keissiaw goresgyn kyuoeth y vrawd. Agwedy menegi hynny i veli. kynullaw aoruc ef agoresgyn yr alban yn gwbyl. agwarchadw yr aruordir rac dyuot ystrawn genedyl yr ynys yeu chyuarssanghu. ac y aros dyuodiat y vraut. A phan gigleu bran hynny; ef a gymyrth aneiryf lluossogrwyd o wyr llychlyn gyd ac ef. Aphan yttoydynt barawd y eu hynt; yr llongheu ydaethant ar vorwyn ygyd ac wynt. a dyrchauel hwyleu. a rwygaw moroed yny doethant hyt yngheuyn gweilgi. Ac yna y kyuaruu llyghes gwithlach brenhin denmarc ac wynt. gwedy ry venegi idaw ry vynet bran ar vorwyn vwiaf agarassei gwithlach ymeith or ynys. Ac yny kyuaruot hwnnw ymlad aoruc ydwy lynghes yn wychyr creulon ac yn yr ymlad hwnnw bwrw bacheu a oruc gwyr gwithlach yr llong lle yr oed y vorwyn ay thynnu yny vyd y vorwyn ympheruet llong gwithlach. ac yna y doeth gwasgaredic wynt a gwasgaru yr llongheu y amrauaelion draetheu. Agwedy eu bod velly pymp nywyrnawd arvawd. y bwriwt brenhin denmarc ar vorwyn gyt ac ef yr gogled y dir. Ac yna y doeth gwyr ywlat honno ac y daliassant wynt.Fol. 23 ac y dugant ger bron y brenhin lle yd oed yn arhos y vraut yn yr aruordir. Agwedy menegi y veli eu damchwein; llawen vv ganthaw. ac ev gorchymyn yn diogel a oruc yny gaffei kymryt kyghor amdanadunt. Agwedy hynny ychydic odydieu y doeth bran yr alban y dir. ac amofyn am ywasgaredic llynghes. ac ymoralw ac wynt ac eu kynullaw ygyt a oruc a allawd oreu onadunt. Ac yna y cauas manac ry daly brenhin denmarc. ar wreic vwiaf agarei gid ac ef. ac eu bot yngharchar beli yvraut. Agwedy gwybot hynny ohonaw anvon aoruc ar veli y vraud ac erchi idaw edvryt ygyuoeth idaw. ar carcharoryon ry deliessit yny gyuoeth. ac onys atuerey tynghu y gyuoytheu nef a daear. y llosgei ef yr ynys or mor pwy gilyd. ac ylladei agyuarfei ac ef. ac y lladei y ben ynteu od ymgaffei ac ef. A gwedy menegi i veli hynny. y nackau aoruc ef argwbyl. ac erchi idaw gwneithur a vei tyngheven idaw. Ac yna ymgyweiriaw a oruc bran ay lu. adyuot hyt yn llwyn calatir. Ac yny erbyn ynteu y doeth beli ay lu. ac yna ybu kyffranc calet creulon. ac y llas lluossogrwyd o bobparth. ac eissus or diwed y goruu beli. ac y gyrrwit bran ar fo ac ychydic oe wasgaredic llu hyt eu llongheu achyrchu yr mor aorugant a hwylaw hyt yn freinc. ac yny kyffranc hwnnw y llas pymthegmil owyr llychlyn.

A gwedy caffel o veli y vudugoliaeth.Fol. 23v ef a doeth ay lu gyt ac ef hyt yg caer efrawc ac y kymyrth ef y gynghor yno peth awneit am gwithlach brenhin denmarc ay orderch. ac yna y cauas yny gyghor. kymryd gwriogayth ganthaw atheyrnget pob blwidyn. a y ellwng ymmeith ef ay orderch y ev gwlat. a hynny a oruc ynteu. Ac yno y peris beli gwneithur arwiliant yr dwyweu. athalu diolycheu y baub oy wyr megis y raglydynt. Ac yno y peris ef cadarnhau y kyureitheu ry wnathoed y dad. Ac yno y peris ef gwneithur prif fyrd kyureithaul o veyn a chalch drwy yr ynys. vn onadunt o vor kernyw ar hyt yr ynys hyt y mor cattneis yn y gogled. a honno trwy y dinessyd agyuarffei a hi yn vn yawn. Ac arall ar draws yr ynys. o vyniw hyt ymphorth hamon. Adwy ford ereill yn amryscoyw croes yngroes ar rei hynny. Arodi breinieu a noduaeu yr fyrd hynny hyt na lauassei neb gwneithur neb rvw gam ay gilid arnadunt. Ac avynno gwybot breinieu y fyrd hynny; darlleet ky[f]reithieu dyuynwal moyl mud. y rei a ymchweilawd gilldas vap caw o gymraec yn lladoin. A gwedy hynny y trossas ayluryt vrenhin o ladin yn saysnec.

Damchwein bran vu dyuod hyt yn freinc adeudec marchawc gyt ac ef y geisiaw nerth gan dywyssogyon freinc y ennill y gyuoeth drachevyn ry gollassei. A gwedy menegi y bawb o nadunt y damchweyn ef; ay eruyn ynteu ydunt wynteu.Fol. 24 y nackau ar gwbyl aorugant. Agwedy gweled na chaffei ef dim; annobeithiaw yn vaur a oruc. amynet hyt yn bwrgwyn ygeissiaw nerth gan segwyn duc byrgwyn. ac ef a drigawd gyd ac ef hir yspeyd. A gwedy ym adnabot ac ef; caredic oed ganthaw ef bran. rac daet y gwidiat y wrth hely a chwn. ac ac adar. a phob ryw hely amarchogaeth yn dec advwyn. a gwr doeth ynghyghor arglwyd. tec athelediw ahynaws oed ynteu. acharedic gan bawb. a gwychyr a dewr yn arueu. Ac yna y kymyrth yduc y gyghor. ac arodes y vn verch idaw yn wreic bwis priawt. ay holl gyuoeth genthi. gwedy y dyd ef. gan ganneat y gyuoeth. canys nad oed etiued deduaul eithyr honno. Ac ny bu ben y vlwydyn gwedy hynny yny vu varw y duc. Ac yna ykymyrth bran y llywodraeth yn eidaw ef ehun. ac ny bu bell gwedy hynny yny gymyrth y gyghor am vynet y oresgyn ynys brydein iar beli y vraut. ac yny eu kyghor y caussant kynghreiriaw a brenhyoed freinc am vynet drwy ev gwladoed. ef ay lu. yn diargywed hyt yn flandrys heb wneithur drwc y neb; na neb ydunt wynteu. a hynny a gafsant. Ac yna kynullaw llu a oruc bran or tu draw mwiaf ac ygallawd. a dyuot hyt yn ynys brydein. Ac yny erbyn ynteu y doeth beli ar llu mwiaf ac y gallawd ynteu. A gwe dy dyuot y deu lu wyneb yn wyneb a mynnv ym gyrchu:Fol. 24v nachaf tonwen ev mam yn dyuot rwng y deu lu. ac yn taflu ymeith dillat yphen ac ellwng ygwallt dros y hysgwydeu. a rwigaw y dillat hyt y gwregys adyuot ay dwyuron yn noeth hyt yn lle yd oed bran y mab yn seuyll. ac yn erchi idaw; yr gwr ay kreawd ef. yn dyn yny chorf hi; o beth heb dim. ac yr y bronneu ry dynassei. ac yr y poen ar dolur agauas hitheu ir daw kyn ydyuot yr byd hwnn. arafhau y yrlloned; ac na pharei ef llad y sawl gwaet bonhedic a ry gynvllessit y gyd o bob gwlat. yno. achoffau na wnathoed y vrawd ydaw ef dim or cam. namyn ef a wnathoed cam yv vrawd ac idaw ehvn. pan aeth y geisiaw porth brenhin llychlyn y oresgyn ynys brydein yar y vrawd. ac arwyd na wnaeth y vrawd idaw dim or cam; onyd y yrru o vrdas vychan y vn aoed vwy. Canys bychan oed ran o ynys brydein; a mawr oed bot yn duc ym byrgwyn. Ac yna gwedy hedychu bran or ymadrodeon hynny; diosg y benfestyn aoruc adyuot y gyd ay vam tu ay vrawd. Aphan welas beli; bran y vrawd yn dyuot adrech tagneved ganthaw; bwrw aoruc ynteu y arueu y amdanaw amynet ydwylaw mynwgyl yv vrawd. ac yna y kymodassant amynet ygyd hyt yn llundein yn hyuryt llawen gorawenus ac eu lluoed gyd ac wynt. Ac yna y trigassant y gayaf honno.Fol. 25 ac yna ycaussant yn eu kynghor parattoi llynghes y vynet yoresgyn freinc. Ac ymphen y vlwydyn ydaethant y freinc. a y goresgynnassant hi. ar holl wledyd hyt yn ruvein. ¶ Ac yn yr amser hwnnw yd oed deu dywyssawc yn gwledychu ruvein. nyd amgen gabius aphorcenna. A gwedy klywet bot beli abran yn dyuot ytu a ruvein. agwedy yr ystwng pawb ganthunt. ovynhau a orugant wynt. ac anvon athadunt ywneithur ev thangneved ac wynt. arodi llauwer o eur ac aryant yn deyrnged pob blwydyn ydunt yr caffel hynny. arodi pedwar meib arugeint or rei bonhedicgaf yn ruvein yn gwystlon ar hynny. A gwedy daruot ydunt ymgadarnhau ual hynny. wynt adrossassant ev lluoed ytu a germania a dechreu ryuelu ar y wlat honno. Agwedy gwelet o wyr ruvein hynny; ediuar vu ganthunt ydagneved ry wneithessynt. ac anvon ev kedernyt yn borth y wyr germania. Agwedy gwybod o veli abran hynny; yn eu kyghor y caussant. trigaw beli ay lu yno yn ymlad agwyr germania. a mynet bran ay lu yntev ytu a ruvein. A gwedy gwybot o wyr yr eidal hynny; ymadaw a orugant a gwyr germania acheisiaw caer ruvein o vlaen bran. A gwedy gwybot o veli hynny; mynet aoruc ef ay lu o hyt nos allechu ymevn glyn coedawc y ford y deuwei gwyr y eidal y tu aruvein. ar bore pan oed dyd y doeth gwyr yr eidal yr glyn.Fol. 25v Ac y kyuodes beli ay lu yn direbud ydunt ac ev llad yn olofrud ar ny gauas fo onadunt. ac odena y doeth beli hyt yn ruvein ar y vrawd y trydyt dyd idaw yn ymlad ar gaer. Ac yna y parassant dyrchauel crogwyd wrth porth y gaer. achrogi y pedwar meib arugeint. a gymeresseint yn gwistylon am eu kywirdeb ac ev teyrnget. gan wyr ruvein. Ac yna y doeth kennat y venegi y wyr ruvein y deuwei drannoeth y deu amherawdyr gabius aphorcenna yn nerth ydunt. A gwedy gwybot o beli abran hynny; kyweiriaw ev llu aorugant amynet yn ev herbyn ac ymlat ac wynt yn wychyr calet creulon ac yna y llas gabius aphorsenna ac ev kywdawdwyr yn llwyr. Ac yna y dychwelaud beli abran yr gaer drachevyn ay distriw ay goresgyn hep olud. sef oed hynny. M.vic.xxxv. gwedy diliw.

A gwedy caffael onadunt y vudugolyaeth honno llawen vu ganthunt. Ac yna yn ev kynghor y caussant adaw bran yno yn amherawdyr yn ruvein. ac y darystung y bobil mal y gwelei yarglwydiaeth ef vot yn yawn. ac ynteu ay darystyngawd wynt o angklywedic crulonder megis ymeneic ystoria gwyr ruvein gwedy hynny. Ac y doeth beli hyt yn ynys brydein yn llawen hyuryt gorawenus. athrwy hedwch y gorffennws ef y vuched. Ac ef awnaeth caer ar avon wysc ger llaw mor hafren yr hon a elwyt caer wysc drwy llawer o amseroed.Fol. 26 ahonno oed archescopty dyuet gwedy hynny yn hir. Agwedy dyuot gwyr ruvein y ynys brydein: ydilywt henw y gaer. ac y gelwyt oc ev ieith wynt. caer legion. canys yn llengheu ydeuweint yr ynys hon. ac yno ypresswyllynt y gayaf can mwyaf. agwedy kymysgu llawer o ieithoed y gyd; y gelwit yn gaer llion. a Mil achwechant ac vn arbymthec arugeint o vlwynyded gwedy dwfyr diliw oed pan dechrewt y gaer. Ac ef awnaeth yn llundein ar lan temys porth gywreint y weith. athwr anryued y veint y arnaw. a disgynva llongheu y adanaw. ac ay gelwys yn borth beli. a gwedy dyuot ystrawn genedloed yr ynys. y gelwyd yn beling ys gat. Agwedy dyuot teruyn y vuched; ef alosget ygorf ac adodet y llydyw mevn baril eureit. ac agudywt yny twr ry wnathoed ef ehun yn llundein. sef oed hynny. M.dc.xlv. mlyned gwedy diliw.

A gwedy marw beli yd urdwyt gurgant varf drwch y vab ynteu yn vrenhin. athebic oed y genedueu yr hwnn y dad. Agwedy ry glywet o vrenhin denmarc ry varw beli; keisiaw aoruc attal yteyrnget rac y vab. agwedy gwybot o gurgant hynny: kyweiriaw llynghes a oruc. a mynet hyt yn denmarc. ac ymlad a gwythlach brenhin denmarc ay lad aoruc. agoresgyn ywlat achymell arnadunt talu y teyrnged pob blwydyn idaw ef; megys ytalpwyd yw dad kynnoc gef. Agwedy caffel o honaw kedernyt ar hynny ymchwelud a oruc adref yn hyuryt lawen gorawenus.Fol. 26v Aphan yttoed yn dyuot drwy ynysset orc; ef agyuaruu ac ef dec llong arugeint yn llawn o wyr a gwraged. Agwedy amovyn ac wynt o pa le pan hanoedynt. y managassant ev hanuot or yspayn. ac ev bot yn amgylchynv moroed yn keisiaw lle y presswiliaw yndi. yr blwydyn ahanner kyn no hynny. y gwrthledessit wyn oc ev gwlat a bartholoun yn dywyssauc arnadunt. Ac ervynneit aorugant y gurgant le y presswylaw yny deyrnas ef. Agwedy adnabod ev hadolwyn ef adoeth ac adangosses ywerdon ac ay rodes ydunt. canys diffeith oed yna heb gyuanned yndi. Ac wynt a aethant hyt yn ywerdon ac y gwledychassant hi. ac yndi ymaent yn y phresswiliaw yr hynny hyt hediw. Ac yn oes gurgant ybu y seith wyr doetheon y rei a gauas ykeluydodeu kyntaf o annean. ac olawer o bethheu ereill ac ay ysgriuennessant ac ay dysgassant. disgybyl ydunt oed anaximander. adisgybyl idaw yntev oed anaximeneu. disgybyl idav yntev oed anaxagoras. disgybyl idav yntev oed aerchelaus. adisgybyl idav yntev oed socrates. adisgybyl idav ynteu oed plato. adisgybyl idau yntev oed aristotiles. Ac yn amser hvnnw Sibille doeth agoleuhaawd llawer oc ev gweithredoed. A gwedy dyuot teruyn buchet gurgant y clathpwyt ef ynghaer llion ar wysc yn yr honn yr adeiliassei y dad. ac yhanrydedassei yntev o adei liadeu acheiryd. M.dc.lxx. gwedy diliw. y bu varw.Fol. 27

A gwedy marw gurgant varyf drwch ydoyth kuhelyn y vab yn vrenhin agwreic vonhedic aoed idaw a Marcia oed y henw. ar holl geluydodeu awydyat. a hi a gymorthes y brenhin o lywiaw y vrenhinyaeth yn hedwch dagnavedus tra uu vew. Ac vn mab a oed idi ohonaw a seisil oed yhenw. Ahi awnaeth kyfreitheu y rei a elwyt kyfreith Marcian. ac ohonadunt y traethwyd yr ynys drw lawer o amseroed. ac y trossas aylvryt vrenhin wynt o vrytanyec yn saysnec. ac ay gelwys merchyenlage. Agwedy gwledychu o kuhelyn teir blyned ardec drwy hedwch athagneued ybu varw. M.dc.lxxxiii. o vlwynyded gwedy diliw.

A gwedy marw kuhelyn y kymyrth marcian vrenhines llywodraeth ynys brydein yn eidi ehvn. canys doeth oed achymen achywreint y wrth pob peth. ac nad oed o oedran ar y mab namyn seithmlwyd. Agwedy gwledychu o honei wyth mlyned yn hedwch tagnauedus y bu varw. M.dc.lxxxxi. gwedy diliw.

A gwedy Marcian y kymyrth seissill y mab coron y deyrnas. ac ay llywyawd yn hynaws caredic naw mlyned ar vn tu ac yna y bu varw Sef oed hynny gwedy dwfyr diliw. Mil aseith cant o vlwynyded.

Fol. 27vA gwedy seissill y kymyrth kynvarch y vab yntteu llywodraeth ydeyrnas ac ny wledychawd ef onyd pymph mlyned yny vu varw. pymp mlyned a M a seith cant gwedy diliw. oed hynny.

A gwedy marw kynvarch y kymyrth Dan y vraud ef llywodraeth ydeyrnas. canys nessaf oed o waed. ac ny wledychawd hvnnw onyd deng mlyned yny vu varw. sef oed hynny. M.dcc.xv. mlyned gwedy diliw.

A gwedy marw dan. y kymyrth Morud y vab yntteu coron ydeyrnas. ahwnnw a uu dirvaur meynt y glod o haelder adeured pei nad ymrodei y ormod o greulonder. Ac yny amser ef y doeth brenhin Moryan a llu mawr ganthaw yr gogled y dir. a dechreu ryuelu yn gadarn. Ac yny erbyn yntteu y doeth Morud ay lu. ac ymlad aorugant yn wychyr creulon. amwy aladei Morud e hvn noc a ladei gynmwyaf y lu. A gwedy blynaw o honaw oc ev llad; yderchys ef ev blingyaw yn vyw. ac odena ev llossgi ylenwi ygreulonder ef. A gwedy hynny ydoeth y ryw dygheduen y dial y enwired arnaw. sef oed hynny. y ryw bwystuil creulon a doeth y urth vor ywerdon ahwnnw a lynghei pob peth or a gyuarfei ac ef. Agwedy klybot o vorud hynny; ef a aeth ehunan y ymlad ar bwystuil. Agwedy treulyaw yarveu yn over. yr aniueil hvnnw ay savyn yn egoret ay kyrchawt ac ay llyngawd val pysgodyn bychan. sef oed hynny y bymthecvet vlwydyn o oed ydeyrnas.Fol. 28 a Mil. aseith cant. adec arugeint. gwedy diliw. A phymp meib hagen a oed idaw. nyd amgen. Gorbonyavn. arthal. elidir. owein. apharedur.

A gwedy Morud y kymyrth Gorbonyavn y vab lywodraeth y deyrnas canys hynaf oed onadunt. ac nyd oed yn yr amser hvnnw gwr gyuyawnach noc ef. na mwy agarei wirioned heb vynnv dym or cam. Agwedy gwledychu vn vlwydyn arbympthec o honaw yn hedwch dagnauedus. y bu varw ac y cladpwyd ef ynghaer llundein. M.dcc.xlvi. o vlwynyded gwedy diliw.

A gwedy ynteu y doeth arthal y vrawt yn vrenhin. Ac ym pob peth gwrthwyneb oed y weithredoed gorbonyavn y vraud. y bonhedigion. ar dyledogyon a ystyngei. ar anyledogyon a dyrchauei. ar kyuoethogyon a anreithyei y gynullaw sswllt idaw ehvn. A gwedy y vot val hynny chwech blyned val hynny. gorthrwm y kymyrth y wyrda yarglwydiaeth ef. Ac yn ev kynghor y caussant y wrthlad or vrenhiniaeth. ac vrdaw elidir y vraud yn vrenhin. yr hwn a elwit elidir war gwedy hynny. A hynny a wnaethant.

A gwedy urdaw elidir yn vrenhin. ef awledychawd yn hedwch dagnauedus chwech blyned ar vn tu. Ac val yd oed diwyrnawd gwedy ry vynet y hely forest yn llwyn calatyr. y kyuaruu arthal y vraut yn diarwybot ac ef. y gwr ry diholyessit gynt oy deyrnas;Fol. 28v ar ydecuet marchawc gyd ac ef. Agwedy gwelet o elidir ef. llawenhau aoruc y galon urthaw. abryssiav y dwylaw mynwgyl idaw. Agwedy ymdidan ac ef; wylaw achwynaw y agkyfnerth a oruc. ac yn dirgeledic ef ay duc ganthaw hyt yngaer allclut ay gudiaw yny ystauell. a oruc. Ac odyna dechmygu y vod ehvn ynglaf. ac anvon kennadeu y dyvynnv attav y tywyssogyon pennaf or ynys y ymwelet ac ef. A gwedy dyuot paub yr dinas. anvon a oruc yn ol pob vn onadunt pob eil wers. y dyuot yr ystauell yn dauwel rac argywedu arnaw odim. A gorchymyn yr gwassanaethwyr kemryd pob vn onadunt mal ydelei ac ev dwyn yr ystauell attadunt. ar neb nyd yuudhaeu y ev gorchymyn wynt; ev kymryd allad ev pennev. Agwedy ev dyuot yr ystauell y peris elidir ydunt gwrhau eilweith y arthal y vraut. ar neb nys gwnelei; llad y ben a gaffei. A gwedy dwyn y tywyssogyon yn vn ac arthal y vraut drwy vygytheu; ytagnauedaud ef ac wynt. Ac odena yd aethant y gyd hyt yngkaer efrauc. ac y peris gwneithur gwled darparedic. Ac y kymyrth y goron yam y ben e hvn ay dodi am ben arthal y vraud. Ac wrth hynny y gelwid ef yn elidir war o hynny allan. sef oed hynny. Mil.dcc.lxiii. o vlwynyded gwedy diliw.

A gwedy urdaw arthal yn vrenhin yr eil weith y gwledychaud yn hedwch dagnavedus deng mlyned gan emendau ydrucdeuodeu ry wnathoed gynt.Fol. 29 ac or diwet y bu uarw ac y cladpwyt ef yngkaer llyr. M.dcc.lxxiij.

A gwedy arthal y detholet elidir yr eil weith yn vrenhin. Agwedy y vod teir blyned yn gwledychu. y doeth y deu vroder yeuaf. nyd amgen. ewein apharedur aryuelu obop parth arnaw. ac ymlat ac ef yn gadarn ac yn greulon. ac ordiwet caffael onadunt y uudygolyaeth. a daly elidir; ay dodi yngkarchar y mevn twr yn llundein a gwercheidweid gyd ac ef. M.dcc.lxxvi. gwedy diliw.

Ac yna y kymyrth ewein apharedur ydeyrnas ac y rannassant y ryngthunt. nyd amgen nogyd y ewein. lloygyr achemry a chyrniw. Ac y baredur ohvmvr hwnt. A gwedy ev bot velly seith yn gwledychu; y bu varw ewein ac y ssyrthiaud y deyrnas yn gwbyl: yn llaw paredur. M.dcc.lxxxiii. gwedy diliw.

A gwedy bot paredur yn vrenhin ar gwbyl or ynys. ef ay llywyaud yn hygar dagnavedus mal yd oed amlwc y vot yn well nogyd y holl vrodyr kyn noc ef. Ac na choffeit elidir: rac daet arglwyd oed paredur. A gwedy gwledychu paredur ar gwbyl or ynys wyth mlyned y bu varw. sef oed hynny. M.dcc.lxxxxi. gwedy diliw. Ac yna y duc pwyt elidir o garchar ac yd urdwyt yn vrenhin ydrydyweith.Fol. 29v

A gwedy urdaw elidir yn vrenhin. ef awledychaud. vn vlwydyn arugeint yn hedwch dagnauedus ar ynys brydein. a hynny drwy pob ryw dayoni or a allei neb ywneithur ac yna y bu varw. M.dccc.xij. mlyned gwedy diliw.

A gwedy elidir y doyth Rys vab gorbonyaun yn vrenhin. A chyffelib oed o ssynnwyr aphrudder a doethineb yr hwn y ewythyr. ac ny wledychaud namyn dwy vlyned yny vu varw. sef oed hynny. M.dccc.xiiii. o vlwynyded gwedy diliw.

A gwedy Rys y doeth Margan vab arthal yn vrenhin. achyuyaunder a gwirioned agarei ef. ac ny wledychaud onyd vn vlwydvn. yny vu varw. M.dccc.xv. mlyned gwedy diliw.

A gwedy Margan y doeth Eyniaun y vraud yn vrenhin. aphellhau a oruc y wrth annwydeis Margan y vraut yn llywyaw yrbobyl. A gwedy yuot chwech blyned yn gwledychu val hynny drwy creulonder. y doed ydywyssogion y gyd ay vwrw or vrenhiniaeth allan. a dethol Idwal vab owein yn vrenhin. sef oed hynny. M.dccc.xxi. gwedy diliw.

A gwedy urdaw Idwal vab ewein yn vrenhin emendau aoruc drwc weithredoed einyaun y gar. ac ny wledychaud ef namyn dwy vlyned yny vu varw. M.dccc.xxiij. gwedy diliw. ac yn dydieu hwnnw y bu Jesus vab iosedech yn bennaf or efeirieit. ac esoras. ac zorobabel yn dywyssogion.

A gwedy Idwal y doeth Run vab paredur yn vrenhin.Fol. 30 ac ny wledychaud hwnnw onyd seith mlyned. ac yna ybu varw. gwedy dyliw. o vlwynyded.

A gwedy Run y doeth Gereint vab elidir war yn vrenhin. a hwnnw a wledychawd vgeint mlyned. ac yn oes hwnnw y bu Cambyses vab cyrus brenhin pers. ac ohenw arall. nobugodonosor y gelwyt. brenhin brenhined y dwyrein. ac yna y bu varw gereint M.dccc.l.

A gwedy gereint y doeth cadell vab gereint yn vrenhin. a hwnnw awledychawd deng mlyned. ac yna y bu varw. M.dccc.lx. mlyned gwedy dwfyr diliw.

A gwedy cadell y doeth coel vab cadell yn vrenhin yn ynys brydein. ac y gwledychaud hwnnw. deng mlyned. ac yna y bu varw. M.dccc.lxx. gwedy diliw.

A gwedy coel y doeth porrex vab coel yn vrenhin. a hwnnw awledychws deudeng mlyned ac yna y doeth tervyn y uuched. M.dccc.lxxxij.

A gwedy porrex y doeth cherin vab porrex yn vrenhin. a hwnnw a wledychawd seith mlyned. a thri meib a vu idaw. Ac yna y doeth tervyn y uuched. M.dccc.lxxxix. gwedy diliw.

A gwedy cherin y doeth. Sulyen vab cherin yn vrenhin. a hwnnw a wledychws pymp mlyned yn hedwch dagnauedus. ac yna y bu varw. M.dccc.lxxxxv. gwedy diliw.

A gwedy sulien y doeth Eudaf vab cherin y vraut yn vrenhin.Fol. 30v ac ny wledychaud hwnnw onyt pymp mlyned. ac yna y bu varw. M.dcccc. Mlyned gwedy dwfyr diliw.

A gwedy eudaf y doeth Andreu vab cherin y vraud yn vrenhin. a hwnnw a wledychws deudeng mlyned. ac yna y bu varw. M.dcccc.xij. mlyned gwedy diliw.

A gwedy andreu y doeth vryen vab andreu yn vrenhin. a hwnnw a wledychaud wyth mlyned. ac yna y bu varw. M.dcccc.xx. mlyned.

A gwedy vrien y doeth Ithel vab vrien yn vrenhin. a hwnnw a wledychaud. vgeint mlyned. ac yna y bu varw ef. M.dcccc.xl. mlyned gwedy dwfyr diliw.

A gwedy ithel y doeth kelydauc vab ithel yn vrenhin. a hwnnw a wledychaud namyn yn vlwydyn vgeint. ac yna y bu varw. Mil.dcccc.lix. o vlwynyded gwedy llif noe.

A gwedy kelydauc y doeth klytno vab kelydauc yn vrenhin. a hwnnw a wledychaud teir blyned ar dec. ac yna y bu varw. M.dcccc.lxxij. o vlwynyded gwedy diliw.

A gwedy klytno y doeth Gorwst vab klytno yn vrenhin. A hwnnw a wledychaud teyr blyned ardec. ac yna y bu varw. M.dcccc.lxxxv. o vlwynyded gwedy diliw.

A gwedy gorwst y doeth Meiryaun vab gorwst yn vrenhin. a hwnnw a wledychws deudeng mlyned. mlyned.Fol. 31 ac yna y bu varw. M.dcccc.xcvii. o vlwnyded gwedy llif noe.

A gwedy Meiryawn y doeth Bleidud y vab yn vrenhin. a hwnnw a wledychaud teir blynet ar ynys brydein. ac yna y bu varw. dwy vil o vlwynyded gwedy diliw.

A gwedy bleidud y doeth Caph y vab ynteu yn vrenhin. ac a wledychaud deng mlyned arugeint. ac yna y bu varw. gwedy diliw.

A gwedy caph y doeth Ewein vab caph yn vrenhin. ac ny wledychaud ef onyd teir blyned. ac yna y bu varw. ijmacron.xxxiij. gwedy diliw.

A gwedy ewein y doeth Seissill y vab ynteu yn vrehyn. A hwnnw a wledychaud. wyth mlyned. ac yna y bu varw. ijmacron.xli.

A gwedy seissill y doeth Blegywryt yn vrenhin. ac ny bu eryoed kantor kystal ac ef o geluydyt music. na chwareyd kystal ac ef o hudawl. Ac am hynny y gelwyd ef duw y gwaraeu. A hwnnw awledychaud ar ynys brydein. wyth mlynet arugeint. ac yna y bu varw. ijmacron.lxix. gwedy diliw.

A gwedy blegywryd y doeth Arthuael y vraut yn vrenhin. A hwnnw a wledychaud seith mlyned arugeint. Ac yna ybu varw. sef oed hynny. ijmacron.lxxxviij. o vlwynyded gwedy diliw.

A gwedy arthuael y doeth Eidol vab arthuael yn vrenhin. Ac ef a wledychaud deudeng mlyned. Ac yna y bu varw. ijmacron.c. gwedy diliw.

A gwedy eidol y doeth Rydeon vab eidol yn vrenhin.Fol. 31v ac a wledychaud. naw mlyned. ac yna y bu varw. ijmacron.c.ix. gwedy diliw.

A gwedy rydeon y doeth Ryderch y vab ynteu yn vrenhin. a hwnnw awledychawd vn vlwydyn arbymthec ac yna y bu varw. sef oed hynny. ijmacron.c.xxv. gwedy diliw.

A gwedy ryderch y doeth Sawyl vab ryderch yn vrenhin. ac a wledichawd pymptheng mlyned. ac yna ybu varw. ijmacron.c.xl.

A gwedy sawyl y doeth pyrr y vab ynteu. yn vrenhin. Ac awledychawd deng mlyned. ac yna y teruynws y uuched. ijmacron.c.l.

A gwedy pyrr y doeth Capoir y vab ynteu yn vrenhin pymp mlyned. ac yna y bu varw ef. gwedy diliw.

A gwedy capoir ydoeth Manogan y vab ynteu yn vrenhin. Ac ef a wledychws ar ynys brydein. naw mlyned. ac yna y daruu ef. ijmacron.lxiiij.

A gwedy manogan y doeth Beli y vab ynteu yn vrenhin ar ynys brydein. ac y gwledychws ef deudeng mlyned. Ac y bu pedwar meib idaw nyd amgen. llud. a llyuelis. a chaswallaun. a Nynnyaw. Ac yna ybu varw beli mawr. sef oed hynny ijmacron.c.lxxvi. gwedy diliw.

A gwedy beli mawr y doeth Llud y vab ynteu yn vrenhin canys hynaf oed or plant. A hwnnw a atnewydhawd muroed llundein. ay hadeiliadeu. ay damgylchynu o anneirif diroed. A phresswyliaw yndi y ran vwyaf or vlwydyn.Fol. 32 Ac ay gelwys oy henw ef ehun. yn gaer llud. Agwedy dyuot ystrawn genedloed idi. y gelwit lundene. nev ereill ay galwei yn lundrys. Ac or diwed caer llundein. llyuelis hagen agarei ef yn vwiaf oy vrodyr canys prud oed adoeth achymen. A gwedy clywed onadunt marw brenhin freinc. heb etiued idaw onyd vn verch. ar kyuoeth yn llaw honno. yn ev kynghor y caussant anvon llyuelis ar dywyssogion freinc y erchi y vorwyn yn wreicka idaw ar llywodraeth genthi. A hynny agauas ynteu yn llawen. Ac ynteu ay kymyrth ac ay llywyws hyt tra vu vew. yn hynaws fydlawn garedic. Ac yn oes llud y bu. Pompeius. a Crassus. a Julius cesar. yn dywyssogion sened ruvein. ar pompeius hvnnw a orysgynws gwlat Judea. ac ay darystyngawd y sened ruuein. A gwedy llithraw talym o amser teir gormes adigwydws yn ynys brydein. ny ry welsit gynt ev kyfriw. vn oed onadunt kenedyl a elwit coranieit. achymeint oed ev gwibod. ac nad oed ymadraud or y kyuarfei y gwynt ac ef; ny wyppynt pan gyhyrdei ygwint hwnnw ac wynt. Ac urth hynny ny ellit vn argywed ydunt. Eil oed diaspat adodit pob nos galanmei uch pob aylwyt yn ynys brydein. a thruy galon pawb idai y diaspat honno yn gymeint. ac y collei y gwyr ev lliw ac ev nerth.Fol. 32v ar gwraget eu beichogieu. ar meibion. ar merchet ev synhwyreu. ar aniveilieit. ar gwyd. a adawei yn diffrwith. Tryded gormes oed yr meint vei ydarmerth ar arlwy a barattoyt yn llyssoed y brenhinet. kyd bei arlwy vlwydyn. o vwyt adiawt. ny cheffit dim byth ohonaw namen adreulit yn yr vn nos kyntaf. Ac eissiwys kyhoed oed ac amlwc yr ormes gyntaf. y dwy ormes ereill; nyd oed a wyppei pa ystyr aoed ydunt. Ac urth hynny goueilieint a phryder a gymyrth llud yndaw. am na wydiat gwaret y gormessoed hynny or ynys. A medyliaw a oruc vynet y ymwelet allyuelis y vraud y ymgyghor ac ef. A gwedy gwybot olyuelis dyuodiat y vraud llawen vu ganthaw. a dyuot yny erbyn aoruc a niuer mawr y gyt ac ef yn enrydedus. a myned y dwylau mynwgyl idaw. A gwedy menegi o lud ystyr y neges yw vraut. ynteu a beris gwneithur corn hir mal y gellynt ymdidan drwy yr corn. val na chaffei y coranieit dim or gwynt yam yr ymadrawd. a rac gwybot eu hynny. A phan oed barawd y corn. ymdidan awnaethant. ac ny chaffei yr vn ygan y gilid onyd attep gochwerw. Ac yna adnabot o lyuelis yr vynet kythreuliaeth yny corn. apheri y olchi a gwin a oruc. ac o rinwed y gwin mynet y kythreul or corn. Ac yna y caussant ev hymadrawd yn iawn. Ac yna ymenegis llud y holl negesseu urth llyuelis y vraud.Fol. 33 Ac yna y dywaut llyuelis y rodei ef idaw y ryw bryuet. ac erchi idaw ev briwau mevn dwfyr gwedy y delei adref. a dyuynnu paub y gyt or a oed yny deyrnas. abwrw y dwuyr hwnnw yn gyffredyn ar y bobyl. ac ef a gadarnhaei y bydei varw y coranyeit. ac nad argywedei ar y bryttannyeit. Eil ormes a dyweist yw. dreic oc awch kenedil chwi. a dreic arall o ystrawn genedyl yssyt yn ymlad pob nos calanmei. aphob vn onadunt yn keisiaw goresgyn ar y gylid. aphan welo auch dreic chwi. y llall yn goresgyn arnei. yna ydyd hitheu o lid ydiaspat yngiriawl aglywch chwi. Allyma val y gelly di gwibot hynny yn wir. Pan delech adref par vessuraw yr ynys y hyt ay lled. a lle keffych y pwynt perued. par gladu yno pwll. agyssod kerwyn yn llawn or med goreu a geffir yny pwll hwnnw. adod llenn obali ar wyneb y gerwyn. a byd dy hwn yny gwyliau. athi ay gwely wynt yn ymlad yn aruthyr yn yr auwyr. ac yn bwrw tanllachar. pob vn ar ygilid. Agwedy y delwynt hyt pwynt perued or ynys. ny chilia yr vn onadunt rac y gilid. ac yno ybyd ymlad engiriaul ryngthunt. a gwedy blinwynt; wynt a ssyrthant yn rith deu borchell ar warthaf y llenn. ac asudant yllenn ganthunt. hyt ynguaelaut y gerwyn. ac yna gwedy y clywynt yn wlyb yn eu kylch. yued y med awnant. a bod yn vedw a chusgu.Fol. 33v Ac yna plycka ditheu y llenn yn ev kilch. Ac yny lle cadarnaf ageffych yth gyuoeth ac anyalaf ymevn kist vayn clad di wynt yn dwuyn yny dayar. hyt tra vythwynt yno. ny daw gormes arall wlat y dir ynys brydein.

E dryded gormes yw. gwr cadarn lledurithauc yssyt yn dwyn. dy vwyt ti ath lyn. drwy hut alleturith. ac abeir y baub gysgu. tra vo ef yn hynny. Ac urth hynny ymae reit ytt yth briaut berson dy hun. gwyliau dy darmerth ath arlwy. A rac goruod arnat o gysgu. bit kerwyn yn llawn o dwuyr oer ger dy lau a phan vo kysgu yn treissiau arnat; dos yr gerwyneit dwfyr. a phan welech dy gyfle ar y gwr ymdiala ac ef os mynne. A gwedy daruot ydunt ev ymdidaneu. llud a doeth y ynys brydein a dyvynnv attau y holl kyuoeth. abriwaw y pryuet mevn dwfyr mal yd erchys y vrawt idaw. A bwrw y dwfyr yn gyffredyn arnadunt. Ac yn diannot y bu varw y coranieit. heb argywedu ar ybryttannyeit. Ac ym penn yspeit gwedy hynny llud aberys messurau yr ynys y hyt ay lled. ac yn rydychen ycavas y pwynt perued. Ar lle hwnnw a beris ef y gla(du). agwneithur pob peth mal yd archadoed llyuelys y vraud idau. Ac yn wir ef awelas pob peth val y dywetpwyt urthau. A gwedy gwelet y dreigeu yn ssyrthiaw yny gerwyn achysgu. dynessau aoruc attadunt. Aphlygu y llenn yn ev kylch yn diogel. Ac yny lle cadarnaf ardiogelaf or ynys.Fol. 34 peri ev cladu yn dyfynder y dayar mevn kist vayn. yn erryri. lle gelwyt gwedy hynny dinas emreis. Ac y peidws y diaspat tymestlus o hynny allan. Ac odena llud a beris arlwiaw gwled dir vaur ymeint. A gwedy y bod yn barawt. gossot kerwyn yn llawn o dwfyr oer ger y lau a oruc. Ac ef ehvn yny briaud berson yny gwyliaw. Ac val y byd velly ef a glyw llawer o amrauaylion gerdeu yny gymell y gysgu. sef a oruc ynteu rac goruot o gysgu arnav mynet yr dwfyr oer yn vynych. Ac or diwed ef awelei gwr diruaur y veint ac arueu trum cadarn ymdanaw yn dyuot ymevn. a chawell ganthav. ac y megys y gnotaassei gynt yn dodi yr holl darmerth. o vwyt allynn yny cawell. ac yn cychwyn ymeith ac ef. A phan weles llud hynny. bwrw neit yny ol aoruc. ac yn wrd erchi idav arhos. a dywedud wrthav val hynn. kyt gwnelut ym golledev kyn no hyn; nyt ei bellach ony varn dy vilwriaeth dy vot yn drech no mi. Ac yntev ay arhoes ef attav a chreulon dyrnodieu a newidiassant. yny oed y tan yn ehedec or cledyfeu ac or arueu ereill. Ac or diwed ymavel yll deu. yn greulon ac yn gadarn. ac y damchweynws yr brenhin bwrw yr ormesswr y ryngthav ar daear. A gwedy goruot arnav o grym ac angerd; erchi y naud a oruc idav. trwy gedernyt yr brenhyn ennill ydaw y holl colledeu ry wnathoed idav erioed.Fol. 34v a bot yn wr fydlaun idaw o hynny allan. A hynny agymyrth y brenhin yganthau. ay dillwng ymeith. Ac velly y guaravt llud y teir gormes o ynys brydein. Ac o hynny hyt diwed y oes y gwledichaud yn hedwch dagnauedus. A gwedy y varw y kudiwyt y gorf ynghaer llundein ger llau y porth a elwir yng kymraec oy enw ef ehvn. yn borth llud. Ac yn saesnec ludysgate. Sef oed hynny gwedy diliw. dwy vil. a deu cant. aphedeir blyned. A deu vab hagen a oed idaw. nyd amgen avayrwy. atheneuan. ac wrth nad yttoedynt yn oedran y lywiav y deyrnas. y detholet caswallavn vab beli ev hewythyr wynt braud ev tad yn vrenhin ar ynys brydein.

A gwedy urdaw Caswallaun yn vrenhin. ef a ymrodes ywarder yn gymeint; hyt nat oed neb yn anvodlaun idav. acharu gwirioned a chyfyaunder a wnay. Ac yr yuot ef yn vrenhin. ny vynnei ef didymmv y neiynt or ynys. namyn rodi rann vaur ydunt. Sef y rodes y auarwy y nei. llundein ac yarllaeth keint. Ac a rodes y theneuan y nei y llall yarllaeth kernyw. Ac ynteu ehun yn vrenhin ar gwbyl. Ac yn yr amser (hvn[nw]) yd oed vlkessar amheraudyr Ruuein y(n) goresgyn yr ynyssoed a oed yn ev kylch. A gwedy goresgyn freinc o honav. ef adoeth hyt yn Rwiten. agwelet ynys a wnaeth kyuerbyn ac ef. ytu ar gorllewin. A govyn pa dir a welei yam ymor ac ef. Ac ydywat kyuarwyt idaw pan yw ynys brydein y gelwyt honno.Fol. 35 ac yna ymovin yn llwyr ystyr yr ynys ar bobil a oed yny gwledychu. A gwedi menegi idaw yn llwyr o bop peth or a ovynnaud. dywedut a oruc. llyna oc an kenedil ny gwyr ruvein. canys y ruvein y doeth eneas yn gyntaf o droya. ac awledychavd yr eidal. ef ay etiued yr hynny hyt hediw. ac wyr y eneas oed brutus y gur a oresgynnavt yr ynys honno gyntaf. a theb yw gennyfi na byd annavt ynny darystwng yr ynys honno y sened ruvein. canys yny mor ymaent heb wybot ryuelu na dwyn arueu ymlad. Ac yna anvon kennadeu a oruc vlkessar hyt ar gasswallavn y erchi idaw teyrnget a darystyngedigaeth y sened Ruuein; o ynys brydein. drwy ev bod ac ev kerennyd. rac y lauuriav ef ay lu. a goruot arnav ellwng gwaet bonhedigion o ynys brydein. ac ev kymell o nerth aruev. canys hanoedynt o vn waed a gwyr Ruuein. Amenegi nad oed gywilid ydunt bod yn drethaul y sened Ruuein; canys daroed ydunt darystwng holl ynyssoed or dwyrein hyt y gorllewin dieithyr ynys brydein y hvn. A gwedy gwibot o gaswallaun eu hadolwyn; yny gyghor y cafuas ev nackau ar gwbyl. a menegi ry ffo ev rieni rac dyborthi gethiwet o bob ynys hyt yn ynys brydein. ac am gaffel honno yn ryd y trigassant yndi. Ac o bei neb ageisiev dwyn ev ryddyt yarnadunt; wynt a geisieint yamdiffin

Fol. 35vos galleynt.

llythyr Caswallaun.

Caswallaun brenhin ynys brydein yn anvon y vlkessar. anryuet yv meint chwant gwyr ruuein o sychet eur ac areant hyt na allant an gadu yn hedwch ymperygleu gweilgioed odieithyr byt y diodef an gouyd hep ryuygu deissyuieit swllt arnam or lle auedassam ny yn ryd dagnauedus kyn no hyn. ac nyt dogyn ganthunt hynny. onyd gan dwyn an ryddit y genhym an gwneithur yn gaeth a gwneithur darystyngedigaed ydunt. Ac wrth hynny vlkessar gwaradwyd yv ytti de hun a ercheist. Pan llithro kyffredyn wythen boned y brytanieit a romanyeit. o eneas. ar vn gadwyn yn rwymau yr vn boned o gerennyd yr hon adylyei kyssyllu gadarn gedymeithas y ryngthunt. yr hon adylyeint wy y hadolwyn ynny ac nyt keithiwet. canys gnodach uu gennym rodi yn ryd noc arwein gwed geithiwet. canys kymeint y gordyfnassam ny ryddit ac nawdam vfydhau y geithiwet. aphetuei y dwyweu eu hunein a vedylynt dwyn an ryddit iarnam. ny alauuriem yw dwyn y ganthunt ac a wrthnebem ydunt yw attal o bop kyfriw lauur ac y gallem. Ac wrth hynny bid hyspys yth aruaeth di vlkessar yn bot ny yn baraud y ymlad dros an ryddit an teyrnas o deuwy di y ynys brydein mal y bygythy. A gwedy gwybot o vlkessar atteb y brytanyeit ac ystyr eu llythyr gorthrum oed ganthau hynny. apheri kyweiriau llynges idaw hep olud y dyuot y ynys brydein. a phan oed baraut y llynghes. wynt a doethant hyt yn aber temys. Ac yn eu herbyn wynteu y doeth. Caswallaun.Fol. 36 a Nynnyau y vraut. a Beli y ben teulu. ac Auarwy y nei twyssauc lundein. a theneuan Jarll kernyw. Caradauc brenhyn yr alban. Guerthaed brenhin gwynet. Brithael brenhin brenhin dyuet. ac eu lluoed. Agwedy eu dyuot hyt ynggastell doral. wynt a welynt ev gelynnyon yn pebylliaw ar ytraeth. Ac yn eu kynghor y caussant kyrchu gwyr Ruuein heb olud. ac ymlad yn wychyr ac wynt. a llad lluossogrwyd o bob tu. ac yn yr ymlad hwnnw y kyuaruu Nynnyau ac vlkessar. a da oed gan nynnyau hynny. canys ry glywssei milwriaeth vlkessar ay glot kyn no hynny. Agwedy newidiau dyrnodieu creulon onadunt. hagyr oed gan vlkessar gwrthnebu ydaw kyhyt ahynny. ac oe holl nerthoed dyrchauel y gledyf a oruc acheisieu nynnyau ar yben. ay derbynnieit ohonav ynteu ar y daryan. yny lynavd y cledyf yny daryan ac yny ben. Ac ny allaud ef y dynnv rac tewet y bydioned yn ymgymysgu. A gwedy caffel o nynnyau y cledyf ny sauei neb y dyrnot ef. Ac yna y kyuaruu ef a Labienus iarll. ac y lladaud ef hwnnw. Ac yna y llas gwyr Ruuein canmwiaf. val y gellit kerdet ar y calaned heb ssenghi ar y daear deng hyt tir arugeint. Ac y foas vlkessa(r) yw longheu yn waradwydus ac obreid y dienghis ef yr mor. Aphan gygleu gwyr freinc hynny wynt a vynnessynt y wrthlad odyno. am glywed bot llongheu Caswallaun ar hyt y mor yn ev hymlyd. Sef a oruc ynteu yna egori y eur dy lle ydoed ysswllt a rody aneirif o honau y dywyssogyon freinc.Fol. 36v a rodi ryddid y baub or a oed yngkethiwet kyn no hynny. ac val hynny y tagnauedaud gwyr freinc. A gwedyr uudugoliaeth honno y doeth caswallaun hyt yn llundein ay gyduarchogion gyd ac ef. y wneithur arwylant yr dwyweu. Ac yny pymthecuet dyd y bu varw nynnyau or dyrnaut ar y ben. ac y cladwyt ef y gerllau porth y goglet ay gledyf gyd ac ef. ac angheu coch y gelwyd y gledyf. sef achos oed pwy bynnac a anweyttit arnau marw vydei. Ac vn yr amser hwnnw y gwnaeth vlkessar castell odnea. rac damchweyniau eilweith y wrthlad o wyr freinc; val y mynessynt kyn no hynny. A phan oed baraud y castell. ymphen y dwy vlyned. kynullau llu a oruc vlkessar y dyuot y dial y sarhaet a caussei gynt yn ynys brydein gan y brytannieit. Aphan gigle caswallaun hynny peri aoruc plannv polyon heyern kyffref a mwrdwid gwr ar hyt canaul temys ford y deuwey y llongheu. Ac yn dirybud y doeth llynghes vlkessar am ben y polyon. ac y rwygassant ac y bodassant ar vilioed onadunt. ar niver a allws kyrchu yr tir wynt ay kyrchassant. Ac yn ev herbyn y doeth caswallaun a holl ieuengtyt ynys brydein ac ymlad yn wychyr creulon ac wynt. ac yna y bu aerua vaur o bobparth. ac eysswys caswallaun agauas y uudugoliaeth. a gyrru vlkessar ar fo hyt yn trayth moryan. ac yna yd aeth hyt yngkastell odnea yr honn a berys ef ehvn ygwneithur gynt rac ovyn y elynion.Fol. 37 Agwedy caffel o caswallaun y uudugoliaeth llawen uu ganthau. a guahaud y holl twyssogyon gyd ac ef hyt yn llundein. ac yna gwneithur gwlet ydunt yn enrydedus. ac aberthu yr dwyweu deudengmil o warthec. a chanmil o deueyt. ac o adar ny ellit ev rif dieithyr dengmil arugeint o amrauaylion genedloed coydolyon bwystuilet. a gwedy daruot aberthu oc ev gwedillion y kymerassant wyntteu mal y gnotteit yr amser hvnnv yny ryv aberthu hynny. or a dianghei or nos ardyd ganthunt. wynt ay treuleynt drwy amrauaylion dygrifwch a gwaraeu. Ac y damchweinws y deu was yeuweinc arderchauc. nyd amgen hirlas nei yr brenhyn. a chuelyn nei y auarwy. daruot ryngthunt yn guareu palet. ac yny daruot hwnnw y lladaud kuelyn. hirlas. ac o hynny y doeth kynnwrf maur yny llys. ac y llidiws y brenhin dieithyr mod. acheisiau caffel nei auarwy wrth varn y lys ef. Aphedrus oed gan auarwy hynny canys na wydyat ewyllys y brenhin. yw nei. Adywedud pob ryw gam or a wnelid o veun y deruyneu yr ynys; ymae yn llundein y dylehit gwneithur yaun amdanau. ac ynteu paraut oed y hynny. nyd hynny a vynnei yr brenhin; namyn caffel cuelyn yny ewyllys ef. nyd oed haud gan aua rwy hynny can ny wydiat peth oed y ewyllys.Fol. 37v Ac adaw llys y brenhin a oruc auarwy rac bod kenthach a vei vwy; achyrchu y gyuoeth ehvn ay nei gyd ac ef. Agwedy gwybod or brenhyn hynny; kwynau wrth hynny o dwyssogion a oruc. ry adaw o auarwy y lys heb y ganyat. a dwyn y gwr ry ladassei ynei ganthau. Ac yny gynghor y cauas mynet yny ol ef ay lu. a diua y gyuoeth yn llwyr o dan a hayarn. Agwedy gwybot o auarwy hynny anvon ar y brenhin aoruc y eruynneit dangneued ay drugaret. Ay nackau idau yntteu ar gwbyl. Agwedy gwybod hynny o auarwy medylyau a oruc pa furfy y galley ef gwrthnebu yr brenhin. Ac yny gynghor y cauas anvon ar ulkessar y ervyn idau dyuot hyt yn ynys brydein yn ganorthwy ydav; ac ynteu agadarnhae ydarystynghei ynys brydein idau. llythyr auarwy. Auarwy vab llud yn anvon annerch y vlkessar. a dywedud idau ual hynn. mi avvm gynt yn damunau angheu vlkessar. ac ydwyf weithion yn damunau bywyt a iechyt idau. ac ediuar yw gennyf vot yth erbyn tra vvm. ac weithion my auydaf dyhun athi. ac am allu o gaswallaun valch dy yrru dy dwyweith o ynys brydein. ymae ym digyuoythi ynneu om kyuoeth weithion. a mynneu a dylywn kystal ac ef o ynys brydein. a myui a wm canorthwy wr ydau ef ar y uot yn vrenhin. ac ef a rodet yny llythyr ystyr ydaruot ual y buassei oll. ac am hynny arglwyd ydwyfi yth wediau di am nerth y gennyt y ymgynnal ym kyuoeth.Fol. 38 athrwof vi arglwyd y keffy di ettwa vot yn bennaf ar ynys brydein. ac nac amheu arglwyd no bo gwir y llythyr hwnn; canys nat oes yndau nathwill na brat. ac o dwill abrat yd aruer y rei marwawl wedy na allwynt amgen. Ac yn gedernyt ar hynny anvon a oruc kynan y vab a dengwystyl arugeint o veibion dyledogyon yam hynny. Ac yna y cauas vlkessar yny gynghor gyweiriau llynghes adyuot hyt ym porth rwytun. Ac yny erbyn ynteu y doeth auarwy yw derbynnyeit yr tir. Ac yn yr amser yd oed caswallaun ay lu yn ymlad a chaer llundein. A gwedy clywet o gaswallaun dyuodyat vlkessar y ynys brydein; ymgyweiriau a oruc a dyuot yny erbyn. a phan doeth y mevn glynn yn agos y gaer geint. wynt a welynt pebyllieu gwyr ruuein yn agos attadunt. ac yna y bu girat gwyn gan gaswallaun. am welet ev gelynyon mor hy arnadunt ac yd oedynt. Ac yn ev kynghor y caussant kyrchu gwyr ruuein yn wraul. ac yna y bu aerua vaur o bop parth. ac or diwed lluossogrwyd gwyr ruuein a yrraud y brytanyeit y ben mynyt vchel. ac wynt a gatwassant pen ymynyd hwnnw arnadunt yn wraul. a llad lluossogrwyd o wyr ruuein. A phan weles gwyr ruuein na thygyei ydunt keisiau pen y mynyd yar y brytanyeit. wynt a gaffant yn ev kynghor amgilchynu y mynyd ac ev guarchay yno yny vythynt veyriw o newyn.Fol. 38v Agwedy ev bod uelly deu dyd a dwy nos heb na bwyt na diaut. gwelet o gaswallaun nat oed ford ydyuot odyno onyd trwy angheu creulon. nev varw o newyn. Anvon aoruc ar auarwy y nei. y ervyn idau gwneithur y dagneued ac vlkessar. Ac yna anryuedu yn vaur a oruc auarwy am hynny. a dywedut. pan yw ryued oed yr gwr. a vydei oen yn ryuel. a llew yn hedwch dryc anyanu wrth neb. Ac eyswys ef a doeth ar vlkessar a dywedud wrthau val hyn. Arglwyd heb ef my a edeweis ytti darystynghedigaeth o ynys brydein. A llyma hynny ytti arglwyd. gan gadel y gaswallaun y urenhiniaeth ev gynal yn danat titheu. drwy rodi pob blwydyn teyrnget y sened ruuein. A gwedy gwarandau o vlkessar; gwrthwyneb oed ganthau hynny. A gwedy gwelet o auarwy hynny. dywedut a oruc wrthau. arglwyd heb ef kyd addawn ytti darystynghedigaeth ynys brydein. nyd edeweysi itti distriw vynghenedyl nac ev diua. ac ny wnaethant o drwc ar ny allwynt y dywygu. Ar hynn a edeweys ytti llymma hynny os mynny. onys mynny; ny chytssynnafi adistriw vynghenedil nac ev diva. A gwedy gweled ovlkessar atteb auarwy; drwy y gynghor ynteu rodi a oruc ef dagneued y gaswallaun. drwy rodi o gaswallaun o ynys brydein pob blwydyn teir mil o bvnnoed o aryant. yn deyrnged y ssened ruuein. Agwedy cadarnhau yr amodeu hynny ryngthunt. wynt adoethant ygyd hyt yn llundein.Fol. 39 ac yna y trigassant y gayaf hwnnw y gyd. Ar gwannwyn rac llau yd aeth vlkessar hyt yn ruuein. ac auarwy gyd ac ef. yn erbyn pompus y gwr a oed yn kynnal yr amherodraeth yn yr amser hwnnw. sef oed hynny. dwy vil. a deu cant ac ugeint mlyned gwedy diliw. Ac y trigaud caswallaun yn gwledychu ynys brydein seith mlyned gwdy hynny yn hedwch dagnauedus. Sef y gwledychaud ef o gwbyl. teir blyned arugeint. ac yna y bu varw. ac y cladpwyt ef yngkaer eurauc. Sef oed hynny gwedy diliw.

A gwedy caswallaun y doeth Teneuan vab llud yarll kernyw yn vrenhyn. ac awledychaud yn hedwch dagnauedus. pedeir blyned arbympthec. ac yna y bu varw. gwedy diliw.

A gwedy teneuan ydoeth kynuelyn vab teneuan yr hwnn a vagassei vlkessar. a rac meint y carei ef gwyr ruuein kyd gallei ef dwyn ev teyrnget; ef nys dygei. Ac yny amser ef yganet yessu grist. ar nos yganet y ssyrthiaud statua gwyr ruuein. yr hwn awnaythessyt yngkaer ruueyn. o aniffic kyureynrwyd. adywedud na ssyrthei yr arwyd hwnnw. yny enit mab y vorwyn wyry. Ar dyd hwnnw yr ymdywynnygaud kylch o eur lliw yngkylch yr heul. Ac or achos hwnnw ydoeth holl doethyon y dinas y gyd y ymgynghor ay dewinion. Ac yna y dywedassant geni y brenhin a barhaei y dyrnas tragwydolder. Ac ydoed augustus cesar yn gwledychu gwlad ruuein (yn) yr amser hwnnw.Fol. 39v ereill ay galwei yn octauus. Ac herodes antipatri yn gwlad Judea. y gwr creulon aladaut y meibion yn keisieu yessu grist. Amgilch y bedwared vlwydyn gwedy geny crist; y ganet Jeuwan euengyliwr. y bymhet vlwydyn y doeth Jessu or eiff hyt yn galilee dracheuyn. ac yna y gwnaeth y seith lyn or llwch adwyn dwuyr o eurdonen yr llynnyeu. ac or llynnyeu yr auon dracheuyn. y chwechet ulwydyn y bu varw herot greulon. a maria y wreic. ay drimeib. nyd amgen. alexander. aristobolus. ac antipater. drwy heint dybryt rwng kic achroyn. y gyuody yn gornoydeu achrach. ar rey hynny yn llawn o gynron aphryuet. y seithuet vlwydyn yd aeth Jessu yr israel. yr wythuet ulwydyn y blodeuaud ruuein yn amser. Salustius. Terencius. Oracius. ar rei doethaf or doeithion. y nawuet ulwydyn y dywat feryll am gnawdoliaeth crist. ac am newydhau kenedyloyd nef. Ac yny decuet ulwydyn y ganet mab y kynuelyn a elwyt gwydyr. Ac yn yr vnvet ulwydyn ardec. y ganet mab arall idaw. a elwyt gweiryd. y deudecuet vlwydyn. y kat Jessu yn y dempyl ymplith y doethion yn gwarandau gorchestion. ac yn ev gouyn. y drydet vlwydyn ardec y bu varw augustus cesar. yr hwnn a elwyt octauianus amheraudyr ruuein. y bedwared vlwydyn ardec. y gwnaethbwyd. Tiberius yn amheraudyr yn ruuein. yr vnved ulwydvn arbymthec y gwnaythpwyt hero des antipas yn arglwyd ar bedwared ran o galilee.Fol. 40 y deu nawued vlwydyn y bu Ouyd. a naso. yn ynys pont. yngkethywet. y seithuet vlwydyn arugeynt y gwnaethpwyt Pilatus o ynys pont yn procurator yngwlat Judea. y decvet vlwydyn arugeynt. yewan vab Zacarie a pregethavd am vedyt. ac a vedydiaut Jessu grist. yr hwnn a ymprydiavt deugeynt nyheu. a deugeynt nos yny diffeith. ac abrouet y gan y kythreul. yr vnvet vlwydyn ardec arugeynt. y porthet yessu gryst. ar y neithiavr pan drossas y dwvyr yn wyn. Deudecuet vlwydyn arugeynt o oed crist y carcharwyt yewan vedydwr. ac y llas y ben o wedi Merch herodiadis. Trydet vlwydyn ardec arugeynt. ydiodefavd crist. ac a gyuodes o varw. ac a ysgynnavt yr nefoed. Pedweryd vlwydyn ardec arvgeynt Jacobus vab alphei awnaethpwyt yn escop ynghaerusalem ygan yr ebestyl yd vrdwyt. Ac y gossodes pedyr epostol y gadeyr yn yr antioch. Pymthecuet vlwydyn arugeynt. yllebydywt styphan verthyr a meyn. Ac y trosset pawl epostol y gret ar y ford yn mynet y damascum. Ac y bu varw Cassius doeth o wall. hyt nad oed o dillat diwarth ay kudyey. Vnvet vlwydyn ar bymthec arugeynt gwedy geny crist. yganet percius doeth. Ac y dalpwyt herodes agrippa ney i herodiadis. y gan tiberius amherawdyr rvveyn ac yno y carcharwyd ef. yr eyl vlwydyn ar bymthec arvgeynt y bu varw Tiberius amheravdyr. Ac y doeth Gaius yn amheraudyr yn rvueyn gwedy ef.Fol. 40v a hwnnw a gymyrth herodes yn gyfrynachwr ydav. ac ay dilyfravd o garchar. ac arodes ydav teyr ran o wlad iudea. ac a wnaet y alw yn vrenhyn. y pedwared y vlwydyn arbymthec arugeynt yd erchys Gaius y enrededu megys duw. ac y gorchmynnavd y petronius brenhyn sirie gwneythur y delw ef ay yssot yn temphyl caerussalem ev henrydedu or ydeon. ac nys llauassaut petronius hynny rac y ideon. y Deugeynvet vlwydyn y bu Matheus yn yscryuennv yr evengylyev yngwlat Judea. Tryded vlwydyn adeugeynt o oed crist y bu varw kynuelyn. ac y digwydws y deyrnas yn llaw gwydyr y vab.

A gwedy urdav Gwydyr yn vrenhyn ymgadarnhau yny gyuoeth a oruc ac attal teyrnget gwyr ruveyn. A gwedy y vot velly pedeir blyned ardec. y doeth Gloywkessar amheradyr rvueyn. nev Claudius. o ieith arall. a llu mavr ygyt ac ef. hyt yn ynys brydeyn. Agwedy ev dyuot yr tir. wynt a gyrchassant caer beris. ac ymlat ar gaer yn wychyr creulon. Agwedy gwelet nathygyev ydunt ymlad ar gaer. Cau perth y dinas a orugant a mvr maen ygeyssyav gwarchae y nyver aoed ymewn yny vythynt veyriw o newyn. A gwedy gwybot o gwydyr hynny kyweyriav y lu aoruc a dyuot hyt yno. Ac ymlad vn wychyr creulon agwyr ruveyn aoruc. a mwy aladey ef ehvn onadunt. noc aladey yran vwyaf oy lu. A gwedy gwelet ohamon dwyllwr adysgassey yeith ygan y gwystlon o ynys brydeyn yngwlat ruveyn gynt. Milwriaet achreulonder gwydyr wrth gwyr ruveyn.Fol. 47 a gwybot ony ellyt gwrthnebu idav ylladey y vreich deheu ef gormod oc ev niveroed wyntthwy. A bwrw a oruc hwnnw y arveu ehvn yamdanav. achymryt arveu vn or bryttanyeit ry ledessit ymdanav. achyrchu ymplith y bydinoed yn rith vn or bryttanyeit. aphan gafas kyflwr llad pen gwydyr aoruc. a llithrav drwy vn athrwy arall yny doeth hyt ar ywyr ehvn. ac yna bwrw y aruev aoruc; achymryt yr eidav ehvn. lvij.

A gwedy gwelet o Gweiryd rylad gwydyr y vravd. diot yaruev a oruc yntev. achymryt aruev y vravd ymdanav. ac ymlad yn greulon. ac annoc y llv yn wravl agvasgaru gwyr ruveyn ac ev llad ac ev kymell ar fo. Ac yna y foas hamon ar ran mwyaf or llu ygyd ac ef hyt ymporth hamont. ac yno kyn kael o honav y llongheu y llas hamon. ar niver afoas y gyd ac ef. Ac odena y doeth gweiryt hyt ym porth cestyr lle yd oed Gloyukessar ay lu yn ymlad argaer. ac yna y gelwyd caer beris. A phan welas y niver a oed yny gaer y bryttannyeit yn dyuot. Wynt a doethant allan or gaer ac ymlat yn wychyr ac wynt. a llad lluossogrwyd obobparth. Ac eysswys rac amlet gwyr rvueyn. wynt aorvvant yna. ac yd enhyliassant y gaer. A gyrru fo ar gweiryd hyt yngaer wynt. Ac yno y doeth gloukessar ay lu amgylch y gaer. a mynnv ev gwarchae y mewn yny vythynt veiriw o newyn. Aphan welas gweiryd hynny; kyweyriav y lu a oruc a dyuot allan. A gwedy gwelet o gloyukessar awyd y bryttannyeit ac ev creulonder:Fol. 41v anvon a oruc attadunt ygeisiav tagneved ganthunt. Ac yndiannot ygwnaythpwyt ydagneved ryngthunt yna. Ac y rodes gloyukessar y verch aoed yn rvveyn yn wreicka y weiryd y gadarnhau y dangneved. Agwedy bot yn dvhvn y ryngthunt. o ganhorthwy y bryttannyeit ygoresgynhassant ynyssoet orc ar kyt ynyssoed a oed yn y chylch. Agwedy llithraw y gayaf heibiav y doeth y vorwyn o Ruveyn adiaireb oed yphryt. Ac yny lle y kysgws gweiryd genthi; y gwnaeth gloywkessar dynas. ar lan hafren yntervyn kymre alloygyr. ac ay gelwys oy henw ef ehun yn gaer loyw o hynny allann. Agwedy gwastathau yr ynyssoed o honav ac ev gvelet yn hedychaul; ef aaeth Gloyukessar hyt yn ruveyn. ac adaw llywodraeth ynys brydeyn yn llav gweiryd y dav gan yverch. A gwedy y vynet ef ymmeith; ny bu hayach o amser yny gymyrth gweiryd balchter a ryuic yndav ac attal teyrnget gwyr ruveyn. Agwedy menegi hynny y sened ruveyn. anvon aorugant vaspasian a llu mavr y gyd ac ef y gymhell ev teyrnget o ynys brydeyn. A gwedy ev dyuot hyt ym porth rutupi. Ef a doeth gweiryd ay lu yn ev herbyn. ac ev lludias yr tir. Sef awnaethant wyntev trossi ev hwyleu a disgynnv ym porth totneys. A gwedy ev dyuot yr tir kyrchu caer penhwylcoet a orugant ac ymlad a hi. A gwedy gwybot or brenhyn hynny kyweiriav y lu a oruc ytu ac yno. ar seithuet dyd y doeth ef hyt yno ay lu; achyrchu gwyr ruveyn aoruc ac ymlad yn wychyr creulon ac wynt.Fol. 42 a llad llawer o boptu y dyd hwnnw. yny wahanavt y nos y vrwydyr. Athrannoeth y bore ymgyrchu aorugant. A rac amlet gwyr ruveyn; annavt oed chwedyl wrthunt. Ac yno y doeth y vrenhines ac awnaeth tagnedved y ryngthunt. Agwedy hedychu yryngthunt y gyd y doethant hyt yn llundeyn. ac yno ytrygassant y gayaf hwnnw y gyt. ac anvon ev kyt varchogyon hyt yn iwerdon y ev goresgyn. Ac yn yr amser hwnnw yd oed Nero yn amheraudyr yn ruveyn. adan yr hwn y diodefavt pedyr a phaul merthyroliaeth yn ruveyn. A hwnnw gvedy hynny aberys llosgi ruveyn. o chwant welet tan mawr. Ac yr hynny hyt hedyw y mae llawer yn diffeyth o honey. ac ny byd kyuanned byth. Agwedy mynet y gayaf heybiav; ef aaeth vaspasian yruveyn. Ac y trigws gweiryd yn gwledychu ynys brydeyn yn vuchedavl hyt yn dywet yoes. Agwedy y varw y cladpwyt ef yngkaerloyw yny demyl ry wnathoed Gloyukessar yr enrydet ydav kyn no hynny. Sef oed hynny. lxx. o oed crist.

A gwedy gweiryd y doeth Meuric y vab yntev yn vrenhyn ar ynys brydeyn. Ac yn oes hwnnw y doeth Rodric brenhyn y ffychtieit o ssithia. allynges ganthaw hyt yr alban. a goresgyn yr alban aoruc. Agwedy gwybot or brenhyn hynny; kynullau llu aoruc a dyuot yn ev herbyn. ac ymlad acwynt yn wraul. ac ev kymell ar fo gan ev llad. Ac yny fo hwnnw yllas Rodric achan mwyaf y lu.Fol. 42v arhyn a dienghys or wasgaredic llu. wynt aymrodassant yn geith yr brenhyn yr caffel ev heneydev. Ac yntev arodes ydunt ran or alban y presswyliav yndy. Agwedy ychyvanhedu onadunt. wynt a doethant ar y bryttannyeit y ervynnyeit ev merchet yn wreickae ydunt. Ac nyt oed deylwg gan y bryttannyeit dywediev ev merchet ar alltudion arall wlat. heb wybot o ba genedyl yd hanoedynt. ac wynt yn alltudyon ydunt heuyd. Ac am hynny ev nackau ar gwbyl aorugant. A gwedy ev nackau wynt a aethant hyt yn ywerdon achymryt y gwydellesseu yn wraget ydunt. ac or rey hynny yd hiliws yr yscottieit yr hynny hyt hediw. A gwedy darvot y veuryc llvnnyethu yr ynys honn drwy dagneved. ef arodes ev teyrnget y wyr Ruvein. Ac yn yr amser hwnnw yd oed Galba. ac octo. a vitellus. yn amherotdron yn Ruvein. Ac ylladavt vaspasianus. a titus y vab. galba. ar vitellus. ac agymyrth vaspasianus yr amherodraeth yn eidav ehvn. A gwedy gwledychu o veuric val y dywetpwyt vchot. ef a gossodes kyfreithev newyd yny gyuoeth. ac ay traythws yn hedwch dagnavedus tra vv vew.

A gwedy meuric y doeth Coel y vab yntev yn vrenhyn. a hwnnw a vegessyt yn Ruveyn. arac meynt y carey ef gwyr rvueyn; kyt galley ef dwyn ev teyrnget racdunt nys dygey. Ac yny oes ef ydaeth titus vab vaspasian y gaerusalem. ac ay goresgynavd hy. ac aladavt rwg newyn ac ymladev dec can mil or paganyeit. Ac ef a werthavd onadunt can Mil. dec arugeynt yr pob keynyavc. yndydiev y pasch.Fol. 43 am brynv onadunt wy yessu grist yr dec arugeynt. o ariant. Agwedy gwledychu o Coel yn hedwch dagnavedus ar ynys brydeyn tra vv vew. y bu varw.

A gwedy coel y doeth Lles vab coel yn vrenhin ac vn annwydev oed hwnnw ay dad. A gwedy ymgadarnhau o honaw yny gyuoeth. ef a anvones hyt yn Ruveyn ar eleuterius pab y ervynneit ydav anvon dysgyaudyr o gristionagavl fyt val y galley yntev credu ygrist drwy dysc y rei hynny ac ev pregeth. Ac yntev a anvones deu dysgiaudyr. nyt amgen. dwywan. afagan. Ar rei hynny a bregethws ydav dyuodeat grist yn ghnavt. Ac ay gollchassant ef or lan fynhavn vedyd. Ac yn dihohir ef a berys bedydiaw pavb gwedy yntev. Ac yna y rodes ef y templev aoed aberthedic yr gevdwywev. yw kyssegru yn henw yr hollgyvoethauc duw. ay seynt. A gossot yndunt amravaylion vrdolion yev kyvanhedu. Ac y dalu dwywawl wassanaeth y duw. Ac yn yr amser hwnnw y gwnaethpwyt wyth escobty arvgeynt yn ynys brydein. A thri archescobty yn bennyad[ur] ar y lleyll. Ac yn y tri dinas bonhed[ic]kaf or ynys yd oed y tri archescopty. nyt amgen llundein. a chaer evravc. a chaer llion ar wysc. Aphan rannwyt yr escoptey y ryngthunt. wrth caer evrauc y perthynws deyvyr a bryneich ar goglet oll. mal y gwahana hvmyr y wrth lloegyr. Ac y archescop ty llvndein y parthwyt lloegyr achernyw val y keidyw haffren ar dwy archescobavt ereill.Fol. 43v Ac y archescopty caer llion kemre oll adan ythervynev. Ac yny amser ef yd oed. Titus. a domicianvs. a Nerua. a Traianus. ac Adrianus. yn amherodron yn ruvein. Achyd galley lles attal ev teyrnget. ef nys mynney. namyn achwanegu rodyon yr eglwyssev o dir adaear a da arall tra vv veyw. Ac o weithret da pwy gylid yn caer loyw ytervynws y uuched. ac yn yr eglwys pennaf or dinas y clatpwyt ef. yn yr vnvet vlwydyn ar bymthec a deugeynt achant gwedy dyuot crist ynghnavd.

A gwedy nad oed etivet y lles. ef a gyuodes kywdawdawl dervysc y rwng y bryttannyeit a gwyr Ruvein. Ac ohynny gwanhav o wyr rvvein yn vawr. Agwedy menegi hynny y sened ruvein. wynt ahanvonassant Seuerus senedwr a dwy leng o wyr ymlad ganthaw hyt yn ynys brydein. Agwedy ev dyuot yr ynys. wynt a oresgynnassant y ran mwyaf or bryttanyeit. Aran arall onadunt a foassant dros deivyr abryneich A sulien yn dywyssavc arnadunt. Amynych ymgyrchu a vydei y ryngthunt. A gorthrum oed gan yr amherawdyr hynny. A pheri a oruc gwneithur clawd dwfyn y rwg deiuyr ar alban o gyffredyn dreul or mor pwy gilyd. val y bei haws gwrthwynebu yr bryttannyeit. Ac yna goresgyn yr ynys arnadunt o wir pwnc. Agwedy gwelet o sulien na thygiey ydaw ymlad ac wynt. yny gyghor y cavas vynet hyt yn ssithia y geisiaw nerth odeno.Fol. 44 canys odena yd hanoed yr yscottieit. ac wynt yn wyr y sulien. Agwedy y dyuot yno ef a gavas holl yevhengtyt yr ynys honno; ac a doeth hynny ygyt ac ef hyt yn ynys brydeyn. achyrchu caer evravc aorugant. ac ymlad yn wychyr ar gaer. A gwedy mynet y chwedyl dros wyneb y dyrnas y ran mwyaf or bryttannyeit a ymadaussant ar amheraudyr. ac adoethant ar sulyen. A gwedy gwybot o seuerus hynny kynullav aoruc y holl allu adyuot amben sulien ac ymlad ac ef yn wychyr creulon. Ac yn yr ymlad hwnnw y brathwyt sulien yn angheuawl. Ac y llas seuerus ac y clatpwyt ynghaer efravc. cant Mlyned ac vn a thrugeint o oed crist.

A deu vab a edewys idaw. bassian. a geta. A mam y geta ahanoed o rvuein. A mam y bassian a hanoed o ynys brydeyn. A gwedy marw ev tat y kymyrth gwyr ruvein Geta yn vrenhyn arnadunt achos hanvot y vam o rvuein. Ac y kymyrth ybryttannyeit Bassian yn vrenhyn arnadunt wyntev. achos hanvot y vam yntev o ynys brydein. Ac o hynny kynydu tervysc yrwg y brodyr. a gossot oed kyfranc rwg y pleydiev. ac yn y kyfranc hwnnw y llas y geta. ac y kymyrth y bassian y vrenhynyaeth yn eidaw ehvn. c.lxiii. o oed crist. oed yna.

A gwedy kymryt o bassian cwbyl or ynys yn eidaw ehvn. yd oed yn yr amser hwnnw yn hanvot o ynys brydein gwas yeuanc clot vawr caraun oed y henw.Fol. 44v ac o genedyl issel yr hanoed. Agwedy ybrovi mevn llawer o gyfragheu calet medyliav aoruc mynet y tu a ruvein y geisiav gossymdeith gan senedwyr ruvein yr y wassanaeth. Agwedy ydyuot hyt yn ruvein ervynneit aoruc y senedwyr ruvein cannyat ywarchadw ynys brydeyn ar longheu rac ystrawn genedloed. Ac adaw anheirif o da yr hynny. Agwedy kymryt kynghor onadunt. wynt arodassant canneat idaw. gan ammot nat argywedei ef ar neb o ynys brydein yr hynny. Agwedy ymgadarnhau hynny y ryngthunt. Caraun adoeth adref. ac a gynullawd holl kedernyt ynys brydeyn gyd ac ef ar longheu. Ac a gyrchassant y amryuailion draethev. ac y amryuaelion borthlodoed. A gwneythur kynhwrf a threis achribdeil ar yr ynyssoed a oed yn ev kylch. gan ev hanreithiaw allad allosgi. A phaub or a garei treis alledrat achribdeil a deuwei attaw. yny oed gymeynt y niver; ac nat oed arnaw ovyn neb. A dwyn o da a goludoed yr ynys hon hyt na alley neb y adrawd. Agwedy gwelet pob peth yn kynnydu racdaw; anvon a oruc hyt ar y bryttanyeit y erchi ydunt y wneithur ef yn vrenhyn arnadunt. Ac ynteu agymerey arnaw y distrywiei gwyr ruvein o ynys brydein. ac ay rydhae wynt o bop ryw gaethiwet or a oed arnadunt o barthret ystrawn genedloed. Agwedy kymryt kynghor or bryttanyeit. agwelet na wnathoed Caraun dym or drwc y neb o ynys brydeyn eryoed; onyt a allavd o da. ac adaw idaw y gymryt yn vrenhin arnadunt.Fol. 45 o gallei ef ev hamdiffyn rac gormes ystrawn genedyloed. A gwedy gwybot o Caraun attep y bryttanyeit. ef adoeth a llu mawr ganthaw. Ac yny erbyn yntev ydoeth bassian ay lu yntev o wyr ruvein ar fichtieit. ac ymlad yn llidiawc creulon o bop parth. ac yn yr ymlad hvnnw y trossassant y fichtieit gyd charaun yn erbyn bassian. ac ymlat ac ef aorugant ay lad. A ffo owyr ruveyn heb wybot pale. can ny wydynt pwy a oed yn ev herbyn. na phwy nyd oed.

A gwedy caffael o Caraun y vwdygoliaeth drwy vrat y fichtieit ef arodes ydunt yr alban. ac yno ymaent yr hynny hyt hediw. A gwedy menegy hynny y senedwyr ruvein. ry lad o caraun bassian. ac ymdyrchauel ehvn yn vrenhin. ac attal teyrnget gwyr ruvein. gorthrwm y gymerassant arnadunt hynny. Ac anvon Alectus senedwr atheir lleng o wyr ymlat y gyt ac ef hyt yn ynys brydeyn. Ac yn ev herbyn wyntev y doeth Caraun ay lu ac ymlat ac wynt yn wychyr creulon; allad llawer o boptu. arac amlet gwyr ruvein. nyd oed havd yr bryttannyeit ymherbynnyeit ac wynt. Ac yn yr ymlad hwnnw y llas caraun agwneithur dirvavr dymhestyl ar bryttannyeit. gan ev llad ac ev diva heb drugared.

A gwedy ymdyrchauel o Alectus yn vrenhyn drwy y greulonder. gorthrwm oed gan y bryttannyeit hynny. A dethol a orugant Asclepiodotus iarll kernyw yn vrenhin arnadunt. A mynet am ben alectus hyt yn llundein lle yd oed yn yr amser hwnnw yn gwneythur gwylua yr tatdolyon dwyweu.Fol. 45v A gwedy menegi yr pagan creulon hynny. ymadaw a oruc ac aberthu achyrchu y bryttanyeit. ac ymlad yn wychyr creulon ac wynt. Ac yna y bu aerua vaur o bop tu. Ac or diwed gwasgaru gwyr ruvein a fo. ac ev hymlit a oruc ybryttanyeit: allad llawer o vilioed onadunt. Ac yna y llas alectus ev brenhyn. Sef a oruc lellius gallus kedymdeith y alectus. cahu pyrth dinas llundein arnadunt. acheisiaw ymgadw ymevn. Sef a wnaeth asclepiodotus ar bryttanyeit amgilchynv y gaer ar dinas. Ac anvon ar holl tywyssogion ynys brydeyn y venegy ev bod wynt yn eisted wrth caer llundeyn. Ac erchi y bawb onadunt dyvot yn gyttuhvn yn borth ydunt. Ac yr dyvyn hwnnw y doeth y deheuwyr. ar gwyndyt. a gwyr deivyr abryneich. a gwyr yr alban. Agwedy ev dyvot ygyt ymron y gaer. kyrchu aoruc paub y gaer herwyd y wrhydri. a briwaw yr mvroed amynet ymevn. athrwydunt athrostunt. heb kymryt kystlwn gan wyr ruvein onyd ev llad yn olofrud. Aphan welas gwyr ruvein hynny. dyuot aorugant hyt ger bron ybrenhin. ac erchi nawd y ev heneidiev. ac ev gillwng yn vew yw gwlat. A thra yttoed y brenhin yn kymryt kynghor am hynny. y kyuodes gwyr gwyned a bydinaw arlan nant. achyrchu gwyr ruvein. a llad ev pennev heb adaw yr vn yn vew onadunt. Ac or achos honno y gelwir y nant hwnnw yngkymraec: nant gallgwn yr hynny hyt hediw. Ac yn saesnec gallesbroc. nev. ([]lehioc)

Ac yna y kymyrth Asclepiodotus coron y dyrnas.Fol. 46 ac ef ay traethws yspeit deng mlyned. Ac yny oes ef y dechrews y dymhestyl aoruc Diocletian amheraudyr ruvein. ar gristonogion. ac yna y divahwyt cristonogiaeth hayach. canys yn yr amser hwnnw y doeth Maxen ac Ercwlf yn deu penteylu o arch y creulavn hwnnw y ynys brydeyn. ac y distrywiwyd yr eglwyssiev. ac y llosgat llyffreu yr yscrythur lan. ac y llas y meibion llen ar cristonogion yn llwyr. Ac yna y llas seint alban o verolam. ac y llas aron y gedymdeith o gaer llion. Ac yna y kyuodes tervysc y rwng y brenhin. a choel yarll caer loyw. ymbleidiaw o bob tu yn gadarn. a gyssot oet kyffran yryngthunt. Ac y oet y dyd y doeth paub onadunt. ar gallu mwyaf a oed ganthunt. ac ymlad yn greulon llidiauc allat llawer o bop parth Ac yn yr ymlad hwnnw yllas asclepiodotus ay oreugwyr.

Ac yna y kymyrth Coel yarll caer loyw llywodraeth y dyrnas yn eidiaw ehvn. canys nad oed ay dylehey yna yn well noc ef. ac nyd oed etived idaw onyd vn verch. Ac Elen oed y henw. atheckaf dyn or ynys oed honno. Ac ef aberis ythat y dysgu yny oed kyuarwyd ympob vn: or seith keluydyt. Ac yn yr amser hwnnw y doeth Constans vn o sened wyr ruvein a llu mawr ganthaw y ynys brydeyn. gwedy y ryvot yn darystwng yr yspaen y sened ruvein. ac y geisiav ystung ynys brydein yn drethaul y sened ruvein val ybuassei gynt. A gwedy gwybot o coel hynny;Fol. 46v kynvllaw llu aoruc adyuot yny erbyn. Agwedy dyuot ydeu lu wyneb yn wyneb y doeth tagnavetwyr y ryngthunt. ac yn diannot y tagnevedwyt wynt. Ac ym phen y wythnos ar mis gwedy dagneved y bu varw coel. Sef oed hynny. naw mlyned athry chant o oet crist.

A gwedy marw coel y kymyrth Constans elen verch coel yn wreic bwys idaw achoron ydyrnas genthi. Ay phryd. hi ny welssit ychyffelyb eryoed. a honno aelwyd gwedy hynny elen luhydawc. A mab aoed ydi o constans yr hwn a elwyd custennyn vab constans. Agwedy gweldychu o constans vn vlwydyn ardec yn hedwch dagnevedus y bu varw ef. ac y clatpwyt y gorf yngkaer efrawc. ccc.xx. o oet crist.

A gwedy marw constans y kymyrth Custennyn llywodraeth ynys brydein yn eidiaw ehvn. Ac yn yr amser hwnnw yd oed Maxen greulon yn amherawdyr yn ruvein. ac yn diva dyledogion or ynys oll. gan ev llad ac ev crogi ac ev hanreithiaw. ac ymgyuoethogi ehvn oc ev sswllt. Ac yn rody y anyledogion ev tir ac ev daear ac ev kyuoethev. ac yn dehol y bonhedigion y ynyssoed ereill. A gwedy dyuot lluossogrwyd onadunt hyt yn ynys brydein y gwynav wrth custennyn vab constans. canys ef adelehey vod yn amherawdyr yn ruvein o dadwys gan iawn. Gorthrwm ykymyrth arnaw ry draethu y genedyl ay gereynt mor waradwydus a hynny. Ac yna y cavas yny gyghor o hannoc gwyr ruvein mynet ygyt ac wynt hyt yn ruvein y geisiaw ennyll ev ryddid ry gollessynt.Fol. 47 ac enrydedussach oed bod yn amherawdyr yn ruvein nogyt yn vrenhyn yn ynys brydeyn. ac yntev yn caffel pob vn o hynny. A gwedy adaw gwarchadwedigaeth ynys brydeyn yn llaw Eudaf yarll ergig ac euas yny deley ef drachevyn. kychwyn aoruc y tu aruvein. ac y gyt ac ef yd aeth elen y vam. athri ewythyr elen. nyt amgen. llywelyn. trahaearn. a Meuric ac ev lluoed y gyt ac wynt. agoresgyn ruvein aorugant yar vaxen greulon. achymryt yr amherodraeth yn eidaw ehvn. a rodi Merchet tywyssogion sened ruvein yn wreickaheu yw ewythret y geisiav plant deduaul onadunt. y gynnal sened ruvein. A gwedy kyvyawnhau pob peth. a gwastattahu yr ynys yn hedychawl. y kymyrth elen verch coel y phe[]rindavt ytu gwlat gaerussalem. ac y goresgynnavd hi y wlat honno. Ac or achos hynny y gelwyd hi o hynny allan yn elen luhydawc. Ac oy rinwedawl ethrylith ay dysc y cavas hi pren y groc yr hwn ydiodefawd iessu grist arney. Ac a uuassei yngkud adan y daear yr pan diodefawd crist. sef oed hynny try chant mlyned. a mwy. Sef oed o oet crist. ccc.xxiij. yna.

A gwedy gwelet o Eudaf yarll ergig nat oed neb yn gwrthnebu idaw. ef a wisgawt coron y dyrnas.Fol. 47v ac ygymyrth llywodraeth yr ynys yn eidaw ehvn. ac attall teyrnget sened ruveyn. Agwedy gwybot o Custennin hynny; anvon a oruc Trahaearn ewythyr elen hyt yn ynys brydeyn. atheyr lleg o wyr arvawc y gyt ac ef. y darystwng ynys brydein wrth sened ruvein. Agwedy ev dyvot y ynys brydeyn kyrchu caer berys a orugant ac ymlad a hi yn lud ay hennill ymphen ydeudyd. A gwedy gwybot o Eudaf hynny; kynvllaw aoruc attaw yevhengtyt ynys brydein adyuot yn ev herbyn hyt yn ymhyl caer wynt. lle gelwyt maes vrien. ac ymlat ac wynt yn wychyr calet kreulawn. ac yny kyfranc hwnnw y goruu Eudaf. Ac y foas trahaearn yv longheu. a gwyr ruvein y gyt ac ef. ac ar hyt y mor y kyrchassant yny doethant yr alban ydir. ac yna kynullaw llu attadunt a dechreu ryvelu ar Eudaf. A gwedy gwybot o Eudaf hynny. dyuot ay lu yn ev herbyn a oruc. hyt yn lle y gelwyt west marlond. Ac yna rodi kyfranc ydunt allad llawer obop tu. ac yny kyfranc hwnnw y goruu trahaearn. Ac y foas Eudaf hyt yn llychlyn ar Gutbert vrenhin llychlyn y geisiav nerth yganthaw y geissiav ennyll y gyuoeth drachevyn.

Ac yna ydaeth Trahaearn ac oresgynnavt ynys brydeyn. ac ay darystyngavd hi adan sened ruvein. Ac yn yr hennyd hynny anvon aoruc Eudaf hyt yn ynys brydein ar y gedymeithion ay diwydyon y ervynneit ydunt darparu angheu y Trahaearn osgellynt.Fol. 48 Sef a oruc Jarll y castell cadarn dyuot hyt mevn glyn yn agos yr ford ydeuwey Trahaearn o lundeyn. achan marchauc y gyt ac ef a llechu yny glyn hwnnw. yny doeth Trahaearn ford yno. Ac yna yn direbud dwyn ruthyr am y ben ay lad. A gwedy daruot hynny anvon kennat hyt ar Eudaf y venegi ry lad trahaearn. Ac yna y foas gwyr ruvein tu ac ev gwlat. rac ovyn brad y bryttanyeit. Ac yn yr amser hwnnw ybu varw custennyn vab constans amheradyr ruvein. Ac yna y doeth Eudaf ynys brydeyn.

A gwedy goresgyn o Eudaf ynys brydeyn yr eilweith y kymyrth y goron yn eidav ehvn. ac yny lle ymgyuoethogi a oruc. a chynnal gwyr arvavc a meirch. hyd nad oed vn brenhin a vei havd idaw ymrysson ac ef. Ac val hynny ykynhelus ef ydyrnas yn hedwch dagnavedus hyt yn diwed y oes hayach. Ac nyt oed o etived idaw onyt vn verch. ac elen oed y henw. ay phryt aragorei rac pawb. Agwedy ssyrthiav heneint arnaw. ymgyghor ay wyrda a oruc. peth awneit am lywodraeth yr ynys gwedy ef. Ac am gyflehau y verch yntev yny vew. Rey onadunt agynghoras rodi y verch yr tywyssauc avynnei o ynys brydein ar llywodraeth genthi gwedy ef. Ereill agynghoras rodi y kyuoeth y kynan meiryadauc nei vab braud idaw; arodi yverch yntev y vrenhyn o ynys arall adigavn o da yr ynys hon genthi. Ac yna ydywat caradauc iarll kernyw. canys adan darystynghe digaeth sened ruvein ydein ny.Fol. 48v ys yawnach yn. anvon hyt yn ruuein y dethol yr hwn avynnom o deledogyon sened ruvein ybriodi merch yn brenhin ny. ac y gynal y dyrnas gwedy ef. ac o hynny y caffwn hedwch tragwydolder. Ac obyd reid yn; wrth nerth y gathunt. o hynny y caffwn. ac ymae yno deledogeon; or ynys hon. os cof gennwch. adelehey yr ynys hon; yn well no neb or yssyt yndi yr awrhwn. Ac wrth y kynghor hwnnw ytrigwyd. Ac yna anvon aoruc Caradauc yarll kernyw Meuric y vab drwy y ervyn or brenhin. hyt yn ruvein y geisiaw Maxen wledic. ydyuot y ynys brydeyn y gymryt elen verch eudaf yn wreic idaw allywodraeth ydyrnas genthi. canys mab oed y Maxen hwnnw y lywelin ewithyr y elen luydawc. y vam yntev oed verch yr tywyssawc deledockaf or ahanoed o ssened ruvein. A gwedy dyuot o veuric hyt yn ruvein. yd oed yn yr amser hwnnw tri amherawdyr yn ymrysson am pendevigiaeth ssened ruvein. agyssot llawer o oet dydiev ryngthunt heb allel dosparth yr vn. Agwedy gwelet o veuric hynny; ydywat wrth vaxen. Ryved yw gennyfi heb ef. godef ohonot y sawl codeant ydwyt ynydiodef gan ygwyr rackw. Peth awnaf ynnev heb y Maxen. Llyna val y gwnelech heb y Meuric. dyuot y gyt amy hyt yn ynys brydein. achymryt Elen verch eudaf y vorwyn decgaf or awelas dyn eryoed ar advwynnaf yn wreic ytt. a llywodraeth ynys brydeyn genthi. canys nad oes etivet dedvawl y vrenhin ybryttanyeit onyd hi.Fol. 49 Ac o nerth ybryttanyeit y gelly di ystwng pob ynys or awrthneppo ytt. Agwedy menegi o veuric pryt y vorwyn; kyflenwi aoruc Maxen oy chariat hyt na wydiat peth a wnay. Acyna peri aoruc Maxen gyweiriaw llynghes. aphan ottoedynt barawt gyntaf; dyrchauael hwylev aorugant a rwygaw moroed yny doethant hyt yn mor freync. Ac yna darystwng freync ganthunt. achymell eur ac aryant avynnassant y ganthunt. Ac yna y doeth rebud y vrenhin y bryttannyeit gwelet llynghes ar vor freync. ac na wyddit pa le ydisgynnynt. Ac yna yd erchis Eudaf y Ganan meiriadawc dyvynnv attaw holl yeveyngthyt ynys brydein. y warchadw yr arvordir y parth y clywit ev bod. rac ev kyuarssanghu o ystrawn genedloed yn direbud ydunt. Agwedy dyuot canan meiriadauc ay lu hyt yn mynydet keynt. Aruthyr oed gan vaxen meynt y llu adrech ymlad ganthunt. Ac yn ev kynghor y caffant dethol deudengwyr; or gwyr prudaf ar rey doethaf onadunt. ac ev hanvon mevn bat yr tir. ac yn llaw pob vn onadunt gwialen o olif wyden. yn arwyd drech tagnevet ganthunt. Achyrchu aorugant hyt yn lle yd oed k[y]nan meiriadawc achyuarch gwell idaw. A menegi ev bot yn gennadeu y gan vaxen amherawdyr ruvein; hyt ar Eudaf brenhin y bryttannyeit. Ac yna govyn o kynan paham y deuwey llynghes kymeynt a honno yn gennadev. a menegi aorugant wynthev pan yw rac ev kyvarssanghu ar yford o ystrawn genedloed.Fol. 49v Agwedy gwybot o kynan ystyr ev neges; ef a vanassei ev gwrthlad or ynys. rac ovyn colli o honaw ef y vrenhinaeth. Ac yna ydywat caradauc yarll kernyw gellynghwn wynt ar ybrenhin ac a vynho yr brenhin gwnahet. Ac yna ydaethant ygyt hyt ynghaer yn arvon lle yd oed ybrenhin yn kynnal llys yn y amser hwnnw. A llawen uu yr brenhin wrth y kennadeu allawenach wrth ev kennadwri. Ac anvon aoruc heb olud yn ol Maxen; arodi elen y verch yn wreic bwys idaw allywodraeth ydeyrnas genthi.

Ac yna y kymyrth Maxen elen yn briawd a llywodraeth ydeyrnas genthi. Agwedy gwybot o kynan meiriadauc hynny; mynet hyt yr alban aoruc. achymryt yr alban yn vn ac ef. a chynvllaw llu. adyuot drwy hvmyr adechreu anreithiaw. A gwedy gwybot o vaxen hynny y doeth yntheu hyt yr alban ay lu; agoresgyn yr alban. a gyrru kynan ar ffo hyt yn llychlyn. Agwedy dychwelut o vaxen ay lu adref. or alban. ydoeth kynan yr eilweith alu ganthaw i geisiaw afreoli yr alban. Ac yna ydoeth gwyrda y ryngthunt ac y tagnauedwyt wynt. ac yna y[d] aethant yn vn gar vn esgar. Ac yna y gwledychawt Maxen wledic ar ynys brydein pymp mlyned yn hedwch dagnauedus. Ac yna y doeth cof yd[a]w yr hen teilyngdawd ry gollassei yngwlat ruvein. adodi yny vryt yhennyll osgalley.Fol. 50 Ac yna kynvllaw llu aoruc holl yeuengtyt ynys brydeyn ygyd ac ef. Ac adaw gwarchadwedigaeth ynys brydeyn yn llaw dunawt yarll kernyw. Agwedy ev bot yn barawd kychwyn aorugant y tu afreync. a honno a elwyt tryde phla ynys brydein. ac yn yr amser hwnnw yd oed gwr aelwid himbald yn dywys yn freinc ac yn llydaw. Agwedy clywet ohonaw bot ybryttanyeit yn dyuot; ymgyweiriaw a oruc yn ev herbyn. y geisiaw ev gwrthlad ac ev tervynev. ac ymlat at wynt yn wychyr creulon. Ac yn yr ymlad hwnnw y llass hymbald aphymptheg mil y gyt a ef. Ac y goresgynnawt Maxen llydaw. ac ay rodes y kynan meiriadauc. o achaus dwyn ohonaw yntev ynys brydein yar gynan kyn no hynny. Ac yna kyntaf y doeth y bryttanyeit y lydav. ac o hynny ygelwit bryttayn vachan. Ac yna yr edewit kynan meiriadauc yn gwledychu. Ac y kerdawt Maxen ytu adinas rodvm. ac y foas y freinc racdav. ac adaw ydynessyd yn wac ar kestill. ford y clywit ydyuot. Ac odena y kerdavt ef parth a ruvein y ryuelu ar gracian a vailaunt aoeddynt amherodron yn ruvein yr amser hwnnw. Agwedy ydyuot ef y ruvein ylladawt (ef*) y neill onadunt; a dehol y llall o ruvein aoruc. Ac yn yr amser hwnnw yd oed mynych kyffrangheu y rwng y freinc ar bryttannyeit yn llydaw. ac eyswys yr auu ar nadunt o ryvel wynt ay gwledychassant hi.Fol. 50v yr hynny hyt hediw. Agwedy gwastattau onadunt. medylliaw aorugant am wreickae ydunt. Agwedy na elllyt rac galanasseu ymgyvathrachu ac vn genedyl onyt ar eidunt ev hyn. ac hevyt nad oed wiw ganthunt. Anvon aorugant hyt yn ynys brydeyn y erchi y Dunavt yarll kernyw; anvon ydunt vn vil ardec. o verchet dyledogeon o ynys brydeyn yn wreickaeu ydunt. Athrugeyn Mil o verchet gweinidogyon. canys ef oed gwercheidwat ar ynys brydeyn yn yr amser hwnnw. A gwedy bod hynny yn barawt; ac ev kychwyn hyt yngkevyn gweilgi ytu allydaw. y doeth tymphestyl arnadunt a bodi llawer onadunt. ac odyna y doeth gwascarredic gwynt; agwasgaru yr hynn adianghasseu or llongheu y amravaelion draetheu hep wybot ev dihenyd. Ac yn yr amser hwnnw ydoed Gwynwas brenhyn hynawd. a Melwas brenhyn peittw ar vor. ac yn ryuelu ar Germania o barthret Gracian. ac y kyuaruu dwy long onadunt. yn llawn or morynnion adywetpwyt vchot. A gwedy caffel manac onadunt ygan y rei hynny ry adaw ynys brydeyn yn wac; trossi ev hwyleu aorugant ytu ac ynys brydeyn. Agwedy ev dyuot yr alban y dir. llad aorugant y bobyl ganthunt fford y kerdynt. heb drugared. Ar hyn a edewssyt o wedillion trueyn yn ynys brydeyn heb allel ymderbynneit ac wynt. Agwedy klywet o vaxen hynny yn ruvein; anvon aoruc dwy leng o wyr arvavc. a gracian yn rad gymereat arnadunt yn borth yr bryttannyeit. A gwedy ev dyuot y ynys brydeyn. ny bu bell yny ymgyvaruuant ac ev gelynnyon.Fol. 51 ac ymlad yn wychyr creulon ac wynt. a llad llawer onadunt. a gyrru gwynwas a melwas ar ffo hyt yn ywerdon. Ac yn yr amser hwnnw y llas Maxen yn ruvein ay holl kedymeithion or ahanoed o ynys brydeyn. onyd a dienghis o bedestric hyt yn llydaw. ar kynan Meiriadauc. A hynny a oruc kedymeithion achereynt y gracian o lid ry wrthlad o vaxen gracian or amherodraeth.

A gwedy gwybot ry lad Maxen y kymyrth Gracian llywodraeth ynys brydeyn yn eidaw ehvn. a gwiscav coron y dyrnas aoruc. agwledychu hir amseroed drw creulonder wrth y bryttannyeit. A gwedy gwelet onadunt nathygey dim wrth y greulonder. y doeth y wyr ef ehvn am y ben ay lad. Agwedy gwybot owynwas a Melwas ry lad Gracian. kynullaw aorugant wyntheu o wyr llychlyn adenmarc ac yscottieit ar ffichtieit. adyuot hyt yn ynys brydeyn ay hanreithiaw o dan a haearn. a hynny or mor pwy gilyd. allat y kiwdawdwyr yn olofrud. A gwedy gwelet or bryttannyeit na alleynt ymderbyneit ac wynt. anvon a orugant hyt yn ruvein y geissiaw nerth y gan ssened ruvein y wrthlad y gelynyon oc ev tervynev. Ac yna y caussant lleng o wyr aruawc yn ganorthwy ydunt. Agwedy ev dyuot hyt yn ynys brydeyn; ymgynullaw aoruc y bryttanyeit attadunt. achyrchu ev gelynnyon yn wrhawl aorugant. ac ymlad ac wynt yn wychyr calet creulon. allad lluossogrwyd onadunt. agyrru ylleill ar ffo yw llongheu.Fol. 51v ac ev kymhell yr mor wynt. Agwedy gwrthlat onadunt ev gelynnyon oc ev teruyneu; o gyd kynghor ygwnaethant mur maen o gyffredyn dreul ywlat. y rwng deivyr ar goglet. val y bei annos y ystraun genedloed ev kyuarssanghu rac llaw. Agwedy darvot hynny adaristwng pob peth: y gyd y doethant hyt yn llvndeyn. Ac yno yd erchys gwyr ruvein y Guhelin arch escop llundein. kyghori yr brytannyeit amdiffyn ev gwlat yn wraul ac yn gadarn rac ystrawn genedloed. ahynny o gywreinrwyd. ac o aruer marchogaeth ac ymdwyn arueu. mal y gellynt ymaruer ac wynt pan vey reit yddunt. A menegi ry golli onadunt wy ev gwyr. ac ev sswllt ev heur ac ev hareant. mwy noc agaussant erioed o ynys brydeyn. yr keisiav amdiffyn ydunt ev teilyngdawt. ac na lauurieint pellach hynny trostunt. namyn ymwrthot ac ynys (brydein*) ac ay thernget o hynny allan. Agwedy menegi or archescob yr bryttannyeit ymadrodeon gwyr ruvein. yna y klywyt yr awyr ar daear yn edrinaw gan y diaspat girat adodes ygenedyl druan gyuarssangedic. ry ballu ev holl nerthoed. A gwedy kymryt ev cannyat o wyr ruvein ev llongheu a gyrchassant achychwyn a orugant y tu a ruvein. A gwedy menegi hynny y gwynwas a Melwas. kynullaw llu aorugant wyntev ymwyaf a allassant. adyuot yr alban y dir. aryvelu ar ybryttannyeit ac ev llat yn olofrud. agoresgyn yr alban hyt ym mor hvmyr. Agwneithur mynych kyrcheu ar ybrytan nyeit gan ev llad allosgi heb drugared.Fol. 52 A gwedy gwelet or brytannyeit na alleint ymderbynnyeit ac ev gelynnyon. Anvon aorugant y venegi ev anghyfnerth ac ev govid ac ev girat gwyn hyt ar Gitius amherawdyr ruvein. y ervyneid idaw yr duw ac yr y eneit y nerth ef vn weith y wrthlat ev gelynnyon oc ev tervynev. Agwedy menegi hynny y ssened ruvein yn llwyr. Eu nackav ar gwbyl awnaethpwyt ydunt. ac ymwrthot ac ynys brydeyn ay thernget yn dragywydawl. o hynny allan. Agwedy menegi yr bryttannyeit attep gwyr ruvein. dygyn oed y duw gwarandaw ar ev girat gwyn. ry ballu ydunt ev holl nerthoed. ac ev hymdiret. ac ev hadaw yn eneit vadeu yw gelynnyon. Ac yna yn ev kynhor y caussant anvon kuhelin archescop llundein hyt yn llydaw y geisiaw nerth ygan Alltwr brenhyn llydaw pedweryd brenhyn oed hwnnw gwedy kynan meiriadauc. A gwedy ydyuot ef hyt yn llydaw llawen uu yr brenhin wrthaw ay wahaud yn enrydedus aoruc travynney drigav yny wlat honno. A phan welas kuhelin amser y wneithur y neges. ef a ymgystlynavd kerrennyt ar brenhyn yn gyntaf. A menegi na buassei deledauc o ynys brydeyn yny gwledychu hi. yr pan dathoed Maxen achynan meiriadauc gyntaf y llydaw. sef achaus oed hynny; am gymryt o vaxen holl deledogyon ynys brydein y gyt ac ef. ac adaw yr ynys yn wac. onyt o alltudyon. agweindogion. a dynnyon diwala heb wybot dim. A dwyn ar gof idaw nad oed ar ydaear ynys y bei yawnach yr bryttanyeit keissiau kynnal y breynt ay dylehet nogit ynys brydeyn.Fol. 52v ac nad oed ford yw chynnal onyt drwy y nerth ef. A gwedy menegi o honaw yr brenhin gouyd ybryttanyeit ac ev anghyfnerth gan ystraun genedloed. doluriaw ev poen awnaeth yn vawr. A rodi ydunt dwy vil ovarchogion yn ganhorthwy ydunt achustennyn y vrawt yn dywyssawc arnadunt. Agwedy caffel ev llongheu yn baraud kychwin aorugant ytu ac ynys brydeyn. ac ymphorth totneis y doethant ydir. Agwedy gwybot or bryttanyeit trueyn gyuarssanghedic hynny. ymgynullaw attadunt aorugant. Agwedy klywet o gwinwas a Melwas hynny. ymbarattoi yn ev herbyn aorugant. Ac ny bu bell yny ymgyua(r)uuant ac wynt. ac ymlad yn wychyr llidiawc kreulon. a llad llawer o bop tu. Ac or diwed Custennyn agavas y uudygoliaeth. allad ev gelynnyon yn olofrud. A gwedy goruod onadunt ar ev gelynnyon wynt hyt ynghaer uudev a doethant.

Ac yna y gwisgws Custennyn gyntaf coron y deyrnas. ac y rodet yn wreic bwys ydaw merch y vn o deledogeon ruvein a vagassei kuhelin archescop. Ac ohonei y cauas tri meib. nyt amgen. Constans. Emreis. ac Vthyr. Ar constans hwnnw. a vagwyd ymanachloc amphimbalus ynghaer wynt. Ar meibion ereill a rodet ar kuhelin archescop ar vaeth. A gwedy gwledychu o custennyn deudeng mlyned yn hedwch tagnavedus. y doeth vn or ffichtieid. ac yn rith ymdidan ar brenhin o dieithyr y nyveroed.Fol. 53 ay vrathu a chyllell a dan y vron. ac or brath hwnnw y bu varw. Ac yn yr amser hwnnw yd oed. Gorthern gorthenev arglwyd ergig ac evas yn vn ohynaf gwyr ynys brydein a mwyaf awneit oe gynghor. Agwedy medyliaw ohonaw nad oed wir deledawc ar yny(s*) brydeyn onyt vn o dri meib custennyn. ar hynaf onadunt adylyhey y teilyngdaut py na bei y vod yn vanach. ar deu ereill nyt ottoedynt yn oedran. a chyt bythynt. gwybot na chaffei ef les yr hynny. canys ev tatmaeth alywiev y dyrnas drostunt yny vythynt yn oedran. Agwedy medyliaw pob peth ohonaw. dyuot aoruc hyt ynghaer wynt. A govyn y constans vanach pa enryded a gaffei ef ganthaw yr y wneithur ef yn vrenhyn. Ac yntev a edewys idaw bot ynys brydeyn wrth y lywodraeth ef yr hynny ay ewyllys. Agwedy dyrchavael y law ar hynny. ef adiosgas y abit y amdanaw. ac a wisgaud dillat byt amdanaw. ac ay duc ganthav or vanachloc o anvod yr abat ar holl covent. Agwedy dyuot ac ef hyt yn llvndeyn. ef awisgaud gorthern y goron am bem constans. ac ay hvrdaud yn vrenhyn.

A gwedy vrdaw Constans yn vrenhyn ar ynys brydeyn; yntev awnaeth Gorthern ynoreuchel ystyward adanaw yntev ar y holl kyuoeth. ac yn gwneithuredic pob peth or awneley megys ybrenhyn ehvn. Ac yna y dyvynnwt pawb or tywyssogion y wneithur gwr iogaeth yr brenhyn.Fol. 53v Ac y doeth paub yn vfyd. Agwedy ev bod velly talym o amser yn hedwch tagnauedus. medyliaw aoruc gorthern drwy yhen vrad pa furyf y galley ef ehvn mynet yn vrenhyn. Agwedy medyliaw ohonaw pob peth; dyvot aoruc ar y brenhyn amenegi bod llynghes ar y mor. ac na wydyt ple y dysgynynt. abot yn orev kadarnhau kestyll yr aruordiroed o wyr ac arveu abwyd adiawd. ac ymphob lle ar hyt yr ynys. rac yu kyvarssangu o ystrawn genedloed. Agwedy menegi hynny yr brenhyn; erchi aoruc ydaw gwneithur val ygweley vod yn yawn. am pob peth. Ac yna yd aeth gorthern o gastell y gastell ar hyt yr ynys. a gossot gwyr tyghedic idaw. or rei dewraf a kadarnaf a geffyt ym pob castell onadunt. a digawn o vwyt a diawt hyt ymphen y teyr blynet. agwedy daruot ydaw pob peth o hynny. dyvot aoruc ford yr alban a dethol pedwar vgeyn wyr. or meibion deledockaf ar rei bonhedickaf a goreu ev campeu or ahanoed o genedyl y pychtieit y dyvot ygyt ac ef hyt ar y brenhyn y gymryt gossymeyth ganthaw. ay ganlyn wrth pen y varch. Agwedy ev dyuot at ybrenhyn. llawen uu ybrenhyn wrthunt. Amenegi aoruc gorthern val y buassei yn ystoriaw y kestill. ac val y dugassei hynny o veibion gwyrda or alban wrth pen y varch. canys achos oed. os rywel a delei yr ynys; odeno y gnotthae dyuot. ac yno y gellit ev hattal val gwystlon dros ev tadeu. a diogel oed ganthaw na thorrey ev tadeu byth ar brenhyn tra vei ev meibion y gyt ac ef. Agwedy megi o gorthern y holl prosses.Fol. 54 bodlavn oed gan ybrenhyn pob peth or awneley. Agwedy ev bod velly talym o amser. gorthern arynghaud bod yr gweision yeueinc or alban. o barch ac enryded ac esmwithdra a rodeon. A gwedy ev bot nosweith yn yvet yny nevad yn hir gwedy mynet y brenhyn y gysgu. ar gweission yeweinc yn digawn ev medwed. y dywat gorthern wrthunt val hyn. vy arglwydy gedymeithion gan ywch kanneat reyt yw ymmy vynet y tu ar bychydic kyuoeth yssyt ymmy; y geissiaw o chaffwn dym or da odyno. val y gallwn treulyaw wrth kedymeithion y bey digrif gennyf. Paham heb yr wynt panyd tydi yssyt yn medu y vrenhiniaeth y wneithur a vynnych ydaw. Nagef ym kyffes neb ef. nyd oes ymmy o gyuoeth onyd erging ac evas. a phebythei nyd oed arydaear a enrydedwn ny yn gynt no chwychwi. A yna kymryt ev kanneat aoruc gorthern a mynet ygyssgu. Sefa wnaethant wy rwng medawd ageirieu gorthern kyrchu ystauell y brenhyn allad yben adyuot hyt yn lle ydoed gorthern a bwrw yr pen yny arffet. hwde heb yr wynt abyd vrenhyn weithion os mynne. Ac yna gwedy gwelet o orthern ry lad ybrenhyn wylau aoruc a hynny o dwyll ac nyd o alar am y brenhyn. Ac yna y perys gorthern daly y gwyr achlan ac ev carcharu. rac dial arnaw ef yr alanas. Agwedy klywet o kuhelyn archescop ry lad ybrenhyn or ffichtieit drwy vrat gorthern: ffo aoruc ynteu ar deu vab ereill hyt yn llydaw ar emyr llydaw ev kevynderw. rac ovyn twyll. A gwedy mynet y chwedyl hwnnw dros wyneb yr ynys;Fol. 54v y doeth paub or tywyssogyon hyt yn llundein. Ac yn ev kynghor y caussant krogi y pedwar vgeyn wyr aladassei yrbrenhyn. A gorchymyn y kyuoeth yn llaw gorthern yny geffynt brenhyn dyledauc arnadunt. Agwedy gwybot or ffichtieit crogi ev meibion kynullaw llu aorugant a ryvelu ar gorthern. A gwedy gwybot o orthern hynny. o dybygu goruot ar y elynnyon yn gynt. ay chwannocket yntev y bendevigiaeth. kymryt a oruc coron ydyrnas ay wisgaw am yben ehvn. a mynet yn vrenhyn heb ganeat neb or tywyssogion.

A gwedy mynet Gorthern yn vrenhyn anvon a oruc y dyvynnv paub or bryttanyeit attaw. y dyuot yn borth ydaw. y geissiaw dehol y elynnyon gan y fichtieit or ynys. Agwedy menegi hynny yr byttanyeit: y nackau ar gwbyl aorugant. ac erchi ydaw o gwnathoed ay twyll ay cam ydunt. gwneithur yawn; nev yntev derbynney adelei attaw. Agwedy ynackau argwbyl onadunt. anvon a oruc y ynyssoed ereill y geissiaw nerth o ystrawn genedloed. ac heb gaffel hayach. A gwedy ev bod velly amynych ymladeu ryngthunt. ac heb allel goruot ar y elynyon. agwelet llid y bryttanyeit wrthaw or parth arall; gorthrwm y kymyrth arnaw. amanaffu idaw yr ynys. canys oed mor aflonyd idaw; a mor enbyt am y eneit othrigey yndy. Agwedy ev dyuot hyt yn mynyded keynt. ef aweley teir llong anryued yw meynt ac ev hadurn. ar vor freinc. Ac anvon aoruc y wybot pa ryw longheu oedynt. ac opa wlat y doethessynt. ac o ba genedyl yd han noedynt. a pha le ydaynt. apheth oed ev haruaeth.Fol. 55 A gwedy dyuot y kennadeu attadunt. ac ymovyn ac wynt val yd archadoed ydunt ygan y brenhin. wynt a vanagassant ev hanvot o saxonia. vn o brenhinaetheu germania. A menegi bod yn reyt ydunt pob seith mlyned dethol niueroed or ynys honno y vynet y bresswiliaw y ynyssoed ereill. wrth na allei yr ynys ev porthi rac ev hamlet. ac ev bod wynt gwedy ry dethol yr blwydyn ahanner kyn no hynny. a horss. a hengyst. yn deu dywyssawc arnadunt. ac ev ryuot yn amgylchynu moroed yr blwydyn ahanner kyn no hynny heb gaffel le y disgynnu yndaw. ac yn ervynneit le ygan brehin ybryttannyeit y presswylyaw yndaw. o bei teilwng ganthaw. Ac wynt agadarnheynt ev bod: yn wyr kywir ffytlon idaw. Agwedy menegi yr brenhyn hynny; anuon a oruc ef yn ev hol. A gwedy ev dyuot. Amovyn aoruc y brenhyn ac wynt y bwy y kredeint. a menegi aorugant idaw pan yw y woden yn ev ieith wynthwy. agovyn or brenhyn peth oed hynny. amenegi or ieithydyon pan yw mercurius vn or geudwyweu. ac ev bot en enrededu pedweryd dyd or wythnos yny enw ef. ac yny alw yn wodenysdai. A geu duw arall aoed ydunt a elwit froeu. ac oe enw ef. ygalweint froesday. Agwedy gwelet or brenhyn telediwrwyd y gwyr; kymryt ev gwriogaeth aoruc. adyuot ygyd hyd yn llundeyn. Sef oed hynny gwedy dechreu byt. pedeir Mil. athrychant. ac vn vlwydyn a thrugeint. Sef oed oet crist yna. C.C.C.C.l.iiii.

A gwedy menegi yr ffichtieit ry gaffel o orthern nerth o ystrawn genedloed;Fol. 55v kyweiriaw aorugant ev llu adyuot yny erbyn. ac ymlat ac ef yn greulon a llad llawer o boptu. ac eissiwis or diwet ygoruu yr brenhyn. a hynny drwy nerth ysaxoineit. Agwedy gwelet or brenhyn hynny. llawenhau aoruc. a rodi yr saxonieit y tir a elwyt yn lyndesei gwedy hynny y presswilaw yndaw. Agwedy caffel onadunt kynnwys; wynt a anvonassant hyt yn germania yn ol deu naw llongheit o wyr aruawc yn nerth ydunt. Ac yn yr ennyd hwnnw y doeth hors ahengist hyt ar y brenhyn y geisiaw ganthaw ae castell ae dinas mal y galleynt ymgadw yndunt rac ruthyr ev gelynnyon. Ac yna y dywat y brenhyn na lauassei ef hynny: hep canneat y bryttanyeit. a phei ys gwnelei; y gwrthledyt ef or ynys. ac wynteu hevit. Agwedy nachaffant hynny. wynt a ervynnassant cannyat y adeiliat caer onadunt ev hun. kyulet achroen ech. y geissiaw ev hamdiffin rac ev gelynnyon. ac yrodes ybrenhin hynny ydunt. Ac yna yd aethant adref. ac y keisiassant croen ych mwyaf agaffant. ac ay hollassant yn vn garrei veinaf ac y gallassant. ac ystynnu honno yn oreu ac y gallassant. ac wrth honno y gwnethpwyt dinas y garrei. A honno a elwit yna ydwong chestyr. Agwedy gwneithur ydinas y doeth y llongheu adywetpwyt uchot yr ynys. a Merch y hengist ygyd ac wynt. Ronwen oed yhenw. a morwyn glotuawr obryt oed hyt na welssit ychyffelyb. Ac yna yn y kynghor y cawssant gwneithur gwled a gwahawd y brenhyn yr wlet.Fol. 56 ar niuer avynhei ygyt ac ef. y edrych yr edeiliat. Agwedy dyuot y brenhyn yr wlet. llawen uuwd wrthaw. val ydoed ar diwed y vwyd. ef a welei morwyn anryued y thegwch yn dyuot or ystauell. a ffioleid o win yny llaw. ac yn disgynnv ardal y glin gerbron y brenhyn. ac yn dywedud louerd kig wassail. Ac yna ygovynnawd ybrenhyn pa beth a dywat hi. ac ydywat y ieithyt. dy alw di yn arglwyd vrenhyn hep ef. ac yn heiliaw arnat. peth adywedafinneu hep ybrenhyn. dringhail hep ieithyth. Dringhail hep ybrenhyn wrth y vorwyn. A llyna yr wassail ardringhail gyntaf adoeth y ynys brydeyn erioed. A gwedy gwelet or brenhyn pryt y vorwyn ay thegwch. kyfflenwi a oruc oe sserch ay chariat. hyt na allei bod hepdi yr dim or a uu. Ay herchi y hengist aoruc. Ac y cauas ynteu yny gynghor y rodi ydaw. Ar nos honno y kysgyssant ygyd. Athrannoeth y bore y doeth hengist y erchi ychowyll. ar brenhyn a erchys idaw nodi yr hynn a vynnei ac ynteu ay caffei. a hengist aerchys idaw dyrchauel y law ar hynny. Ar brenhyn ay dyrcheuys. Ac ynteu a erchis jarllayt keynt canys yno y doethant kyntaf y dir. ac o achaws. vot honno yn aruordir aphorthlodoed amyl. mal ygellynt derbynneit ev kenedloed pan deleynt yr ynys heb ovyn canneat y neb. Achanys daruot yr brenhyn adaw ydunt hynny: y rodi ydunt a wnaeth. A gwedy gwybot o Gwrgant Jarll keynt hynny; gorthrwm y kymyrth arnaw.Fol. 56v a chwynaw aoruc wrth tywyssogion yr ynys am hynny. A gwedy gwybot o bawp or tywyssogyon hynny: hagyr uu ganthunt. Ac yn enwedic hagrach oed gan y dri meib ef ehun; a hanoed o wreic arall. no gyt gan neb amgen. henw y dri meib oed. Kyndeyrn. a Gwertheuyr. a Phasgen. Aphan oed oet crist. dwy ath(r)ugeynt aphedwar cant. y gwnaeth leo pab ruuein duw pasc; ar duw ssul. Ablwydyn gwedy hynny y ganet sant freit. Ac yn yr amser hwnnw y doeth Garmaun. a lupus trauscens. nev o ieith kymraec. Bleid ygedymdeith ygyt ac ef. y pregethu yr bryttannyeit. canys oedynt kyssegredic o gristonogawl fyt. ac yr pan dathoet paganieit yn ev plith. ef a doeth heresys a geu bregeth pelagian ganthaw. canys gwenwyn y geu bregethwr hwnnw. a lygrassei llawer o ffyd ymplith y bryttannyeit. A gwedy pregethu o Garmaun ableid y gedymdeith yr bryttannyeit. yna atnewydhau ev fyd aorugant. canys pob peth or adywettynt ar ev tavodeu wynt ae kedernheynt oc ev peunydiawl wyrtheu. Ac anryuedodeu mawr a wnay duw yrdunt. ar gweithredoed hynny; adraethws Gildas vap Caw y(n) eglur gwedy hynny. Ac yna ydoeth hengist a dywedut wrth Gorthern. tydi weithyon yssyt vab i miui. a Minheuyn dat yttitheu. A iawn yw ytti bellach gwneithur vyngkynghor i; am bop peth. A Minneu ath kyghoraf ditheu yn oreu ac y gwyppwyf ac y gallwyf. A llyna dy gynghor di. rac dy gyuarssanghu o ystrawn genedloed. nev dy genedyl dy hun o lid wrthit agattvyd.Fol. 57 Anvon hyt yn Germania yn ol Octa vy mab. ac Ossa y ewythyr marchogeon klotuawr. a rodi ydunt ysccotlond ford ydys yn dy orthrymv di o vynych ryueloed. Ac wynt a warchatwant yr ardal honno rac ystrawn genedloed. ac ath kynhaliant ditheu arglwyd. hyt na lauasso neb gwrthnebu ytt. A gwedy gwelet or brenhyn y kynghor yn da; trigaw awnaeth wrthaw. Ac anvon hyt yn germania yn ol octa ac ossa. Ac y doethant wyntteu athri chan llong yn llawn o wyr aruawc hyt yn ynys brydein. Ac octa. ac ossa. a cheldric. yn dywyssogeon arnadunt. A gwedy klywet or byttannyeit hynny; argyssyriaw aorugant yn vawr. rac meynt y niueroed ry glywsseynt yr dyuot ydir. Ac anvon ar y brenhyn aorugant ac erchi idaw ev gwrthlat or ynys. Agwedy menegi yr brenhyn hynny; ev nackau argwbyl aoruc. namyn rodi tir adaear yddunt y bresswilaw arnaw. Agwedy gwybo(t) o dywyssogyon yr ynys hynny; dethol aorugant. Gwertheuyr vab gwrthern yn vrenhyn arnadunt. adechreu ryuelu ar y paganyeit saesson y gadarn.

A gwedy bod Gwertheuyr yn vrenhyn ef arodes pedwar kyfrang ydunt. ac ef aruu ar bop vn onadunt. kyntaf vn onadunt arodet ar derwennyd avon. Ar eil yn ryd y pyfford. Ac yn yr ymlad hwnnw y kyuaruu kyndeyrn a hors. ac y lladawt pob vn ygilid onadunt. Ar tryded kyffranc auu arlan ymor pan foassant hyt yn ynys danet.Fol. 57v Ac ev hymlit aoruc gwertheuyr hyt yno. ac yna y bu y pedwared kyffranc arnadunt. ac yna yllas wynt yn olofrud. Agwedy gwelet o nadunt nad oed le ydunt ymattiang; adaw ev gwraged. ac ev plant. ac ev sswllt. aorugant. A ffo onadunt ev hvn yr llongheu achyrchu kevyn gweilgi y tu a germania. Ac yna y kymyrth gwertheuyr ev sswllt ac ae rannawd val y bu da ganthaw. A gwedy ry gaffel ohonaw y uudugolyaeth; ef a doeth y tu ac ynys brydeyn. A gwedy klywet o ronwen gwreic Gorthern ry lad ysaesson yn olofrud; dygymmot aoruc hitheu ac vn owyr gwertheuyr. a rodi idaw anheirif o eur ac aryant yr y wenhwinaw. A hynny a oruc y twyllwr bradwr ev arglwyd. Agwedy gwybot o gwertheuyr y wenhwynaw; anvon aoruc ydyfvynnv pawb or dywyssogyon yr ynys attaw. A gwedy ev dyuot oll attaw. ev kynghori aoruc yamdiffyn ev gwir dylyet rac ystrawn genedloed. amenegi ev perrygleu ydunt. agwedy daruot idaw hynny; rannv y sswllt aoruc yw dywyssogyon y baup onadunt mal y raglydei. Ac erchi aoruc ydunt llosgi ygorf. a dodi yllydyw ymevn delw o heuyd a wnelid ar y eilun ef ehun. agossot ydelw yn y borthloed y fford y delei yr ystrawn genedloed yr ynys. A diheu oed ganthaw na deuwei yr vn onadunt byth yr ynys honn; hyt tra gweleynt ydelw ef ar y tir. Agwedy y varw ef; ny wnaeth ydywyssogyon mal yd archadoed ydunt. namyn y gladu yn llundein yn enrydedus.Fol. 58 Ac y caussant yn ev kynghor canys nad oed gwir deledawc aallei vod yn vrenhyn ar ynys brydeyn yna; kymryt Gorthern yr eilweith yn vrenhyn arnadunt. a hynny drwy aruolleu kadarn. na chynhwysseu neb o ystrawn genedloed yr ynys. onyt drwy kytssynnedigaeth pawb or tywyssogyon.

A gwedy caffel o Orthern llywodraeth ydyrnas yr eilweith. Anvon aoruc Ronwen hyt yn germania ar hengist ythat y erchi idaw dyuot y ymwelet a hi. a chyuartalrwid oniver ygyt ac ef hyt yn ynys brydeyn. amenegi ry varw gwertheuyr. A gwedy gwybod onadunt hynny llawen uu ganthunt. Achynullaw aoruc hengist trychant Mil o wyr aruauc y dyuot y gyt ac ef hyt yn ynys brydeyn. Agwedy klywet or bryttannyeit ry dyuot niver kymeynt a hwnnw yr ynys. anvon a orugant ar y brenhyn ac erchi ev gwrthlat or ynys wynt. Agwedy gwybot or saxonyeit hynny; anvon aorugant ar ybrenhyn. ac ar y tywyssogyon y ervyneit ydunt; na chymereynt yn lle drwc ev dyuot mor luossawc ahynny y ynys brydeyn. Amenegi na doethatn wy yr volest y neb or bryttannyeit yr ynys; namyn dyuot y ymwelet ac ev kares gan yvrenhines. athybiaw na buassei varw Gwertheuyr vendigeit. arac ev kyuarssanghu o honaw val y gwnathoed gynt; ydoeth hynny o niver y gyd ac wynt. A chanys buassei varw gwertheuyr. Ervynneit yd oedynt yr brenhyn ac yr tywyssogyon obei ewyllys ganthunt.Fol. 58v gadel ydunt ylle y buessynt gynt yny bresswyliaw ac yw gynnal a dan goron lundein. ac wynt a gymereynt arnadunt amdiffin yr ynys rac ruthyr ystrawn genedloed or fford honno hyt tra vytheynt vew wyntwy. Ac onybei da ganthunt hynny; ervynneit yddunt kymmryt oed dyt teruynedic yny lle ymynneynt or ynys. y wybot pa niver y bei ewyllys ganthunt trigaw yn yr ynys pa niver ny bei. ac ogwnathoed neb onadunt cam yr bryttanyeit parawt oedynt ywneithur yawn idaw drwy ewyllys da. o bop cam or a ellyt y brouy arnadunt ywneithur. Agwedy llenwi ybryttannyeit onadunt o ymadrodeon tec: oed y dyd a ossodet duw kalan mei. yny maes maur yngkymre. ylle ygelwit gwedy hynny salisburie. A gwahart na dyckei neb onadunt arueu ganthunt. rac tyfu ymrysson y rwng y pleidieu. A rac argywedu neb onadunt ar ygilid. A gwedy dyuot oed ydyd medyliaw a oruc hengist oy hen vrat; A gorchymyn y bop vn oy wyr ef. bot kyllell yn dirgeledic yny hossan. Aphan archei ef; draweth hwr sexes. tynnv ev kellyll allad aellynt vwyaf or tywyssogyon yn diarwybot ydunt. Agwedy dyuot y brenhyn a phawb or tywyssogyon y gyd y gymryt ev kynghor. am y niver a vynneint trigaw yn yr ynnys; ac am y niuer nys mynneint. Ef a doeth hengist attadunt yr kyngor a dan dreithu geirieu twyllodrus klaear. Ar saxonieit yn ev kylch; yn ymwarandaw ac wynt.Fol. 59 Aphan welas y bradwr twyllwr ysgymvn amser idaw; ef adywat draweth hwr sexes. Ac yna ytynyassant ev kellyll ac y lladassant trugein wyr a phedwar cant. y rwng Jeirll a Barrwnieit o ynys brydeyn. A dodi llaw a oruc hengist ar y brenhyn ay daly. Ac or aoed o dywyssauc yn ynys brydeyn; ny dienghis yr vn hep lad yno dieithyr Eidiol iarll caer loew. Adienghys o nerth trossaul a gavas a dan y draet. ac or vn trossaul hwnnw. ef aladawt deng wyr athrugeint; ac a dienghys yn iach ev gyuoeth ehvn. Ac yna y perys eidal escop cladu corfforoed y tywyssogyon ynghaer caradauc yn ymyl manachloc ambri. ac ef aberys abat yno gyntaf.

Ac yna y duc hengist yar y brenhyn caer llundein achaer efrawc. achaer lyncoll. achaer wynt. a holl lloygyr adan y theruynev. ac ay rannawd yrwng y saxsonieit. Ac yna y dodes pob vn onadunt aryran: sex. nyd amgen. estsex. sswthsex. westsex. y doyn argof yr ysgymvn vrat ar lladua a wnathoedynt ac ev kellyll ar deledogyon yr ynys. Ac yna y dillwnghwyt Gorthern o garchar. ac y diholat ef o deruyneu lloegyr. Ac yna y ffoas ynteu hyt yngkymre. Agwedy ydyuot y gymre; gorthrwm y kymyrth arnaw y wrthlat oc y vrenhiniaeth mor waradwydus a hynny. Amedyliaw aoruc adeiliat castell cadarn rac y gyuarssanghu oy elynnyon mor dybryd ac y gwnaethessynt gynt. A gwedy rodiaw holl teruyneu kymre onadunt; y geisiaw lle adas y adeiliat yndaw. wynt a doethant lle gelwir yr aurhon dinas emrys yn erryri.Fol. 59v Ac yna y gwelssant ylle cadarnhaf herwyd ytybygeint wy; yn holl kemry y adeiliat castell arnaw. A gwedy dwyn sseiri mein adechreu gweith y gaer; kymeynt ac awneleynt y dyd. yn erbyn trannoeth y bore ny bydei vn maen yny lle onadunt. A gwedy ev bot velly yn llauuriaw yn over yn hir yspeit; ryuedwch mawr oed gan bawb pabeth awnay hynny. Agwedy nad oed neb ay gwybpei; galw aoruc Gorthern ar y deudec prif veird; a govyn ydunt pabeth awnay yr gweith na ssauei. Ac yno yr aethant y gymryt ev kynghor. Agwedy na wydiat neb onadunt pa ryw attep a rodeint yr brenhyn: gorthrwm oed ganthunt hynny achywilid. Ac yna ydywat vn onadunt wrth y lleill; dechymygwn heb ef y peth ny allo bot. ac erchi keisiaw hwnnw; a hwnnw ny cheffir byth. ac yvelly ybydwn diatneir nynheu; y wrth y brenhyn. Ac y caussant yn ev kynghor dywedud. pei keffit gwaet mab heb dat. achymysgu ygwaet hwnnw ar dwfyr ac ar calch; dywedut yssauei yr gweith. A dywedut yny geffit hynny; na sauei dim o honaw. Agwedy menegi hynny yr brenhyn. anvon aoruc ar hyt kymre y geisiaw Mab heb dat. Ac anvon llythyrau pa le bynnac y keffit ykyfriw nas goludit heb ydanvon attaw ef. Agwedy rodiaw pob lle onadunt hep gaffel dim. wynt adoethant hyt yngkaer verdyn; Sef achaws y gelwyt ydref honno yn gaer vyrdyn; Am y sseiliaw yn gyntaf o Myrd owyr. ac or achos hwnnw y gelwyt yn gaer vyrdyn o hynny allan.Fol. 60 Agwedy dyuot y kenhadeu hyt o dieithyr y gaer agwelet meibion yn gwareu a phel. gorffowys aorugant ac edrech ar y meibion yn gwareu. Sef awnaeth vn or meibion kaffel y bel atharaw mab arall yndolurus. sef awnaeth y mab arall yskippeit ybel ay daraw ynteu yn dostach ynda. Ac o hynny tyfu kywira y rwng y meibion. Taw di hep y neill mab wrth y llall. nyt wyt kyt kywira di amyvi. canys bonhedic wyffi; o blegyt mam athat. Athitheu nyt oes ytt vn tat. yrofi a duw heb y mab arall ysbonhedicgach vy mam i; noth vam di ath tat. Agwedy klywet or gwyr kywira yr meibion; ymavel yny mab adywetpwyt y uot heb dat aorugant. ay dwyn ger bron ysswydogion pennaf or dref. Athangos llythyreu yr brenhin ydunt. Ac yr awr y gwelsant y llythyreu; ac ev dyall. kyrchu mam y mab aorugant. ac ev hanvon y gyt hyt ar ybrenhyn. hyt yn dinas emreis. A gwedy ev dyuot ger bron ybrenhyn. govyn aoruc ef idi ay hi a oed vam yr mab. hieu arglwyd hep hi. pwy yw ydat ynteu heb ef. nysgwnn arglwyd heb hi. ny bu ymmi achos agwr yrmoed. Pa furyf ykefeistitheu beichiogi hep y brenhin. Arglwid hep hi merch oedwn yvrenhyn dyuet. ac yn ieuwanc ym rodet yn vanaches yn eglwis pedyr yngkaer verdyn. ac val yr ottoedwn nosweith yn kysgu yrwng vy chwioryd. Mi awelwn drwy vy hvnn gwas ieuwanc yn kydiaw a mi. aphan deffroeis ny welwnn dim. ac yr hynny; pan doeth yr amser trymhau o honofi;Fol. 60v A phan uu da gan duw y ganet ymab aweldi yna. Ac ym kyffes yduw arglwyd ny bu ymmi achaws agwr erioed onyd hynny. Ac yna y govynnawd Gorthern y veugant gwr mawr y wybodeu oed hwnnw. a allei hynny vod yn wir. gallei arglwyd hep ef. Gynt pan ssyrthiawd lucifer or decuet rad or nef. a llawer o engylion y git ac ef; yny mod yr ottoedynt pan erchis yr arglwyd ydunt drigaw. ymaent yn trigaw yr hynny hyt hediw. Ac ymae llawer onadunt yn gallu kymryt drech corff dyn amdanaw. ac ymrithiaw yn rith gwreic; ac yn derbynyeit kyt gan wr. ac eilweith ymrithiaw yn rith gwr. achydiaw a gwreic drwy ev hwnn. ac or kyt hwnnw; ef aallei y keffit beichiogi. Agwedy menegi yr brenhyn yn llwyr. ef a ouynnawd yr wreic a vynnei hi efo yn vab idi dros ymab hi hvnn. ac ynteu a gymerei arnaw y diwallu hi tra vei vew ef yn gistal ay gorff e hvnn. Arglwyd hep hi peth a wnahutti am mab i pei ysgaffuti. kymysgu hep ef y waet ar dwfyr ac ar kalch; y geissiaw gan y gweith sseuyll. Och arglwyd hep hi llad di vi; ac na lad vy mab. Paham arglwyd hep y mab pabeth a wnay ym gwaet i peri yr gweith ssevill mwy no gwaet arall. Vyn deudec prif veird hep y brenhyn adywedassant na ssavei y gweith byth yny geffit gwaet mab hep dat y gymysgu ar dwfyr ac ar kalch. Arglwyd hep y mab gad ydunt dyuot ger dy vron di yneb adywat hynny.Fol. 61 Ac yna y gelwid ar y deudec prif veird ger bronn ybrenhyn. a govyn ydunt aoedynt ardelw ar a dywedasseynt. y gwnai gwaet mab hep dat yr gweith ssevill. Ac y kawssant yn ev kynghor bod yn ardelw. o dybygu bot yn drech ev geir wynt yll deudec; nor hwnn y mab ehvn. Ac yna y go[vyn]nawt y mab ydunt pa beth a oed yn llesteirias yr gweith sseuyll. A gwedy na wideynt atteb idaw. y govynnawt y brenhyn yr mab pa beth aoed yny lesteirias. Ac yna y dywat y mab arglwyd hep ef; a dan y broynsswrn rackw yssyt ymherued y plas. ymae yr llyn teckaf or aweles neb; ar dyfnaf. ac ynggwailawt y llynn y mae kist o vaen goreu ygweith awelas neb. ac yny gist vaen y mae dwy dreic yn kysgu. aphan deffroant ymlad a wnant. ac o angerd yr ymlad hwnnw. y kyffre y gist vaen. ar dwfyr. ar daear. yny wasgaro yr gweith pob maen y wrth i gilid. Agwedy bythynt yn ymlad y nos; kysgu rac blinder awnant y dyd. ac yna y keffir y gweith yn digyffro. Agwedy menegi yr brenhyn hynny: ef aberis cladu lle ydywedassei yr mab idaw. ac ny bu bell y cladassant: yny gad y llynn anodun teckaf awelaf neb. Ac yna keisiaw onadunt gwehynnv y llynn; hep dygyaw ydunt. Agwedy gwelet hynny or brenhyn; govyn aoruc yr mab aoed fford y ellwng yllyn odeno. oes arglwyd hep y mab a gwaethaf yw y ellwng. kyt bo gwaethaf heb ef. mi avynnaf y ellwng. Ac yna ydoeth y mab idaw oy geluydodeu; ac ay dillynghawd yn pymp frwt y redec.Fol. 61v Ac an ab y lleian y gelwit ymab kyn no hynny. Ac o hynny allan y dodet arnaw Merdyn. o achos y gaffael yngkaer vyrdyn. A gwedy dillwng y llyn yny gat y gist vaen adywetpwyt vchot. y brenhin a vynnei gwelet peth oed yny gist vaen. Ac yno yd egoret y gist vaen. Prophwidoliaeth Merdyn emreis.

Gortheyrn gortheni yn eisteu ar lan y llynn gwehynniedic. y kyuodassant dwy dreic: vn wen ac vn coch. ac ymlat girat y ryngthunt. A gyrru or dreic wen y coch y eithauioed y llynn. Ar dreic coch gwedy y doluriaw a yrrawt y wenn dracheuyn. Agwedy gwelet o Gorthern hynny; govyn awnaeth y verdyn peth a arwidockae hynny. ymdorri o wylaw (a oruc a galw) y yspryt attaw a dywedut o brophwydoliaeth. Gwae (hi) y dreic coch canys yhaball yssyt yn bryssiaw. Egogoueu aachub ydreic wenn er honn aarwydockaa y saisson; E dreic coch aarwydockaa y bryttannyeit: yr honn agyuerssengir y gan y wenn. Wrth hynny ymynydet awastattehir val y glynneu; ac auonyd y glynneu alithrant o waet. Diwyll y gristonogaeth adilyir; achwymp yr eglwisseu aymdewynnic. Eny diwed y ragrymhaa y gyuarssangedic: ac y diwalder yr ystronnyon y gwrthneppa. Canys baed kernyw aryd cannorthwy; amynygleu yr ystronnyon asathyr adan ydrayd. Enyssoed yr eigiawn adarystynghant idaw: a gwladoed freinc a ved. Ty ruvein a houynhaa y diwalder ef; ay diwed avyd pedrus. Engeneu y bobil yd anrydedir; ay weithredoed avyd bwyt yr aydatkano. Cwech gwedy ef aymlynant y deyrn wialen; a gwedy wyntev y kyuyt y pryf o germania.Fol. 62 Y morawl vleid adyrcheif hwnnw; yr hwnn agedymeithockaa llwyneu yr affric. Y krevid a dilehir eilweith; a symudedigiaeth yr eisteduaeu pennaf avyd. Teilyngdawt llundeyn adurdockaa caer geint; a seithuet bugeil caer efrauc a vynycha teyrnas llydaw. Myniw a wisgir o vantell caerllion; aphregethwr iwerdon a vyd mvd o achos y mab yn tyfu ynghalon y vam. Ef a daw glaw gwaet; a girat newyn alywia y rei marwaul. Pan delant y petheu hynny. y doluria y dreic coch; ac yny bo llithredic y llawr y grymhaa. Ena y bryssia direidi ydreic wenn; ac adeiliadeu y gardeu adiwreidir. Seith dygiawdyr y teyrn wialen aledir; ac vn onadunt a vyd ssant. Crotheu ev mammeu a hollir; ar meibion a enir kyn oed. Dirvawr boen a vyd yr dynnyadon: y dalu yr rei eissiewedic. A wna y petheu hynny a wisc gwr evydawl; athrwy llawer o amseroed ar varch evrdawl ageidiw perth llundeyn. Odyno yd ymchwoyl y dreic coch yny phriodolion deuodev ac yndaw ehvn y llauuria ydywalhau. Wrth hynny y daw dial y holl kyvoedawc: canys pob tir a dwyll y amaeth. Maruolaeth a gribdeilia y bobyl ar holl kenedloed adifrwitha. E gwedillion a adavwant ev ganedic daear; ac aheant gardeu ystronawl. Ebrenhyn bendigieit a darmertha llynghes; ac yn neuad y deudec yrwng y gwynvydedigion y rivir. Ena y byd truan adawedigiaeth y deyrnas; ac ydlannev yr ydev a ymchwoil yn anfrwithlawn. Eilweith y kyuid ydraic wenn; a merch germania a wahawd. Eilweith y llenwir yn gardeu ni o ystronawl hat;Fol. 62v ac yn eithavioed y llynn y gwanhaa y dreic coch. Odyna y coronheir y pryf o germania; ac y kledir y tywyssawc evydeit. Tervyn gossodedic yssit idi. yr hwnn ni eill mynet trostaw; deng mlyned adeugeint a chant y byd yn anwastadrwyt adarystyngedigaeth. try chant hagen y gorffowys. Ena y kyuyd yny erbyn gogled wynt; ar blodeu agreawd y gwynt or deheu agribdeilia. Ena id eurir ytempleu; ac ni gorfowys llymder ev kledyfeu. Breid vyd ocheif y pryf o germania y ogoveu; canys dial y vrat adaw yny erbyn. Wrth y diwed ygrymhaa y chweric; degwm normandi hagen a argyweda. Canys pobil adaw yn y erbyn ymewn prenn apheisieu heyrn amdanadunt; y rei agymher dial o diwalder hwnnw ay enwired. Ef agyweiria yr hen dywyllodron ym presswilua; achwymp yr estronnyon a ymdewynnic. Hat y dreic wenn oc an gardeu ni a eillir; agwedillion y genedil a degymmir. Gwed tragwydawl geithiwet a dyborthant. ac ev mam a vriwant ogeibieu ac erreidir. Ena y dynessa ydwy dreic. vn onadunt o ergyt kynghorvynt a dygir; y llall hagen a ymchweil a dan wasgawt y henw. O dyno y nessaa llew gwirioned; ar vreviat yr hwnn yd ergrynant tyreu freinc ar ynysolion dreigeu. En dydieu hwnnw eur or lilivm ar danhaden adrossir; ac aryant alithyr o ewined y rei a vrefuoynt. Epengrychion awisgant amrauailion gnvfoed; ar abit vchaf a arwydockaa y petheu o vewn. Traet y rei agyuarthwynt a drychir: hedwch a gaffant y bwistviled. dyniolaeth a doluria ev poen. Ef a hollir furyf ygyfnewit; ar hanner avyd crwn.Fol. 63 Ef a balla cribdeil y barcutanot; a dannet y bleideu a bylhir. Canawon y llew a symudir ymorolion byscgawd; ar erir hwnnw a wna y nyth ar vynyd erryei. Gwyned a gocha oy mammawl waet; a thy corineus a lad chwe broder. Onossolion dagreuoed y gwlyppaha yr ynys; o dyno y gelwir paub ar bob peth. Gwae hi normandi canys yndi y dineuhir emehennyd y llew: a gwedy y dryllier y alodeu y byrir oe dadawl dywarchen. Y blant ef a lauuriant ehedic ar goreuchelder; kynhelw hagen y petheu newyd adyrcheuir. Yr mediannvs owarder id argywedir o enwired; yny bo ef wisgedic oy dad. Wrth hynny y rwymedic o dannet y baed coet; a esgyn blaen y mynyded a gwasgaud ypenfestiniauc. Llidiaw a wna yr alban. ac yny bo herwid alwedic ystlysseu; llauuriaw a wna ydineu gwaet. Eny enev ef y rodir frwyn. yr hwnn a wneir yn arffed llydaw. Erir tor gynghreir a eura hwnnw; ac yny trydy nyth y llawenhaa. Ena y deffroant canaon y llew. agwedy id ysgaeluswynt y llwyneu; o vewn mvroed y dinessyd id heliant. Ayrua nyt bychan or a wrthneppo a wnant; a thauodeu y teiriw adrychant. Mynygleu y rei avrefwynt a orthrymant o gadwinave a henavion amseroed anewidhant. Odena or kyntaf yr pedweryd. or pedweryd yr trydet. or trydet yr eil: y troir bawd yn olew. E chwechet a diwreidia mvroed iwerdon; ay llwyneu a ssymvt yn wastatrwyd. Amravailion ranneu adwc yn vn: ac o ben y llew y coronheir. Y dechreu ef a ymdyry i orwaged: y diwed hagen a ehetta ar oreuchelder.Fol. 63v Hwnnw a adnewydhaa eisteduaev ygwynvydedigion trwy yr gwladoed; ac alehaa y bugelid yn lleod gwedus. Dwy gaer a wisc dwy vantell: a gweryuolion rodyon aryd yr gwerydon. Odyno y gobrin canmawl yr holl kyuoethawc; ac yrwng y gwynvydedigion y kyffleheir. O hwnnw y kerda linx a dyllha pob peth: yr hwnn a ymdewynnic yn gwymb y briawt genedil. Drwy hwnnw y kyll normandi y dwy ynys; ac oi hen deilyngdawt yd yspeilir. Odyna yd ymchweilant y kiwdawdwyr yr ynys; canys anyhvndeb yr ystronnyon a ymdengis. Er hen gwynn ar varch gwelw yn diheu adrossa avon perydon; ac a gwialen wen a vessur melyn arnei. Cadwaladyr a eilw kynan; ar alban a gymer yny gedymeithas. Ena y byd aerva or ystrawn genedloed; ac yna y llithrant yr avonyd o waet. Ena y tyrr mynyded llydaw; ac or teyrn wialen y coronheir y bryttannieit. Ena y llenwyr kymre o lewenyd; a chedernyt kernyw a irhaa. O henw brutus yd henwir yr ynys; ac enw yr estronnyon a balla. O gynan y kerda baed ymladgar; y hwnn a limhaa blaynev y danhet o vewn y lwynev freinc. Ef a dyrcheif pob kedernyt mwiaf: ac yr rei lleiaf aryd amdiffyn. Hwnnw a ofnhaa yr avia ar affrica; canys y ruthyr ef a estyn y eithavion yr yspayn. En nessaf y hwnnw y daw boch o sserchawl gastell abaryf ariant idaw ac achyrn evr: yr hwnn achwyth oy ffroyneu y veint wybrev yny dywyllhao yr holl ynys. Hedwch a vyd yny amser ef; ac o frwithlonder y dywarchen yd emylheir yr ydeu.Fol. 64 E gwraged yn ev kerdediat avydant nadred; a phob cam ydunt alenwir o ssyberwit. Ena yd adnewidheir kestill godineb; ac ny pheid ssaetheu kybydiaeth o vratheu. Fynnaw(n) echwit a ymchweil yn waet; a deu vrenhyn a wnant ornest am y llewes o ryd y vagyl. Pob gweryt a gynheicka; dynyolaeth ny pheit a godinab. Pob peth o hynny teir oes ay gwyl; yny datkudier y brenhyn cladedic yngkaer llundeyn. Eilweith yd ymchweil newin a maruolaeth y bobil; ac o diffeithwch y keirid y doluria y kiwdawdwyr. Odyno y daw baed y gyfnewid. yr hwnn a eiliw y kynveinioed yw colledigion boruehid. Y vronn ef a vyd bwid yr rei eisiewedic; ay davawd a hedycha yr ssychedigion. Oy enev of ykerdant avonyd; y rei a werennant y gwywon weusset ydynnyon. Odyna ar twr llundein y crehir pren atheir keing arnaw: yr hwnn adywylla yr holl ynys oled i deil. Yn erbyn hwnnw y kyvyt gogled wynt; ac oy enwir chwythiat ef a gribdeilia y trydyd geing. E dwy hagen a dricko a achub lle y diwreidiedic; yny dihelwo yneill yllall o amylder y deil. O deno hagen y kymher yr vn lle y dwy; ac adar y teyrnassoed eithiaf a gynheil. Yw wladolion adar y byd argyweidiawdyr; canys rac ofyn y wasgawt ef. y collant ev ryd ehedeat. Yn nessaf y hwnnw ydaw assen enwired buan yngweith eur; a llesc yn erbyn kribdeil bleidiev. En (y*) dydieu hynny y llosgant y deri yny llwineu; ac yngheinghev y llwif y genir y mes. Mor hafre drwy sseith drws a ret;Fol. 64v ac avon wysc trwy sseith mis a gymer chwa. Piscawt honno owres y bydant varw; ac o honadunt y crehir ynadred. Yna yd oira enneint badwn; ac ev dyfured echwydawl a vagant angheu. Llundeyn a gwyn angheu vgein Mil; ac avon temhys assymvdir yn waet. Perchen y kwfuleu a wahodir yr neithioreu; ac ev lleff aglywir hyt yn mynyd mynheu. Teir ffynhawn a gyvyd o gaer wint; frydeu yr rei hynny a hollant yr ynys yn deir ran. Y neb a yfo o vn onadunt; o hir uuchet yd aruera ac ny orthrymbir o wander rac llaw. A yvo or eil; o annifficgedic newyn y diballa. ac yny wyneb ybyd ydiliwder arruthyr. A yuo or dryded; o dissyvyd angheu y diballa. ac nythric y gorff mewn bed. Y rei avynho gochel ydemphestyl honno; wynt a lauuriant o ymdirgelu o amrauaelion kudiedigaetheu. Wrth hynny pa bwys bynnac adotter arnadunt furyf corff arall agymher; canys daear yn vein. Mein yn bren. pren yn lludw. Lludw yn dufuyr. a vyrier yn vchaf aymchweil yn issaff. Ar hynny y dyrchevir Morwyn o gaer y llwyn llwyd y rodi medegynyaeth y hynny; a gwedy prouer pob keluydyt oe hanadyl y hvn y ssycha y ffynnyhonev argyweidiawdyr. Odena yny yachao hitheu oe iachwidawl vedyglyn: y kymher yny llaw deheu llwyn kelydon ac yny llaw assu idi kedernyt muroed llundein. Pa le bynnac y kerdo hitheu camheu brwnstonawl a wna; y rei a vagant deudyblic fflam. Y mwc hwnnw agyffre gwyr Rodwm; ac awna bwyd yr rei a dan ymor oed. O druennon dagreuoed y llithyrir hitheu;Fol. 65 ac o arruthyr diaspat y llenwir yr ynys. Y karw dec geing alad honno; y pedwar onadunt aarwedant coronev eur. E chwech ereill a ymchweilir yn gyrn buffleit. y rei agyffroant teir ynys brydein oc ev ysgymvn ssein. Yna y ssychir llwyn danet; ac o dynyawl llef gan ymdorri y llefhaa. Dynessa kymre agwasc kernyw wrth dy ystlys; a dywet y gaer wynt ydaear ath llwng. Symmvd eistedua y bugeil yr lle ydisgyn llongheu; ac ymlyneint yr aylodeu ereill y penn. Canys y dyd avryssia yn yr hwnn ydyballant y rei dinessit anudonul. Gwynder y gwlan a argyweda; ac amrauaylder lliw y rei hynny. Gwae hi yr anudonul genedyl; canys caer arderchawc adigwyd oe hachos. Llawenhau a wna y llongheu or veint achwanec; ac vn o deu peth a vyd. Draynawc gorththrwm o aualeu a adeilia honno o newyd; wrth arogleu y rei hynny yd ehedant adar amrauaylion llwyneu. Ford diruaur llyss a gyrch; ac o chwechant twr ykedernheir. Wrth hynny y kynghorvynha llundein; ay mvroed a achwanecka yn dri dyblic. Temys ay kyllchyna o bobparth; a chwedleu y gweithredoed hynny agerdant vynheu. Cudiaw yndi awna ydraynawc y aualeu; a gwneithur ford idaw a dan ydayar. En yr amser hwnnw ydyweit y mein: ar mor ykerdir y freinc arnaw agyuynghir o hir yspeit. Yam y dwy lan id ymglywant y dynyon: achedernyt yr ynys ahwyheir. Yna y menegir dirgelwch y moroed; a freinc rac ovyn a ergryna. Gwedy hyn ny o lwyn calatir y kerda krehir;Fol. 65v yr honn agylchy[na] yr ynys dwy vlyned. O nossawl lleuein y geiliw yr adar; a phob kenedil ederyn agedymeithockaa. idi. En niwyll y rei marwawl y kyffroant; a holl grawn yr yd alynghant. Odena y daw newin yr bobil; yn ol y newin girat angheu. Pan orffwisso y veint anghyfnerth honno; y kyrch yr edyn en ryved hwnnw glyn galabes. Ac yna y dyrcha y vynyd goruchel; ymphenn hwnnw y planha dar. ac yny cheingheu y gwna y nyth. Tri wy a deidiw yn y nyth; or rei y daw llwynawc. ableid. ac arth. E llwynawc a lwng y vam; ac adwc penn assen arnaw. Wrth hynny yd ymdengis y kymeredic ac aaruthra y vrodir gan ev hymlid yn nordmandi ar ffo. A gwedy ydyffrowynt y baed ysgithrawc yd ymchweylant o vordwy y gyt kerdet ar llwynawc. Pan el ynteu y wneithur cad went yd ymwna yn varw; ac enwired y baed ay kyffroha. Eny lle y kyrch ynteu y gelyn aphan del evch y ben y chwyt ynteu yn y lygeit ef ay wyneb. Sef awna y llwinawc heb ebryuygu y gnottahedic vrat; temigiaw y droed assu idaw ay diwreidiaw oll oe gorff. Enteu awna neidiaw ac ysglyneit y glust deheu yr llwynawc ay lysgwrn; ac yngogoveu y mynyded yd ymdirgela. Wrth hynny ybaed twilledic ageis y bleid ar arth y eduryt idaw y golledigion ailodeu. E rei gwedy ydelwynt yn dadleu a adauwant idaw deu droed y llwynawc ay glust ay losgwrn. ac or rei hynny y gwneir aylodeu hwch idaw. Ynteu aorffowis ac a ery edvryt idaw y edewit. Yn hynny y disgyn y llwynawc or mynyded;Fol. 66 ac a ymritha yn vleid. amegis y bythei. idaw ymdidan ar baed; yn ystrywis ef ay llwng oll. Odena yd ymritha yn vaed; a megis heb aylodeu yd erhy ef ygevinderiw. A gwedy ydelhwynt attaw: o deissyuyt deint y llad wynt. ac o ben y llew y coronheir. En dydieu hwnnw y genir y ssarph a ymdewynnic o angheu y rei marwaul. Oy hyt ef y kyllchynir llundein; ac a el heibiaw alwng. Ych mynydawl agymher pen bleid; ay danhet a wynhaa yngeveil hafuren. Ef a gedymeithia idaw kynnveinioed yr alban a chymry; y rei assychant avon temys oe hyuet. Er assen a eiliw y boch barf hir: ac asymmvt furyf hwnnw. Irllonhau awna y mynydawl galwedic bleid; achyrn y tarw atemhickia yndunt. Gwedy ymadeuho ymrodi ycreulonder yllwng ef ev kic ac ev hesgyrn; ac ymphen mynyd urian yllosgir. Gwreichion y gynheu asymudir yn eleirch; y rei a noviant yny ssych megys ynyr avonid. Ypysgawt a lynghant yny pysgawt; ar dynion adraflynghant yny dynion. Wrth heneint yrei y gwneir lleuver adan y mor; ac wynt a luniant bredycheu adan ymoroed. Yllongheu assodant; ac aryant nyt bychan agynullant. Eilweith y llithyr temys ac yn y bwynt alwedigion avonyd eithyr tervyn y kanawl y kerda. Y cayroed nessaf a gud; ar mynydoed gwrthwynebus adrossa. Ydaw y gobryn ffynhawn galabes yn llawn o vrat ac enwired. O honno y genir ybredycheu y alw ygweyndyt yr ymladeu. Keder nyd y llwyneu agydwedant gyt ar elecheu;Fol. 66v y gan y deheuwyr y kytherdet. Bran agyrch gyd ar barcuttanod; a chorfforoed y lladedigion alwng. Ar muroed caer loew y nythaha ttulluan. ac yny nyth ef y crehir assen. Hwnnw a vag ssarph maluern; ac yn llawer ovredycheu y kitkiffroha. Kymeredic y teyrn wialen id esgyn goruchelder; ac o aruthyr datseyn yd aruthra pobil y wlat. En dydieu hwnnw ysymudant y mynyded; ac yd yspeilir y kymhydeu oc eu llwyneu. Canys daw pryf tanawl y anhadil; yr hwnn a lysg y gwyd yny bo gwrthladedic y gwlybwr. O hwnnw y kerda sseith llew; a phenneu bwchot dybryt. Drewiant o froineu y gwraged alygrant. ar rei priawt yn gyffredyn ygwnant. Ni wybyd y tat y mab priawd; canys o deuawd yr anyueilieit y rewydant. Wrth hynny ydaw cawr yr enwired; yr hwnn adrwywana paub o lymder y lygeit. Yn erbyn hwnnw y kyuyd dreic caer. vyrangon; ac agadarnhaa y distriw. Ac yna y gwneir kyt kerdediat ac y gorchvygir ydreic; aco enwired y budugawl ykyuerssengir ef. Canys esgynnv ydreic awna; ac yny bo diodedic y wisg yd eisted yn noeth. Hwnnw a lewhaa a dan emunogeu ydreic; ac a mayd oe dyrchauedic llosgwrn y noethedic. Eilweith yr atkymher drech y cawr; ac achledyf y briw gorcharuanev hwnnw. Ene diwed y plygir y dreic adan y losgwrn; ar gwennwynic a varwhaa. En ol hwnnw ydaw baed tottyneis; ac o greulawn llwybyr y kyuarssangha y bobyl. Caer loew adyrcheif llew; yr hwnn a varchocka yn llawer o vrwidreu drwy irlloned.Fol. 67 Hwnnw assathyr adan ydraet; ac o agoredigion gorcharuaneu ytrwywenir. Eny diwed yllew a dadleu ay deyrnas; a chevyn y bonhedigion a esgyn. Ar hynny y daw tarw y dadleu; ac a derhy yllew ay droet deheu. Hwnnw a dielwa annyhvndeb drwy yr ynys; ay gyrn a vriw yn muroed excestyr. Llwynawc caer duball adial y llew; ac ay treuyliha oll ae danhet. Neidyr caer lincoll adamgylchyna y llwynawc; ac yngwid honno allawer o dreigieu y dengys y haruthyr chwibanat. Odena yd ymchweilant ydreigeu: ar neill a vriw y llall. Er edeyniawc a gyuarssangha y honn heb adaned; ac aweisg y hewined wenwinic yny geunoed. Ereill a deuwant yr ymmrysson; ar neill alad yllall. E pymphet anessaa yr lladedigion; ar gwedillion o amraylion angheuoed a vriw. Ef a esgyn kefyn vn; ac a chledyf ygwahana y penn ywrth y corff. E diodedic wisg a esgyn arall; ay deheu avwrw y llwsgwrn llwm. Ar hwnnw yd ymdyrcheif y noeth; pryd na allei dygrynhoi yn wisgawc. Ereill aboenha iar y kefyn; ac yngkronder y deyrnas y kymhell. Odena y daw llew ofnawc; o diruawr diwalrwit. Teir pympran a dwc yn vn: ac ef ehwnn awledycha ybobil. Cawr aymdywynnycka kyn wynnet alliw eiry; aphobil gwynn a blodeuha. Tlysseu ytywyssogion a datkanant: ar darystynghedigion a ssymudir yn dybryt brwidreu. Eny rei hynny y genir llew: hwydedic o dynyawl greu; Adan hwnnw y dodir y crymaneu yn yr yd: yr hwn tra llauurio oe vryt y gyuerssenghir y ganthaw.Fol. 67v E rei hynny ahedycha kertweinwyr caer efurawc; ar gwrthladedic arglwid a esgyn ykerbyd a dywyssha. Ar dynhiat y gledyf y pygythia y dwirein: ac oleu y olwineu ef a lenwir o waet. O dena ybyd pisgawd yny mor: yr hwnn o at alwedic chwibanat y neidr. y kyttia gyta hwnnw. O dena y genir tri tharw echdywynedic; y rei a ymchweiler yn wyd gwedy treulwynt ev poruehit. E kyntaf a arwed ffrowill gwennwinic; ac y wrth yganedic gwedy ef y trossa y gevin. Dwyn y frowill i ganthaw alauuriant wynteu; ac ygan yr eithaf yd emendehir. Dychwelut wynebeu pob vn ywrth ygilid awnant; yny bwriwynt y ffiol wennwinic. Er rei hynny ydynessa dywylliawdyr yr alban; yr hwnn adebic oe gevyn yn ssarph. Hwnnw a wackaa ymchwelud ydywarchen; ac ydeu ywlat awynnant. Y ssarph alauuria gordineu gwenwyn: val na del llyssieu yn yr ydeu. O angheuawl dymhestyl y diffic ybobil; a muroed y dinessyt adivehir. Caer loew a rodir yn vedeginiaeth: yr honn y merch vaeth a gwssyt y rwng neb a ffrowyllo. Canys mantawl medeginiaeth aarwed: ac ar virr yr ynys aat newidhaa. Odena deu a ymlynant y deyrn wialen; y rei a wassnaitha y corunawc dreic. Ef adaw arall mewn hayarn; ac a varchocka y ssarff a ehetto. Y noethedic corff yd eisted ar y gevyn; ac a vwrw ydeheu oy lysgwrn. Lleff hwnnw adiffre ymoroed; ar eil avwrw y ovyn. O dena yr eil agedymeithockaa yr llew; ac o gynnyrch dadleu gytkerdet awnant. O symudedigion aeruaeu echwyn a varwhaa; ac ysgwell diwalder dybryt. Odena ydaw nebun mewn tympan athelyn;Fol. 68 ac aglaerhaa diwalder yllew. Wrth hynny y tagnauedant kenedloed y deyrnas: ac ygalwant y llew yr vantawl. Yny kiflehedic eistedua yd ystudia yr pwisseu; ay dwilaw a estin yr alban. Wrth hynny y tristahant kymydeu y gogled; a drysseu ytempleu adanllewychant. Eserennawl vleid agyflocka kedymeithasseu; ay lysgwrn ef adamgilchy kernyw. Yhwnnw y gwrthneppa y marchawc yny kerbyd: yr hwnn assymud ybobil ef yn vaed. Wrth hynny y baed a diffeithia y kymydeu; ac yn dyuynder hafren yd ymdirgela y ben. Dyn adamblygir y llew yn win: alleuchaden yr eur a dalla llygeit yr edreichieit. Er aryant awynnha yny amgillch; ac amrauaelion bryssureu a vlinhaa. Yn llywiodraeth y gwin ybrwisgir y rei marwawl; a gwedy gossotto y nef ynydaear yr edrychant. Wyneb yssyr adrossant ywrth y rei hynny: ac ev gnottahedic rydec adistriwyant. Y rei irllonyon a lossgant yr ydeu; ar kyt rwymedic gwlybwr a neckehir. Y gwreidieu ar kangheu gweithieu assymudant: a newydder y petheu hynny a vyd anryuedawd. Ymdywynwgrwid yr heul a nycha lectrin mercurius: ac ybyd arruthyr yr edreichieit. Stilbon assymud taryan archadie; a venus a eiliw helmp y gan mars. Helmp mars agymysg yr wybyr: kyndaret mercurius agerda yderuyneu. Orion hayarnawl a noetha y gledyf: ar morawl heul avlinhaa yr wybyr. Jubiter a gerda y ganyadedigion llwybreu; a venus a edeu y gossodedigion llinnieu. O seren yssadwrn ydigwid kyghorvynt;Fol. 68v ac achrymaneu krymion yllad y rei marwawl. Riuedi deu chwech o dey y ssyr; a gwyn traws rydec val y lletty wyr. Annyan gemini aadauwant yn ellwnghedigion; ar kelwrn a irllonant yny ffynhonyev. Penhegen y bunt adybynnant yn ebryvygedic: yny dotto y maharen y grwmhion gyrn iadanaw. Llossgwrn yscorpiwn a greha lleuchadeneu; ar cranc a dadleu ar heul. Y wyry a esgyn kevyn y sseithit; ar gwerynolion blodeu a wineuha. Kerbyd y lluat agynhyrua zodiacum: ac yn wylouein y torrant pliades. Nit ymchweil neb y wassanaeth iani; namyn yngogoueu y drws caeat yd ymdirgela adrianus. Yn dyrnawt y peleidir ykyuodant y moroed; ar y lw henn aatnewidhaa. E gwynnoed a ymvriwant o girat chwythiat: ac agymysgant ssein [y rwng] y ssyr.

Ac yna gwedy daruot y verdin traethu yr anodun broffwidoliaeth honno. Ryuedu hynny a oruc pawb or ay gwarandawassei meint oed ssynnwir y gwas ieuang. Sef y gouynnawd gortheyrn y verdin pa angheu ay dygei ef. Ac yna y dywat Merdyn wrth Gortheyrn: gochel di tan meibion custennyn osgelly. canys ydunt yr awr honn yn lledu ev hwilieu ardraeth llydaw yn dyuot y ynys brydein y ymlad asaesson. Ac wynt aoresgynnant y bobyl ysgymvn honno. Ac yn gyntaf wynt ath losgant di y mewn twr. canys ti di oth twyll ath dryc ystriw avredycheist ev tad wynt: ac ev brawd. ac awahodeist ymma yr keisiau nerth y ganthunt. sef ymae hynny yn amhorth ytt hediw. canys deu angheu yssyd yth ogyuadaw.Fol. 69 nyt amgen nor saesson yssyt yn goresgyn arnat; ac auory ydaw emreis ac vthyr yn duhvn ydraeth totneis yr tir. Ac wynt a gochant wynebeu y saesson oc ev gwaet. A gwedy yllader hengyst y coronheir emreis wledic; ar emreis hwnnw a wledycha y gwladoed ac a atnewydhaa yr eglwisseu. ac or diwet agwenwyn y lledir. Ac yny ol ynteu y coronheir vthyr y vraut ahwnnw heuyt a gwenwyn ylledir. ahynny odwyll ac ystryw ysaesson. Ac yn ol hwnnw ydaw baed kernyw a hwnnw ay llwng wynt oll. Ac ny bu hwy nogid hyt trannoeth yny doeth emreis ac vthyr adengmil o varchogyon aruawc ganthunt ydir ynys brydeyn. Aphan uu honneit ev dyuot; ymgynullaw a oruc yr holl bryttannyeit yn duhun y dyuot ar emreis a gwrhau idaw.

Ac yna y kymyrth Emreis coron y deyrnas ac ykyssegrwyd ef yn vrenhin. Ac yna ymgynghor aoruc pa beth kyntaf a wnay; ay kyrchu gortheyrn ay kyrchu y saesson. Sef y cauas yny gynghor mynet am ben gortheyrn y tu achymre. A gwedy ev dyuot hyt yn erging. kyrchu castell Goronw a orugant arben mynyd deu arth ar lan gwy avon adaw o vynyd klorach. canys hyt yno y ffoassei gortheyrn. Agwedy eu dyuot yno: dwyn ar gof a orugant idaw ry lad ev tat ac ev brawd. adwyn saesson baganieit ysgymhvn twillyrieit bradwyr y ynys brydein. Ac wrth hynny heb ef o wyrda ymledwch yn duhun diueiriawc ar castell rackw. Ac yn diannot dodi tan aorugant yngkylch o gilch yr castell ay llosgi ac a oed yndi o da a dynion. ac y llas gortheyrn ac y llosgat. Oet er arglwyd oed pan anet sant freit.Fol. 69v c.c.c.c.lx.iij. blyned. Aphan gigleu hengyst ry lad gortheyrn ovynhau a oruc. canis klywyssei nat oed yn freinc dyn a allei diodef ydyrnawt gan emreis heb angheu. Ac y gyt hynny; hael oed adoeth achyviawn a buchedawl athrugarawc. Sef aoruc y saesson yna rac ovyn emreis ffo yny uuant ytu arall y hvmyr. ac yna ymgadarnhau aphresswyliaw. Pan gigleu emreis hynny; ef a aeth ay lu yn duhvn yn ev hol. Ac y bu drwc ganthaw gwelet yr eglwisseu gwedy ev distriw or saesson. Adywedut a oruc drwy nerth duw odelei yn vyw drachevin. y parei ef gwneithur yr eglwisseu val y buessynt oreu. Pan gigleu hengist ry dyuot emreis; annoc y wyr y ymlad yn wrawl aoruc. adywedut vdunt nad oed vawr gallu emreis o varchogyon llydaw. ac nad oed arnadunt wynteu ovyn ybryttanieit canys yttoedynt deu can Mil o wyr aruawc. Ac yno ydoethant yr lle e elwir Maes beli ar vedwl dwyn kyrch dissyvyd o dwill am ben emreis. Ac yr hynny ny ochelawd emreis y lle hwnnw. A gwedy ev dyuot yno bydinaw a orugant. a rodi gwyr llydaw ar neilltu. ay wyr ynteu ehvn blith drafflith acwynt. Agossot a oruc gwyr dyuet ar ben brynnieu gan ev hystlys. A gwyr gwyned yny coet ger ev llaw. val y gallei emreis ay lu ymlit y saesson pa ford bynnac y ffoeint. Ac or tu arall ydoed hengist yn annoc y wyr ynteu ac yn ev dysgu. ac yna y llas llawer o bop tu. Ac or diwet y ffoas hengist ay wyr hyt yn lle ygelwit caer gynan. amynet yno mewn castell.Fol. 70 Ac ev hymlit aoruc emreis gan ev llad val ymordiwedei ac wynt. Ac yna eilweith ymvydinaw aorugant allad llawer o bop tu. ac or diwed y doeth bydin gwyr llydaw yr saesson. ac ev tyllu ac ev gwasgaru. drwi dysc y gwyr pennaf onadunt. Ac idoed eidol iarll caer loew yn ymgeissiaw a hengist y ymgyhwrd ac ef. Ac yny diwet yd ymgaffant yll deu; ac ymfust yn greulon a orugant yny welit ytan oc ev harveu megis mellt lleuchadenawl ymlaen taran. Ac val y bydynt uelly; ynychaf gorleis iarll ay vydin yn dyuot attadunt. ac yn diannot gwasgaru y saesson. Sef aoruc eidol yna o hyder hynny; kymryt hengist erbyn baryfle y benfestin ay dwyn hyt ympheruet y vydin ehvn. ac o hyt y lef dywedut aoruc. kyuerssenghwch weithion ysaesson neur oruuwit arnadunt. canys caffat hengist. Ac o hynny allan ffo a oruc y saesson. ac odena y ffoas Octa vab hengist. a rann vaur or llu: hyt yngkaer efrawc. Ac ossa y gevynderw a rann arall or llu: a ffoassant hyt yngkaer alklut. ac yna ymerbynieit ac emreis. ¶ Agwedy goruot o emreis arnadunt; ef agauas y gaer. ac yna ybu tri dieu. yn peri cladu y calaned aledessit yny anghen ef. amedeginaethu y rei brathedic. a bwrw ev lludet wynteu. Ac yna yd aeth emreis y gymryt kynghor am hengist. Ac yd oed yny gynghor yna eidal escop caer loew. braud oed hwnnw y eidol iarll caer loew. Aphan welas hwnnw hengist yn sseuyll ydywat ha wyrda hep ef:Fol. 70v pei eruynnei pawb ohonawch rydhau hengist. Mi ay lladwn vy hvn ef. Mal y gwnaeth Samuel brophwit pan welas agas brenhin amalech yngkarchar. ef aberis y drylliaw yn van dryllieu. adywedut wrthaw val hynn. val y gwneithosti y meibion heb ev mamev: minneu a wnaf dy vam ditheu hep vab. Ac yna y kymyrth eidol iarll caer loew hengist a mynet ac ef odieithyr y gaer yben brin aoed agos yr dinas. Ac yno yllas ac y clathpwyt. agwneithur cruc mawr ar y warthaf. val yd oed devawt yna yn lle y cledit ssowdan. Ac odena yd aeth emreis ay lu hyt yngkaer efrauc y geisiaw octa. Ac yna o gynghor y oreugwyr y kymerassant cadwyn yn llaw pob vn onadunt. athamheit obrid ymphen pob vn onadunt. a mynet velly yn ewyllys emreis. Adywedut wrthaw val hynn. Arglwyd vrenhin heb wynt gorchyuygedic yw an dwyweu ni. Ac ny phedrusswn ny: vod awch duw chwi yn gwledychu. yr hwnn yssyd yn kymhell yr ssawl vonhedigion hyn yn dy ewyllys di; yn yr agwed hon. Allyma ni ni arglwyd a chadwyn yn llaw pob vn ohonam. ac yn gymunawl. Aphar arglwyd an rwymaw os mynne. Ac yna yd aeth emreis y gymryt ygynghor amdanadunt. Ac yna y kyuodes eidal escop. a dywedut val hyn. E gobonite adoethant oc ev bod ev hvnn; y erchi trugared. ybobyl yr israel. acwynt ay caussant. ac ny byd gwaeth an trugaret nynheu nor hwnn yr ideon. Ac yna y rodet kyngkreir y octa ac yr oll bobyl a oed gyd ac ef.Fol. 71 Ac yna y rodes emreis vdunt ysgotlont y bresswiliaw yndi a dan dragywydawl geithiwet y emreis ay etiuedyon. ac velly ytangnauedwyt wynt. Agwedy goruot o emreis ar pob peth. dyvynnv a oruc attaw hyt yng kaer efrauc; y holl ieirll. ay varwnieit. ay archesgyp. ay esgyp. y ymgynghor ac wynt. Achyntaf kynghor a gaussant; peri kyweiriaw yr eglwisseu adistriwassei y saesson. dros wyneb y deyrnas. a hynny oll ar gost emreis. Ar pymthecuet dyt gwedy hynny yd aeth ef hyt yn llundein. ac yno yperis ef atnewydhau yr eglwisseu. ar kyureithieu drwc a ottoydit yn ev kynnal. nyt amgen no rodi yr meibion. ar wyrion. ar gorwyrion. ev gwir dylyet. odiroed a deiryd adylyeint. ac adaroed ev treissiaw amdanaw. achynnal gwirioned a oruc ymphob lle; a chyvyawnder. Ac odyno yd aeth emreis hyt yngkaer wynt; y wneithur yno val y gwnathoed ymphop lle. Agwedy daruot idaw llunyethu pob lle yno; ay hedychu. ef aaeth hyt yn salesburie. y edrech yno y niver abarassei hengist ev llad drwy y dwyll. o [ieirll*] abarwnieit a marchogion vrdolion. A thry chant manach a oed yna o gouent yn manachloc ambri. canys ambri a sseiliawd gyntaf y vanachloc honno. Agwedy menegi yr brenhin yn llwyr damchwein y dyledogion ry ledessit yno; tost uu ganthaw. ac am weled y lle honno mor diadurn ac y gwelei. Ac yna dyvynnv aoruc attaw holl sseiri mein ynys brydein ar rei prenn. y dechmygu gweith adurn parhaus; a safei yn dragywydawl wch penn y vedrawd honno.Fol. 71v Agwedy pallu ev holl ethrylith ganthunt. y doeth tramor archescop caer llion at emreis. adywedut ual hynn. Arglwyd hep ef par geisiaw attat Merdyn bard gortheyrn. ahwnnw arglwyd a dechymhic gweith anryued adurn o anniffic ethrylith a parhao tragywydolder. Ac yna yperis emreis keisiaw Merdyn ymphop lle; ac y cat ef ar lan fynhawn galabes yngwlat Euas canis yno y mynychei yr amser hwnnw vod. A gwedy y dwyn ger bron y brenhin; llawen uu yr brenhin wrthaw. ay derbynnieit yn enrydedus. Ac yna yd erchis emreis idaw dywedud daroganheu a delei rac llaw. Ac yna y dywat Merdyn; arglwyd hep ef. nyd yawn traethu oryw betheu hynny ony bei anghenreit. ac os dywettwn arglwyd; pan vei reit ym wrth yr yspryt yssyd ym dysgu. ef affoei iwrthyf. Ac yna ny mynnawd y brenhin ydiriaw hwy no hynny. namyn govyn idaw pa weith a ellit y dechmygu yno wch pen y vedrawt abarhaei yn dragywydawl. Sef y kynghoras Merdyn yna; mynet hyt yn Iwerdon lle gelwyd cor ykewri ar mynyd kilara. canys yno ydoed mein anryued eu hansawd. ac nyd oes arglwyd yn yr oes honn neb awoyppo dim iwrth y mein hynny. ac ny cheffir wynt o gedernyt nac o gryfder; onyd ogeluydit. aphebythei y mein hynny ymha val y maen yno; wynt asseuynt yn dragywydawl. Ac yna y dywat emreis drwy chwerthin pa ansawd heb ef y gellit ev dwyn wynt odyno.Fol. 72 Ac yno ydywat Merdyn na chyffro di arglwyd ar chwerthin nac ar wattwar; canys ny dywedaf vi namyn prudder agwirioned. Mein rinwedaul yw yr mein. ac amrauaeilion medeginiaetheu arnadunt. a chewri ay duc wynt gynt hyt yno. o eithauyon yr yspaen. ac ay rodassant yny mod y maent yno. Sef achos y dugant wynt yno. pan delei heint ar vn onadunt. Sef ygwneynt enneint yngkymherued y mein. ac yna y golchit y mein. ac ydodit y dwfyr hwnnw yn yr enneint. ar neb a vei glaf onadunt; o ba heint bynnac y bei. iechyt agaffei o vynet yr enneint. A llyssieu arodeynt yn yr enneint. ac ar llyssieu hynny yd iecheynt ev gwelioed. Aphan gigleu y bruttannieit rinwedeu y mein; annoc aoruc paub eu keisiaw. ac yn diannot yd aethant ygeisiaw yr mein pymtheng mil o wyr aruawc. ac vthyr yn bennaf arnadunt. a Merdyn gyt ac wynt canys oed oreu y ethrylith yn vn oes ac ef. Sef oed yna yn vrenhin yn iwerdon gillamwri. aphan gigleu gillamwri. bod llynghes ar vor iwerdon; kynullaw llu a oruc a dyuot yn erbyn ybryttannieit. ac anvon attadunt a govyn ydunt ystyr ev dyuodiat yno. A phan wybu ystyr ev neges chwerthin a oruc adywedut: nyt ryued heb ef gallu o genedil lesg gyuarssanghu ynys brydein canys ynvyt ynt. pan deleynt hyt yn iwerdon y beri y genedyl iwerdon ymlad ac wynt am gerric. Ac yn diannot ym gyrchu aorugant ac ymlat yn greulon.Fol. 72v allad llawer or gwidil. agyrru gillamwri ar ffo ac a dienghis oe wyr. Ac yn diannot mynet a oruc y bryttannyeit hyt yn lle yd oed mein. Ac yna y dywat Merdyn wrthunt. aruerwch weithion or geluydit goreu a wyppoch ydwyn y mein ymeith odymha. Agwedy aruer o bawp onadunt herwit y ethrylith; hep dygrynhoi dim ydunt. Chwerthin a oruc Merdyn adywedut. Llymha dewynnic ymae trech keluydit no chedernit. Ac hep lauur yny byd arnaw; onyt y anodun ethrylith ehvn. dwyn y mein aoruc or lle yd oedynt yny uuant yny llongheu. ac or llongheu dyuot yn hyrrwid ac wynt hyt yn mynyd ambri. Ac yna dyvynnv a oruc emreis hyt yno a oed o Jarll. abarwn. a marchoc vrdaul. ac ysgolheic urdasseid. wrth adurnaw y lle hwnnw o odidawc adurn. Ac yna y gwisgawd emreis coron y dyrnas am y benn. ac yna y goruc gwillua y sulgwyn. yn vrdasseid vrenhinawl tri dieu ar vntu. ac yrodes emreis gwir a iawn i bawp oe wir dylyet o ynys brydein. a rynghu bod ybawb o veint y gyuarws. val y gwedei ydaw. o eur ac aryant. ameirch ac arueu. a thir a dayar. Ac yn yr amser hwnnw yd oed deu archescopty yn wac. nyt amgen caer llion. a chaer effrawc. Sef y rodat yna o dyhvndeb e niver hwnnw y wr a elwit sampson arch escobot caer effrawc. Ac y divric arch escobot caer llion ar wysc. Agwedy llvnniethu yno pob peth; yd erchis emreis y verdyn dyrchauael y mein val ydoedynt yngkilara. A Merdyn ae dyrchevis wynt. Ac yna yd adnabu paub bod yn drech ethrylith achywreinrwit; nogid nerth achryfder.Fol. 73 Ac yn yr amser hwnnw yd oed Pasgen vab gortheyrn gwedy yr ffo hyt yn germania. ac yna kynullaw llu a oruc agauas vwyaf. y dyuot am ben emreis hyt yn ynys brydeyn. ac adav pob da vdunt yr hynny. A chredu pasgen a oruc gwyr germania. adyuot gyt ac ef aneirif o lynghesseu hyt yn ynys brydeyn. a dechreu anreithiaw. Aphan gigleu emreis hynny; kynullaw llu aoruc a dyuot yn erbyn pasgen ay lu. ac ev gyrru ar ffo yn gywilydus hyt yn iwerdon. Ac yna yd oed gillamwri yn vrenhyn yn iwerdon. a llawen uu hwnnw vrth pasgen. a chwinaw a oruc pob vn onadunt vrth y gilid rac meibion custennin. Ac yna kytduhunaw a orugant ylldeu y gyt a dyuot a llynghesseu ganthunt y vyniw i dir. a dechreu anreithiaw. Aphan gigleu vthyr hynny argysswr mawr oed arnaw: canys oed glaf emreis y vraud yngkaer wint. Ac nat oed ganthaw ynteu o niver val y gallei ymerbynieit a phasgen ac a gillamwri heuyt. A phan gigleu y deu wr hynny bot emreis yn glaf llawen uu ganthunt. o dybygu gallu goruot ar vthyr ehvn. Athra ottoydit yn hynny. Sef aoruc vn or saesson; eppa oed yhenw. dyuot ar pasgen a gouyn idaw pa veint arodei ef o da yr neb awnelei angheu emreis. Mi arodwn heb ef Mil o bvnnoed. am kedymeithas inheu tra vythwn vyw. Ac obythwn vrenhin; mi ay hanrededwn o dir adayar val ybythei vodlawn. Ac yna ydywat eppa; mi a won ieith y bryttannyeit ac ev moes. ac a wnn medeginiaeth. ac amhyny doro ym gedernit ar er hynn ydwyt yny adaw.Fol. 73v amynheu a wnaf i angheu ef. Ac yna ymgadarnhau a orugant. Ac yno yperis eppa eilliaw yben ay varyf yn vn dywygiat a manach. ac yny drech hwnnw y doeth ef parth a llys emreis ac offer medic ganthaw. ac ymdangos a oruc y rei o wyr y llys: amenegi y vod yn vedic da. Ac ny damunyt yno: namyn caffel medic da. A menegi hynny a wnaethpwyt y emreis. Ac yn diannot ydoeth hyt ar emreis. Ac ar hynt darparu diawt aoruc idaw arodi gwenwyn yndi. Ac yny lle yvet y diawt a oruc emreis; ay gynghori or twyllwr ysgymvn. y orffowis ac ylechu val y bei gynt y trwiwanei y gwenwyn ef. Ac yny le ymlithraw aoruc eppa or llys ymeith. Ac yna yd ymdangosses sseren anryued y meint. ac vn paladyr idi. ac ar ben y paladyr hwnnw yd oed pellen o dan ar lun dreic. ac o eneu y dreic honno yd oed dev baladyr yn kerdet. ar neill onadunt awelit yn ystynnv dros eithauioed freinc. Ar paladyr arall a welit dros iwerdon. ac yn ymrannv yn sseith paladyr bychein. Aphan yr ymdangosses y sseren honno; ovyn mawr agymyrth pawb or ay gwelas arnaw. Ac yna y peris vthyr dyvynnv attaw y holl doethion. agovyn ydunt pa beth a arwidockae y sseren honno. Ac yna wylaw a oruc Merdyn adywedut. O golletheb allu yhennill o genedyl y bryttannyeit trymhaf yw hwnn. canis ewch wedw o emreis wledic. Ac nyt ywch wedw o vrenhin arall; canys tydi arderchawc vthyr bendragon yssyt vrenhyn. Ac wrth hynny bryssia di y ymlat ath elynhion. a thi a oruydy arnad unt. ac avyde mediannvs ar gwbyl or ynys.Fol. 74 A thidi a arwidockaa y sseren a welssawch. ardreic tanawl adanei. ar paladyr a ymystynhawd dros freinc. a arwydockaa mab ytti arglwid. ac ef a oresgyn llawer or byt. ar paladyr arall aarwydockaa merch a vyd ytt. a meibion honno ay hwyrion a vyd eidunt ynys brydeyn ol yn ol. Sef a oruc vthyr yna kyt bei pedrus ganthaw a dywedassei verdyn idaw. kyrchu y elynnion aoruc ac ymlad yn llidiawc. allad llawer o bop tu. ac or diwet vthyr a oruu: agyrru gillamwri aphasgen ar ffo hyt ev llongheu ac yr mor gan llad ev gwyr val y gordiwedit wynt. A gwedyr uudugoliaeth honno; yd aeth vthyr hyt yngkaer wynt vrth varuuolaeth emreis y vraut. Ac yno y doeth yr archesgyb. ar esgyp. ar abbadeu. ar yscolheigion anrydedus. or holl ynys. ac yna y clatpwyt ef ger llaw manachloc ambri o vewn y gor y kewri. A gwedy cladu emreis y gwahodes vthyr hynny o niveroed y gyt ac ef. ac o gyt kynghor hynny o wyrda; y detholet vthyr yn vrenhin.

Ac yna gwedy vrdaw Vthyr yn vrenhyn ydoeth cof idaw yr hynn a dywat Merdyn am y sseren. Ac yna y peris vthyr delw dwy dreic o eur. ar y llun ygwelssei ar ben y paladyr. o anniffic kywreinrwyt. ac vn or delweu hynny a rodes ef yr eglwis pennaf yngkaer wynt. ar llall a beris ef y bot oe vlaen ef e hvnn. pan elei y gyffrangheu. Ac o hynny allan y gelwid ef yn vthyr bendragon. Sef aoruc octa vab hengist. ac ossa y gevynderw gwedy marw emreis;Fol. 74v gwahawd pasgen attadunt ac (a) allassant vwyaf o ymladwyr. ac anvon hyt yn germania y geisiaw nerth attadunt. canys oedynt ryd or aruoll arodessynt y emreis. Agwedy kynullaw aneirif o bobyloed attadunt; goresgyn y gwledyt aorugant hyt yngkaer efrawc. Aphan yttoydint yn dechreu ymlat ar dinas; y doeth vthyr ay lu. Ac yno ymlat yngreulon aorugant. agyrru y ssaesson ar ffo. ac ev hymlit or bryttannyeit tra uu dyd yny doethant yr lle ygelwir mynyd damen. alle vchel cadarn oed hwnnw acherric yn amyl. ac yno yffoas y ssaesson y nos honno. Ac yno yd aeth vthyr ygymmryt y gynghor. Ac yno y kyuodes gwrleis iarll kernyw adywedut. Arglwyd heb ef canys llei yw an niuer ny nor eidunt. ar nos yn dywyll. awn yn duhvn am ev penn. any ay caffwn yn rat wynt. Ac y velly y gwnaethant. Agoresgyn penn ymynyt ary ssaesson a llad llawer onadunt. A daly octa. ac ossa. a gwasgaru y lleill oll. Agwedy y uudygoliaeth honno yd aeth vthyr hyt yngkaer alltklut. ac odyna y amgylchynu y holl gyuoeth. a chadarnhau y kyfureithieu. hyt na lauassei neb gwneithur cam yv gilit. Agwedy gwasstattau pob lle. ef a aeth hyt yn llundein. ac a beris yno carcharu octa ac ossa. Ac yno y peris ef darparu gwled vaur yn erbyn y pasc. agwahawd a oed o iarll a barwn a Marchoc vrdawl yn ynys brydeyn. ac ev gwraget ygyt ac wynt. A llawen vu vthyr wrth pawb onadunt. agyssot pawb yeisteu val y raglydynt. Athreulaw y wled a orugant drwy esmwithra adigrifrwch.Fol. 75 Ac yno y dothoed gwrleis iarll kernyw ac eigyr verch amlawd wledic y wreic briawt. ac nyd oed yn ynys brydein na gwreic na morwyn kyn decket a hi. Sef a oruc vthyr yna pan y gwelas enynhv oe chariat. a hep allel argel ar hynny. ac na vynhei vod hebdi yr dim. ac yn diargel anvon idi anregion. agwirodeu gwin mynych. a geirieu ymwys. yny adnabu y gwr hynny. Ar nos honno pan aeth pawb y gysgu; wynt aaethant yw lletty. ac yno y menegis hi yw gwr holl kyvrinacheu adywetdassei y brenhin wrthi. Ac yna llidiaw aoruc gwrlleis; ac o gyt kynghor yd aethant ynos honno y tu acherynw heb cannyat y brenhin. A gwedy menegi yr brenhin hynny; llidiaw aoruc. ac anvon kennat yny ol: y erchi idaw dyuot drachevyn. canys ssarhaet vaur oed idaw adaw y llys heb ganyat. Ac nyd ymchwelei. Ac anvon yr eil gennat. ac ny deuwei. Ac anvon aoruc y drydet gennat gan dynghu; ony deuwei. y digyuoythit ef o dan ahayarn. ac nyt ymchwelawd yr hynny. Ac yn diannot kynullaw llu aoruc vthyr; amynet am ben kernyw. a dechreu llad a llosgi. Sef aoruc gorleis yna canys nat oed o niver ganthaw val y gallei ymherbynnieit ac ef; cadarnhau deu gastell idaw a rodi ywreic yny castell cadarnhaf ssef oed honno castell dindagol ar lan y mor. Ac ynteu ehvn a aeth hyt yngkastell dimlot. rac ev kyuarssanghu y gyd wynt. Agwedy caffayl or brenhin manac pa le yd oed gwrleis; kyrchu yno aoruc. ef ay lu. ac ymlat ar castell yn llidiawc creulon. tri dieu ar vntu. acny digrynhoes dim idaw yr hynny. namyn colli y wyr yn olofrud.Fol. 75v Ac yna y caussan yn ev kynghor kilhiaw y wrth y castell. ac ymrannv yny gylch heb adel neb nac y mewn nac allan. yny vythynt veiriw o newyn. A gwedy ev bot yna wythnos; y gelwis y brenhin attaw Vlffin o ryt garadauc y gedymdeith ay gyt varchauc. a menegi idaw y holl vedwl ay garyat ar eigyr. agovyn y gynghor am hynny. Arglwid heb ef goreu kyghor awun ny galw Merdyn emreis attam a hwnnw a woyr yn gynghori os gwyr neb. Ac yna y dyvynnwyt Merdyn attadunt; ac ymanagwyt idaw ev holl kyfrinacheu. Ac yna y dywat Merdyn arglwid heb ef ny thyckia o gamwri nac o nerth nac o gedernyt keisiav y castell y mae eigyr yndaw. canys ar garrec ar lan ymor ymae. ac nyt oes ford y vynet idaw namyn vn; a thri marchauc ay keidiw rac yr holl vyt. Ac os hynny avynny arglwid. reit yw rodi drech gwrleis arnat. ac ar vlffin drech Jurdan o dindagol anwil y gwrlleis. a mynheu agymeraf drech brithael gwas ystauell gwrleis. Ac ny wybit neb na bo gwrleis ay deu annwil vithom. Ac yna gorchymyn yr llu gwarchadw yngilch y castell yn da. yny deleint wy drachevyn attadunt. Ac yna y ssymvdawt Merdyn ev drech mal y dywetpwit vchot; a mynet hyt ymporth castell dindagol pryt kyflychwr. a menegi yr porthawr vod gwrleis yn y porth. Sef aoruc y porthawr menegi hynny yr arglwides; ac yno dyuot yn ev herbyn a goluat. ac ev derbynnieit yn enrydedus awnaethpwit. ac yny lle or nos yd aethant y gysgu. Ac ymrodi a oruc vthyr yny ffalst drech honno y gyflenwi damvnet ygnawt ar eigyr.Fol. 76 a dywedut idi pan yw yn lledrat ydothoed y ymwelet a hi. ac na allei ef yr dim bod heb dyuot. Achredu a oruc hitheu hynny. Ar nos honno y cavas eigyr beichiogi; ac or beichiogi hwnnw y kat arthur. Agwedy gwibot or llu nat yttoed y brenhyn gyt ac wynt: ymlat aorugant ar gaer y llidiawc heb gymryt kysstlwn ganthunt. Ac yna y doeth gwrleis allan ay wyr y gyt ac ef; ac ymlat ac wynt yn wychyr creulon allad llawer obop tu. Ac yna y llas gwrleis. a gwasgaru y wyr ar ffo ar ny las onadunt. Ac yny lle y menegit y eigyr ry lad gwrleis y harglwid: a chaffael y castell. Ac yna chwerthin a oruc yntev adywedut wrthi: arglwydes hep ef nym llass i ettwa. a rodi cussan idi. Ac am na wydeynt dim y wrthyfi; ymaent yn tybieit vy llad. Ac arglwides heb ef goreu yw yny bo kyntaf yr elom yn ewyllys y brenhyn. canys collassham an gwyr. ac an kedernit. ac na allwn y ymrysson ac ef. ac os y drugared a geisswn; diheu yw gennyf na necky ef nyni. Arglwyd heb hi val y mynech ti gwna. Ac yno y gweleynt y llu yn dyvot ytu ac attadunt. Ac yno ydaeth vthyr ay deu gedymdeith y gyt ac ef hyt ar yllu yn ev drech ev hvn. ac agoryadeu y castell ganthunt. A drwc uu ganthaw o beth llat gwrleis; a da o beth arall. Ac yna y kymyrth vthyr eigyr yn wreic briawt idaw. ac y bu idi ohonaw mab a merch. nyt amgen no gyt arthur ac anna y chwaer. Ac yna y kleuychws vthyr o orthrwm heint. ac y bu yn glaf yn hir. yny digiawd y gwyr a edewit yn gwarchadw octa ac ossa yn llundein.Fol. 76v Ac yna wynt a kyttdyhunassant ar carcharoeon amynet y gyt hyt yn germania. A gwedy menegi hynny y vthyr gorthrwm y kymyrth arnaw. rac ev dyuot o germania drachevyn a nerth ganthunt. y geissiaw goresgyn ynys brydein. A hynny a orugant wynteu. Gwedy caffael ev llynghes yn baraut wynt a doethant yr alban y dir. Adechreu anreithiaw y wlat honno ay llosgi. A gwedy menegi hynny yr brenhyn gorchymyn a oruc y leu vab kynvarch mynet yn dywyssauc llu y ymlad ar saesson. canys oed daw gan verch y vthyr. a gwr mawr telediw doeth huawdyl hael trybelit oed. acharu gwirioned achassahu y kelwid a wnay. A gwedy bot llawer o vrwydreu y ryngthunt. mynych y gorvydei y saesson arnadunt wy. a gweithieu wynteu ar y saesson. yny uu agos yr ynys a mynet yn rewin. A gwedy menegi hynny y vthyr; na allei yr Jarll ystwng y saesson. llidiaw aoruc mwy no messur y diodevei y heint. Ac yna dyvynnv attaw holl wyrda yr ynys. Ac ymliw ac wynt am ev llessget yn erbyn y saesson. Ac yno y peris ef gwneithur gelor idaw. ay dwyn ar honno ymlaen y llu. Sef yducpwyt ef; hyt yn dinas verolam. canys hyt yno ydothoed y saesson paganieit y lad ac y losgi. Pan gigleu Octa ac Ossa bot vthyr yn dyuot ar gelor yn glaf attadunt; llawen a da uu ganthunt. ay gellweiriaw a orugant. o eiriev tremygedic. ay alw yn hanner gwr marw. Amynet a oruc y saesson yr dinas y mewn; ac adaw y pyrth yn agoret. o ysgaylustra a gwattwar am vthyr ay lu.Fol. 77 Pan wybu vthyr hynny yperis yntev mynet yn ev hol ymewn; ac ymlad yn wrawl ac wynt. adamgylchynv ydinas. a llad llawer o bop tu yny uu nos. Athrannoeth y boreu y doeth y saesson allan or gaer; ac ymlad yn greulon arbryttannieit yny uu ymphell yny dyd. ac or diwed eiswis y goruu ybryttannieit. Ac yna y llas octa ac ossa. ac ereill affoas yn waradwydus. Ac yno y kyuodes y brenhyn yny eiste o lewenyd; ac ny allws kyn no hynny. onyt val y troit ef yny wely. a dywedut drwy y chwerthin. y bradwyr ysgymvn twyll wyr. am galwei yn hanner gwr marw; ac ysgwell yr hanner marw a orffo. nor byw y gorffer arnaw. ac ys gwerthuorach merwi yn glotuawr. no buchedockau yn anglod vawr waradwidus. Gwedy y uudugoliaeth honno ygwedillion or saesson a dienghis vchot. a ymgynullassant y gyt. yn yr alban. a dechreu ryuelu val kynt. Ac y mynassei vthyr ev hymlit. ac nysgadei y gynghor idaw rac y glafet. a rac y vriwaw ar yr elor. Ac am hynny gleuwach oed y saesson y volestu arnadunt no chynt. Ac yna medyliaw a oruc y saesson am wneithur angheu vthyr. ac anvon rei onadunt yn rith redussion ychwedleuha y wrthaw. Sef y klywssant nat yvei vthyr diawt namyn dwfyr ffynhawn a oed agos y dinas verolam. Sef a orugant wyntheu gwenwiniaw yffynhawn ay hamgilch. hyt na cheffit dym or dwfyr heb wenwyn yndaw. Ac yna yr awr ac y llawas vthyr y dwfyr y bu varw. ac ef aphawb or ay llawas.

A gwedy gwybot or bryttannyeit hynny ar y ffynnawn;Fol. 77v peri y chau aorugant a mein ac a chalch. a gwneithur kruc mawr o brid ar y gwarthaf rac dyuot dim or dwfyr ohonei. Ac odena mynet a orugant ygladu corf vthyr hyt ynghor y kewri ger llaw emreis y vrawt. sef oed hynny. pedwar cant. ac vn vlwydyn ar dec. aphedwar vgeint. o oed crist. A gwedy gwybot or saesson ry lad vthyr anvon aorugant hyt yn germania y geisiaw nerth y ennyll ynys brydein. Sef y doeth ydunt llynghes vaur a cholcrin yn dywyssawc arnadunt. a goresgyn a orugant yna: o hvmyr hyt ym penryn blathaon. A gwedy gwybot o wyrda ynys brydeyn gorthrymder y saesson; ymgynullaw aorugant y gyt ysgolheigion alleygion hyt yngkaer vudey y ymgynghor am y saesson. Ac yna y caussant yn ev kynghor vrdaw arthur yn vrenhyn. a hynny rac diruawr govit. canis nyt oed o oedran y arthur yna onyt pymtheng mlwyd. Nyt oed hagen hyt y klywit dyn vn gampeu ac ef; canys hael oed. a doeth. a dewr. a digryf. allawen pan vei amser; aphrut pan vei reit idaw. ac ar vyrder yn wir. ac yn gryno. Ni oruc duw gwedy y naw nyn a wnaethpwyt o adaf vn dyn kyn gwpplet ac arthur o gampeu da. a hynny arodes duw idaw yny aenedic dawn. Ac nyt yttoed arthur yn gordiwes o da eluyd a rodei; canys ny adei ef neb yn llau wac y wrthaw. or adelei yervyn da attaw. Aphwy bynnac ybo yndaw daeoni anyanawl: ny at duw arnaw wastat anghenoctit.

A gwedy vrdaw arthur yn vrenhyn o dyvric archesgob caer llion. ay gyssegru a gwisgaw y goron am y ben rac gouyt y saesson yn ev kymhell.Fol. 78 kynullav llu aoruc arthur a mynet hyt ynghaer efrawc. Pan gigleu golcrin hynny; kynullaw llu a oruc yntev o saesson ac ysgottieit a ffichtieit. adyuot a llu mawr ganthaw yn ev herbyn hyt arlan dulas. ac yna ymlad yn wychyr creulon fyrf gadarn. allad llawer oboptu. Ac or diwet eisswis arthur agauas y vudugoliaeth. A gyrru golcrin ar ffo. ac a dienghis oe lu. hyt ynghaer efrawc. ac ev gwarchae yno; a oruc arthur ydunt. Pan gigleu baldwlf braut golcrin hynny; lle yr yttoed ar lan ymor. yn aros dyuodiat keldric dywyssawc o germania a nerth ganthaw ydunt. gorthrwm ykymyrth arnaw. A bryssiaw yno aoruc. a chwe Mil o wyr aruawc ganthaw. hyt ar deng milltir ywrth caer effrawc. a mynnv dwyn kyrch nos am ben arthur ay lu. Agwedy menegi y arthur hynny; anvon aoruc Caduwr iarll kernyw a chwech cant marchawc ganthaw atheir Mil o bedit. y ev ragot ar y fford. A hynny a oruc ynteu. Agwedy ymgyuaruot acwynt ymlat aoruc cadvwr yn greulon llidiawc. allad llawer onadunt. ac ev gwasgaru. ac ev kymhell ar ffo. Ac yna tristau a oruc baldwlf; am na chavas nerthahu y vraut. A medyliaw a oruc pa funvt y caffei ymwelet ac ef. Sef yperis moilgroisi y varyf ay wallt amynet yn rith erestyn. achymryt telyn yny law. amynet drwy y lluesteu yny doeth adan y gaer. ac yno llemmeyn a chware; yny adnabuwyt or gaer. Ac yna bwrw raffeu idaw; ay dynhu y mewn dros y gaer. a llawen uu y vraut vrthaw. Ac yna medy liaw a orugant o ba ystriw y gellynt ymrydhau odyno.Fol. 78v Ac val yr yttoedynt yn hynny. ynychaf ev kenadeu yn dyuot o germania. achwechant llong ganthunt yn llawn o wyr aruawc. a cheldric yn dywyssauc arnadunt. ac yn disgynnv yn yr alban y dir. Pan gygleu arthur hynny adaw caer efrauc a oruc amynet hyt yn llvndein. ac yna dyvynnv y holl wyrda attaw y gymryt kynghor. Sef y caussant yn eu kynghor; anvon ar howel vab emyr llydaw. nei y arthur vab y chwaer oed hwnnw. a brenhyn yn llydaw. y ervynneit nerth y ganthaw. Sef y doeth howel aphymtheng Mil owyr aruawc ygyt ac ef yn nerth idaw. allawen uu arthur wrthaw. Ac yna y caussant yn ev kynghor mynet hyt ynghaer llwyt coet. lle ydoed y saesson yna. ereill ay galwei lyndesei. nevo ieith arall caer lingkoll. Ac yna yn diannot ymlat a orugant ar saesson yn wychyr creulon. ac yn yr ymlat hwnnw y collet onadunt chwech Mil rwng llad abodi. Ar hynn adienghis onadunt: a ffossant hyt ynghoet kelydon. ac arthur yn ev hymlit hyt yno. Ac yno ybu kyfranc kalet yryngthunt. allad llawer o bop tu. canys yno ybrethit y bryttannyeit ogysgot yderi. Ac yno y perys arthur llad y deri. ac ev gyssot ar gyffion vchel yngkylch o gylch y saesson. Ac velly ev gwarchae yno: tri diev atheir nos ar vn tu. heb na bwyt na diawt. Ac yna rac ev marw o newyn y rodassant y holl sswlth y arthur. a theyrnget pob blwydyn o germania. yr ev gellwng yn ryd y ev gwlat. arodi gwistlon ar hynny. Agwedy mynet onadunt hyt ynghevyn gweilgi: etivar uu gan thunt ev thunt ev hammot ac arthur:Fol. 79 ac yna trossi ev hwyleu aorugant yny doethant hyt ymphorth totneis y dir. Ac yna anreithiaw y wlat honno hyt yn hafren. ac odyna hyt ynghaer vadwn. ac yna amgilchynv y gaer a orugant ac ymlat a hi yn gadarn. A phan gigleu arthur hynny; peri aoruc krogi ev gwistlon. ac ymadaw ar ysgottieit ac ar ffichtieit. ac adaw howel y nei yn glaf o orthrwm heint. ynghaer alklut ymplith y elynion. A dyuot am ben y saesson hyt ynghaer vadon. A dywedut wrthunt val hynn: hiev dwyll wyr lladron dwedit ny chatwassauch ammot a mi. nys katwaf vynnev achwitheu. Ac yno yd aeth divric archescob caer llion ar ben brin vchel: adywedud ohyt ylef. ha wyrda hep ef. y niver yssyt o honawch o gristonogavl fyd. coffewch hediw dial gwaet awch rieni ar y paganieit ysgymvn. a thrwy nerth duw ay amdiffin arnawch: chwi a orvydwch arnadunt. ar lafur awneloch yr am diffin awch gwir dilyhet; avyd golchedigiaeth ar awch pechodeu. Ac yna gwisgaw amdanadunt a orugant Ac yna y gwisgawt arthur lluric aoed teilwng y vrenhyn. ac am yben helmp evreit. adelw dreic oeur arnei. atharean aelwit gwenn adelw yr arglwides [veir] yndi. ay henw yn ysgrivennedic yndi. a honno a goffai arthur pan elei yn [ ? ] govyt. Ac ar y glvn y rodet kledyf a elwit caletuwlch agoreu cledyf oed [o] ynys brydein. ac yn ynys avallach y gwnaethessit. ac yny law yrodet gleif a elwit ron gymhyniect Agwedy darvot ydunt ymwisg[eiw] gan vendith yr arch escob kyrchu ev golynion a orugant.Fol. 79v ac ymlat yn greulon ac wynt gan ev llad yn hyt y dyd; yny uu nos. Aphan uu nos y kyrchassant pen mynyt a oed agos ydunt o dybygu gallu onadunt ymgynal ar ben y mynyd hwnnw. A phan uu dyd trannoeth y doeth arthur ay lu adwyn pen y mynyd iarnadunt. Ac ymguraw ac wynt yn greulon. ac y sevis y saesson yn da yny uu dalym or dyt. Ac yna llidiaw aoruc arthur; athynnv caletuwlch gan goffau henw meir. ac o uuan ruthyr kyrchu y elynion a oruc yn wraul. a phwy bynnac a gyuarffei ac ef ar y ruthyr hwnnw; ef ay lladei ar vn dyrnawt. Ac ny orffwissawt arthur yna yny ladawt ar vn tu or saesson. dec athrugeint a phedwar cant. A phan welas ybryttannyeit hynny ymogonyhauv aorugant; a galw ev nerthoed attadunt. achyt kerdet ac ef. ac yna or diwed y llas golgrin. abaldwlf y vraut. a llawer o vilioed y gyt ac wynt. Ac yno y foas keldric ac a dianghassei or llu y gyt ac ef: ac yd erchis arthur y kadwr iarll kernyw a deng Mil o wyr aruawc y gyt ac ef ev hymlit. Ac arthur a aeth y gaer alklut; canys klywssei bod y ffichtieit ar ysgottieit yn keisiaw or gaer. Sef a oruc katwr ay lu kyrchu llongheu ysaesson; ac ev llenwi oy wyr e hvn. Ac odena megis llew lluchedenawl ev hymlit hyt yn ynys danet. Ac yno y llas keldric ev tywyssawc; ac a dienghis or llu heb llad yno; agymellwyt yn geith tragywydawl. A gwedy goruot o gat wr arnadunt yno; ef a doeth ar arthur hyt yngkaer alklut.Fol. 80 Ac neur daroed y arthur yna kymhell yr yscottieit ar ffichtieit ar ffo hyt yn mwrreif; a hwnnw uu y trydyt ffo a wnaethassei arthur a howel arnadunt. Ac odyna y ffoassant hyt yn llinn llvmonwy. Ac yny llynn hwnnw yd oed trugein ynys: athrugein avon o vynydet prydyn yn dyvot idi. ac yn vn avon yn mynet yr mor. A llevyn a oed henw honno. Ac ympob ynys onadunt y mae karrec vaur vchel. Ac ymphob karrec y byd nyth eryr; aphan del hynny o eryrot y gyt y weidi ar ben vn karrec. Yna y gwybydant gwyr y wlat honno; y daw gormes arall wlat yr deyrnas honno. Sef a oruc arthur yna peri dwyn llongheu ac ysgraffeu attadunt; ac ev damgylchynv. ac ev gwarchae yno bythewnos ar vn tu. yny uuant veiriw Milioed onadunt o newin. Aphan yttoedyn velly; y nychaf gillamwri brenhyn iwerdon allynghes vaur ganthaw yn dyuot yn borth ydunt. canys hanoedynt or vn ieith ac or vn genedyl. Pan weles arthur hynny; ymadaw a oruc ar yscottieit ac ar ffichtieit. ac. ymlat a gillamwri. ay yrru ar ffo hyt yny iwerdon. Ac val y gallws gyntaf y doeth arthur drachevyn. y gyuarssanghu yr yscottieit ar ffichtieit. Ac yna y doeth a oed o archesgob. ac esgob. ac abadeu. yn ev kyssegredic wisgoed. adigwydaw ar dal ev glinieu ger bron arthur y ervynnieit idaw trugarhau wrth y bobyl honno. A chymryt y rei a dianghassei onadunt yn geith yn dragywydawl;Fol. 80v a gadel ev heneydiev ydunt. A hynny a oruc arthur drwy gwedi hynny o wyrda. A gwedy daruot hedychu y ryngthunt; ef aaeth howel y edrych ansawt y llynn ay amgylch. Ac yna y dywat arthur wrthaw; ymae yn agos ymma. llynn yssyt ryuedach no hwnnw. Sef val ymae; vgeint troeduet yn ihyt. ac vgeint yny let. a phymp troetued yny dyfnet. Aphedwar ryw bysgaut yny llynn; vn ymphob konghyl or llynn. ac nyt ymgymysc yr vn onadunt ay gilit byth. Ac ymae llynn arall heb yr arthur yn ymyl kymmry ar lan hafren. a llynn lliwan y gelwir. A phan llanwo y mor; yllwng yntev y mor vegys morgerwin ac ny chud y glanheu yr a el yndaw o dwfyr. Aphan dreiho y mor; y lleiniw yntev ac y hwyda vegys mynyd mawr a dan daflu tonnev. Aphwy bynna[c] y kyuaffei y tonnev ac ef ac ev hwyneb ar y llynn; abreid vydei idaw diang ay eneit. Ac os y gefyn a vydei ar llynn; nyt argywedei arnaw yr nesset vythei idaw. Ac odena y doeth arthur hyt ynghaer efrawc; a daly llys ynodolic a oruc ef yno. A phan weles yr eglwisseu gwedy ev distriw; allad y meibion llen oll or saesson; drwc uu ganthaw. Sef y cavas yny gynghor; gwneythur eppir y effeiriat teilu yn archesgob ynghaer efrawc. A pheri gwneithur yr eglwisseu o newyd oll; a rodi covennoed yndunt y wassanaethu duw yn deilwng o wyr a gwraget. A dienwiwaw pawb or a daroed yr saesson dwyn ev gwir dylyet iarnadunt.Fol. 81 Ac yna y rodes arthur y arawn vab kynvarch ysgotlont. Ac y lew vab kynvarch iarllaeth lyndesei; canys daw gan chwaer y arthur oed hwnno. A mam oed honno y walchmei ac y vedrawt. Ac y vrien vab kynvarch y rodet gwlat a elwyt reget. A gwedy daruot y arthur gwastathau ynys brydeyn yn y mod goreu y buassei erioet. Yna ymynnawt yn wreicka idaw gwenhwyuar verch ogvran gawr. Ac o deledogyon ruvein yr hanoed mam honno. A chatwr iarll kernyw ay magassei; a thegach oed honno. noc a oed o gwreic a morwyn yngkyt oes a hi. Ac yna y darparawt arthur llynghes yn erbyn yr haf rac law y vynet iwerdon. Aphan doeth yr amser; ef aaeth arthur hyt yn iwerdon. Ac yny erbyn yntev y doeth gillamwri ay lu. y geisiaw ymlat ac ef. ac ny thygiws ydaw. namyn ffo. ac yny ffo hwnnw; y delihit ef. ac ybu dir idaw gwrhau y arthur ef ay holl lu. Ac odyna ydaeth hyt yn islond; ac y goresgynnawt y wlat honno heb olud. Aphan gigleu brenhinet ynyssoed ereill bod arthur yn goresgyn fford ydelei; ac ny allei neb y ludias. Sef a oruc doldaf brenhin gotlond yna. A gwynwas brenhin orc. dyuot oc ev bod ev hvnn y wrhau y arthur. ac y rodi teyrnget pob blwydyn idaw. A gwedy mynet y gayaf heibiaw; ymchwelut aoruc arthur y ynys brydein. Ac yna y bu ar vn tu deudeng mlynet yn gorffowis. Ac yna yperis ef dyvynnv attaw gwyr prouadwy moledic o bop gwlat y amylhau y niver ay deilu.Fol. 81v Ac yna yd ehedawt y glot ef ay vilwyr o voes amynvt ahaelyoni; yny oed honneit dros wyneb y teyrnassoet odyma hyt yn ruvein. ac nad oed na brenhin nac arglwyd. na iarll na barwn. a ellit y gyfflybu y arthur. Ac yny yttoed ar bop brenhin y ovyn; rac ev goresgyn ohonaw. Ac am hynny y peris pob brenhin cadarnhau y gestyll: a gwneithur ereill newyd rac y ovyn ef. Pan gigleu arthur hynny; medyliaw a oruc pryffeithiaw oy weithret. y klot a athoed idaw o ymadrawt. Ac nyt oed lei y aruaeth no goresgin holl evropa. Sef oed hynny; trayan yr holl vyt. Ac nyt oed yna na brenhin nac arglwyt hytyn ruvein; ny bei yn keissiaw disgyblu wrth voes a mynvt llys arthur. Ac yna y perys arthur parattoi llynghes y vynet llychlyn; canys marw uuassei yna asychelym brenhin llychlyn. A hwnnw agymhynassei y vrenhiniaeth y lew vab kynvarch y nei; ac nys mynnei y llychlyn wyr ef. namyn dethol rickwlf yn vrenhin arnadunt. Ac ymgadarnhau yn ev kestill; y geissiaw cadw y wlat arnadunt. Ac yna yd oed gwalchmei vab llew. yn oedran deudengmlwyd arwassanaeth supplicius pab; a anvonassei arthur y ewythyr vraut y vam hyt yno; ydysgu moes amynvt amarchogaeth y gan wyr ruvein. Ar pab hwnnw arodes aruev kyntaf erioet y walchmei. Aphan doeth arthur y dir llychlyn; ynychaf rickwlf a llu mawr ganthaw. Ac ymgyrchu a orugant: a llad llawer o bop tu. Ac or diwet arthur a oruu; allad rickwlf.Fol. 82 a goresgyn y wlat oll. Agoresgyn denmarc aoruc; a chymhell ar y bobyl gwedu idaw. Ac yna yd edewis ef llew vab kynvarch yn vrenhin yn llychlyn. ac ynteu adoeth hyt yn ynys brydein. Odyno yd aeth arthur allynghes ganthaw hyt yn freinc; adechreu goresgyn freinc. Ac yny erbyn ynteu y doeth ffrollo gwr a oed yn medu freinc yna adan leo amherawdyr ruvein a llu mawr ganthaw; ac ymlat ac arthur yn wychyr llidiawc. ac ny thygyws idaw. canys amlach oed varchogion arthur; a gwell heuyt nor eidaw ef. Ac yna y ffoas ffrollo hyt ympharis; achynvllaw llu attaw a chau y dinas arnaw. Ac yno ydoeth arthur ac amgilchynv y dinas; ac ev kronni y mewn mis ar vn tu. yny uu veiriw llawer o newin. Ac yna y bu dolur gan frolo hynny; ac anvon ar arthur y gynnic idaw ev mynet ylldeu y ynys a oed agos yno y ymlad; ar kryfaf onadunt yll deu. kymerei kyuoeth y llall. agadel y deu lu yn ssegur. Nyt oed well gan arthur dim no hynny. Ac yr ynys ydaethant yn gyweir bob vn onadunt. o veirch ac aruev. ac ev deu lu yn edrych arnadunt. Ac yn diannot kyrchu a oruc frolo arthur yn llidiawc agwayw. sef a oruc arthur yna gochel y aruot. Ac yn gyflym gossot ar frolo; ac ny ohiriawd frolo yny aeth yr llawr. Ac yna tynhu cledyf a oruc arthur a cheissiaw llad frolo; ac y kyuodes frolo yn wychyr llym y vyny allad march arthur;Fol. 82v ac yna ydigwidws arthur yr llawr. Aphan welas y bryttannyeit hynny; anhawd oed ganthunt attal ev hannean am dorri gyngreir ar ffreinc. An yn llidiawc llim y kyuodes arthur y vyny athrossi y daryan y ryngthaw ac arvot frolo; ac yna newidiaw dyrnodiev aorugant yn greulon ac yn gadarn. A phob vn onadunt yn keissiaw lleassu y gilid; yn oreu ac y gellynt. Aphan gavas frolo gyfle y rodi dyrnawt y arthur; ef ay rodes yny yttoed y gwaet yn rydec ar hyt y wyneb ay vronffollt. Ac yna y llidiawd arthur; athrwy y lid oy holl nerthoed dyrchauel caletuulch a oruc. ac ar warthaf penn frolo ydaraw; yny hill ef ay aruev hyt y wregis perued. Ac yny ssyrth frolo yn varw yr llawr; a maedu y dayar ay ssodleu. Ac ellwng y yspryt gan yr awel. Ac yna y kymyrth arthur gwriogaeth freinc yn gwbyl. A gwedy caffael o honaw y uudugoliaeth yna; ef arannawt y lu yn deu hanner. Ar neill hanner onadunt a rodes ef yhowel y nei y vynet y goresgyn peitwf. ac idaw ynteu ehvnn y llall y vynet y goresgyn gwasgwyn ac angyw. Ac yna ykymhellwyt ar gwittard tywyssawc peytwf gwedu idaw. A naw mlyned y bu arthur yn goresgyn y gwladoed hynny; A gwedy daruot idaw hynny; ef a doeth hyt ympharis y daly llys. Agwahawd attaw holl tywyssogyon er ynyssoet; ac ev doethyon o ysgolheigion allehygion. Athrwy duhvndeb kwbyl or niver hynny; y gwnaethpwyt kyvreithiev da ac ev kynnal dros wyneb y deyrnas.

Ac yna y rodes arthur y vedwyr yben trulliat iarllaeth normandi;Fol. 83 ac ygei y ben sswydwr iarllaeth angywf. Ac y bawb oy wyrda iam hynny val yracglydei; ac ev rwymaw o haelder aoruc ac o garyat. yn vn vedwl ac yn vn hynni; ac ef ehvn. Agwedy daruot idaw gwastattau y gwladoed hynny. Y gwaeanwyn rac llaw; y doeth ef y ynys brydein drachevyn. Pan oed oet crist. pymp cant. aphympthec arugeint. y cavas theophilus ysgolheic y ssarthyr y gan y kythreul. drwy nerth yr arglwides veir. yr hwn arodassei ef ar wriogaeth idaw. Agwedy dyuot arthur y ynys brydein; daly llys a oruc yngkaer llion ar wysc. canys teckaf lle oed hwnnw yn ynys brydeyn. achyuoethockaf. ac adassaf y vrenhyn daly gwylua yndi. canys or neill tu yr dinas yd oed avon vawr dec vonhedic; val y gallei llongheu o eithavyon byt dyuot hyt yn adas. Ac or tu arall yr dinas yd oed gweirglodiev tec ehang gwastad a ssych; a foresteu tec adwyn. a brynnyeu tec aruchel eglur. Ac o vewn y gaer yd oed tei tec brenhiniawl. ar dinas hwnnw agynhebygit y ruvein. ac yd oed yno dwy eglwys vaur arbennic. Vn onadunt agyssegrwyt. yn henw Julius verthyr; a manachloc gwerydon oed honno. Ar eil a gyssegrwyt yn henw aaron verthyr. amanachloc canhonwyr oed honno. Ar trydet archescopte ynys brydeyn oed yna. Ac yd oed yna o ysgolhyoed deu cant ysgol o amryuaelyon keluydodeu. ac yn enwedic yd oed yno y sseith geluydyt. canys pennaf le ysgolhoet o ynys brydeyn oed caer llion ar wysc yna.Fol. 83v Ac yna y perys arthur darparu gwlet anveidraul y veynt y ssulgwyn; ac anvon kennadeu y bop gwlat y wahawt y brenhinet ar ieirll ar barwnyeit ar marchogyon vrdolyon. agwyr da ereill adwyn ar ny ellit ev rif am law hynny. y dyuot y gaer llion y rodi ydunt breiniev goreu a gausseint erioed val y dangossei ev boned ac ev delyhet ac ev gwaet. Ac yna y doeth or alban arawn vab kynvarch brenhin yscotlont. ac vrien vab kynvarch brenhin reget. Ac o wyned casswallawn llaw hir. a Meuric brenhin dyvet. a chatwr iarll kernyw. Ar tri archescob o ynys brydein. Aphennaf onadunt oed archescob caer llion; canys breint legat a oed idaw. a gwr nefawl oed. Ac yno y doeth Morud iarll caer loew. a Mor iarll caer vrangon. ac anarawt o amwithic. a Marchud o gaer weir. ac ywein o gaer vallawc. nev ssalysburi o ieith arall. Gwrssalem o gaer gynvarch. ac vrien o gaer vadon. A Jonathal o dorcestyr. a bosso o ryt ychen. a dunawt vab pabo post prydein. kenev vab coel. Peredur vab pruth. Grufud vab nogoed. Regyn vab klawd. kynvarch. Gorbonyawn. Edelem vab kolodawc. kyngar vab angen. Maxwic klof. Rvn vab nwrthon. Gwrgant. Gweir. Catvan. ac ygyt a hynny llawer o wyrda ereill. avydei ryvlin ev rifaw. Or ynyssoed ereill y doeth Gillamwri brenhyn iwerdon. a gillamwri arall brenhin alont. a doldaf brenhin gotlont. a gwinwas brenhin orc. a Llew vab kynvarch brenhin llychlyn. ac achel vrenhin denmarc.Fol. 84 Or tu draw yr mor y doeth holdin twyssawc rwytwn. burel tywyssawc conoman. Leodegar o volwyn. Betwyr tywyssawc normandi. Kei tywyssauc angywf. Gwitard tywyssauc peitwf. a deudec gogyuurd freinc. a gereynt carnwys yn ev blaen. A howel vab emyr llydaw. allawer y gyt a hynny a vydei ryhir menegi ev kymyrred pob vn arneill tu. Namyn ar vyrrder: ac yn wir. ny doeth y vn wlet erioed o wyrda a gwragetda. a meirch da. ac adar a chwn. athlyssieu mawr weirthiawc. ac eur llestri. a gwisgoed odidawc: o bali aphorffor assyndal ac ermyn kymeint ac a doeth yno. Ac or yspayn hyt ymma ar ny doeth ogareat arthur; nev oy wahawd. ny bu dyn or a vynhei da ny deley yno yw gymryt yn llawen. o amrauaelion rodion mynych ehelaeth o bob ryw da or a ervynnei pawb wrth y vod ay ewyllys. Ac ef a doeth llawer yno y edrych ar voes amynvt llys arthur o wyrda a gwraget da. A gwedy ymgynullaw y gyt hyt yno; y niver a dywetpwyt vchot. yna y gelwit y tri archescob y wisgaw am arthur. ac y dodi y goron am y benn. Ac yna y gorchmynnwyt y dyfric archesgob caer llion gwassanaeth yr efferren. Aphan daruu gwisgaw am arthur amynet y tu ar eglwys; yd oed deu archescob yn kynnal y vrenhin wisg amdanaw. Ac oy vlaen ydoed pedwar gwyr yn dwyn pedwar cledyf noethion. nyt amgen noc arawn vab kynvarch brenhin yr alban.Fol. 84v a chatwallawn llaw hir brenhin gwynet. a Meuric brenhin dyvet. a chatwr iarll kernyw. canys hynny oed ev breint o devawt yr amherawdyr. Ac ydoed cwvennoed yn canv amrauaelion gywydolaethiev o bob tu ydunt; or pyngheu teckaf ar kyssonaf or abrydawt Mussic. Ac or parth arall yd oed y vrenhines yn mynet yr eglwys yn wisgiedic o vrenhinieit wisc; a choron o lawrwyd am y phenn. Ac esgib a manachesseu ygyt a hi. ac oyblaen yd oed pedeir gwraget y pedwargwyr adywetpwyt vchot; a cholomen burwen yn llaw pob vn onadunt. A gwedy ev dyuot yr eglwisseu yna y dechreuwyt y gwassanaetheu dwywaul or ysgolheigion goreu; ac or pyngheu teckaf or abrydawt dyn erioet. Ac yna y gwelit ydynyon yn rydec o eglwis pwy gilit y warandaw ar y kywydolaethiev digrifhaf; rac oed ydigrifet ymphob lle. ny wideint pa le digrifhaf. A gwedy darvot yr efferennev dyvot yr llys aorugant; a diosg ev brenhinieit wysgoed. a gwisgaw ysgavyn wisgoed amdanadunt. a mynet yr nevad y vwytta. Ac yr neill parth or nevad yd aeth arthur ay wahodwyr y vwyta; ar parth arall yr nevad yd aeth gwenhwyvar ar gwraged ygyt a hi. val ydoed devaut yna pann dalhiev vrenhin llys a gwahodwyr gwyl arbennic. A gwedy rodi pawb y eiste mal y reglydynt. Yna yna y kyuodes kei a Mil o wyr y gyt ac ef. ywassaneithu o gegin. a gwisc o ermyn am bob vn o nadunt.Fol. 85 Ac or parth arall y kyuodes betwyr ybenn trulliat a Mil o wyr y gyt ac ef yn adurnhedic o vn ryw wisc. y wassanaethu o vedgell a digoned o lestri eur ac aryant. Ac or parth arall yd oedynt yn gwassanaethu ar y vrenhines dogned o niver hard adwyn; ac yn diwallu ytu hwnnw yr nevad. Ac nyt oed yna dros wyneb holl kret vn deyrnas a allei ym gyffelybu ac ynys brydein: o amylder pob da. a haelder a dayoni. a moes amynvt aglewder. canys vn arver oed holl villwyr arthur. ar gwraged a vei orderchadeu yr gwyr hynny. vn aruer oedynt o voes amynvt a gwisgoed. Ac ny mynhei vn wreic nac vn vorwyn yn yr oes honno vn orderch onyt Milwr profedic. Ac or achos hynny dewrach vydei y gwyr; adiweiriach vydei y gwraged. Agwedy daruot bwytta wynt a aethant allan odieithyr y dinas; y edrych ar amraualion gwaraev. Ac yn enwedic ar ymwan. Ac nyt oed dechymmic ar chwaraeu ny welit yno. Ar gwraged a vydei ar y tyreu. ac ar bylcheu y gaer. ac ar y fenestri yn edrych ar hynny. A phawb onadunt ay golwc ar y gwr mwyaf agarei: ac yr gweith diodev yd ymdangossei y gwraged yr gwyr. canys ymogonyhanv awnai y gwyr oc ev gwelet. Ar neb a vei uudugawl yny gwareu hwnnw. a delhit y lauur idaw val ytelihit ymbrwydyr o amdiffin tir adaear. a hynny oll o sswllt arthur. A gwedy daruot ydunt treuliaw y wled honno teir nos athri diev; y pedweryd dyd ydyvynnwyt pawb or niver a uuassei yn gwassaneithu y dyuot y vn lle;Fol. 85v y dalu ydunt ev gwassanaeth. Ac yna y rodet y rei onadunt dinessid. y ereill kestill. y ereill archescobaetheu. y ereill manachlogoed lle bytheu y rei hynny yn wac. Ac yna yd aeth dyvric archescob yn ermydwr agwrthot y archesgobot. Ac yny le ynteu y rodet dewi vab sant yn archescob. a gwr dwywaul buchedawl oed ac ewythyr y arthur. Ac yn lle sampson archesgob caer efrawc; y rodet teilaw esgob llandaf. a hynny o eiriawl howel vab emyr llydaw canys gwr dwywaul buchedawl oed teilaw. Ac yna y gwnaethbwyt Morgant yn esgob ynghaer uudei. A Julian ynghaer wynt. Ac edlitbyrth yn esgob ynghaer alklut. Ac val yr yttoedynt yn llunyethu pob peth velly: wynt a weleint yn dyuot attadunt. deudengwyr prud hard adwyn. a cheing o olifwyd yn llaw pob vn onadunt. Ac yn dyvot lle yd oed arthur; ac yn kyvarch gwell idaw. Ac yny annerch y gan lles amherawdyr ruvein; ac yn rodi llythyr yny law.

LLes amherawdyr ruvein yn anvon annerch y arthur brenhin y bruttannyeit val y haydws. Anryved yw gennyf vi dy greulonder di arthur. ath ynvydrwyd. ath syberwyt. canys o annean ynvydrwid y sserheysti ruvennawl amherodraeth. a rywyr ydwyt ti yn gwneithur yawn y ssened ruvein. canys kared vawr yw; kodi ruvein. a bren hined yr holl vyt; yn ystwng idi namyn tydi.Fol. 86 a thitheu am attal teyrnget a dylyei ruvein y gaffel or ynys honno. ac agafas vlkessar. ac amherodron ereill gwedy ef. ac y gyt a hynny llawered o ynyssoed a ardrethynt y ruvein a gribdeilienti. A sened ruvein a varnawd arnat titheu; erbyn yr awst nessaf adel; dy vot yn ruvein y gymryt y vrawt avynhwynthwy y varnv arnat. Ac yth dyvynnv ditheu y doethem ni hyt yma yn deudec. Ac ony devwy di yno: yn yr oet hwnnw. Ednebid di ydeuhir hyt yma. y ovyn iawn ytti o sarhaedeu ruvein val y barno y kledyfeu y rot ti ac wynt. A gwedy gwarandaw o arthur yr hynn a oed yn y llythyr; ef a aeth y gymryt y gynghor. Ac yna y dywat katwr iarll kernyw; arglwyd vrenhin hep ef. y mae arnafi ovyn goruot olesged arnam ni y bruttannyeit rac hyt ydym yn segur. ac yn ymrodi y wledeu amaswed ac ymdidan agwraged. ac overed. ahynny ys pymp mlyned a duc en glewder an fynneant. ac ys iawnach ynni diolwch y wyr ruvein dyuot yan kyffroi ni noc na delynt. Ac yna y dywat arthur ha wyrda hep ef: vyngkyt varchogeon ewch: a chwi arodassawch ymi erioet hyt yn hynn kynghoreu da frwithlawn llwydiannvs. ac yr awrhon ymae reit wrth gynghor da. ac am hynny; medyliet pawb o honawch kynghor grymvs frwithlawn. ac o byd duhvn an kynghor; ni a orvydwn ar wyr ruvein. Aphan gawssant teyrnget odymha gynt; yr dyvot alluoed ganthunt o ruvein y amdiffyn yr ynys honn rac ystrawn genedloed y caussant.Fol. 86v ac ny dylyeintwy odymha dim. Achanys ydynt wy yn holi ni peth anyledus: nynheu a holwn ydunt wynteu teyrnget drwy ydelehu. Ar cadarnhaf o honam kymeret teyrnget ygan y llall; canys an rieni ni aoresgynassant arnadunt wy gynt; nyt amgen no beli a bran: meibion dyvynwal moil mvt. Ac wynt adugant o ruvein vgeynt gwistyl or rei deledocgaf yno. Agwedy hynny ybu custenyn vab elen. a Maxen wledic. gwir deledogeon ynys brydein; yn amherodron yn ruvein. pob vn onadunt gwedy y gilid. Ac or achos honno nyni adelehwn teyrnget ydunt wy; ac ny dyleant wy ynni dim. Ac yna y dywat howel ap emyr llydaw. y rofi a duw hep ef: pei dywettei pob vn ohonam y ymadrawd ar neill tu: ny bydei kystal ac adywat arthur ehun. Canys o doethineb anyanawl. achalon huawdyl ehawn drut gywir frwithlawn: ac yn kywiraw o weithret y geir ar medwl ar kywyt a rodo duw yndaw. Ac yn dvhvn arglwyd eler yamdiffyn gwir a breint ynys brydein Canys gwyr ruvein adechreuassant holi peth anyledus; perthyn yttitheu arglwyd holi peth dyledus ydunt wynteu. A sybilla adarogannawd bot tri amherawdyr o gymre yn ruvein; sef uu y deu onadunt beli vab dyvynwal Moil Mut. achustennyn vab elen. a thitheu arglwyd a vyd trydyd. Ac am hynny arglwyd bryssia di yr hynt honno; canys duhvn paub athi oth wyr. Ac yn gymorth y vynet yno; mi arodaf ytt deng Mil o varchogeon arvauc. Ac yna ydywat Arawn vab kynvarch.Fol. 87 y rofi aduw arglwyd ny allaf menegi meint vy llywenyd am gogonyant am yr ymadrawd adreytheist am vynet y ruvein. Ac yshyvryt awelieu gennym ev kymryt gan wyr ruvein; dros y rei arodom nynheu ydunt y dial yn tadeu an rieni. ac y dyrchauel dy vreint titheu arglwyd ath dylyhet. Ac yn gymorth y vynet yno Mi arodaf ytt; dwy vil o varchogeon arvauc. a phedyt hevyt. A phan daruu ybaub onadunt dywedut yymadrawd a henwi yr amkan arodei o wyr aruawc y vynet y ruvein; yna y diolches arthur y bawb onadunt ar neill tu. Ac yna y kyfrifwyt y arthur y rivedi a eddewssyt idaw. Sef amkan agavas o ynys brydein heb arodes hywel idaw; trugeynt Mil o varchogeon arvauc kyfrwys provedic mewn brwydreu. Ac ny ellit rif ar y pedyt. Sef amkan y gyffrifwyt ygaffel or chwech ynys; chwech vgeint Mil. Sef oed henw yr ynyssoed hynny. Iwerdon. Islont. Gotlont. Orc. llychlyn. Denmarc. Ac o holl freinc petwar vgeint Mil o varchogeon. Ac y gan deudec gogyfurd ydaeth y gyt agereint vab erbin; deu cant marchauc a Mil. Sef amkan agavas o varchogeon. deucant marchauc. a deudeng Mil. aphedwar vgeint Mil. adeu cant Mil. Ar pedyt ni wydit ev rif.

A gwedy gwelet o arthur ewyllys paub ay garyat y tu ac attaw. canhyadu a oruc y baup onadunt mynet adref y ymbarattoi yn erbyn aust. Ac yna y menegis ef y gennadeu gwyr ruvein: y deuei ef yno erbyn aust y holi teyrnget y wyr ruvein. ac nyt ev dalu. Ac yna yd aeth y kenadeu y tu aruvein.Fol. 87v Pan gigleu lles amheraudyr ruvein geirieu arthur amdanaw: yn diannot ydaeth ynteu y gymryt y gynghor ef a sened ruvein. Sef y cavas yny gynghor anvon kenadeu ar brenhined y dwyrein; y erchi ydunt nerth y ystwng arthur. Sef rivedi a gauas. Epistrophus brenhin groec. Anustensar brenhin yr affric. an Affacinia brenhin yr yspaen. ac Irtacus brenhin Ciria. a Boctus brenhin Med. a Sertorius brenhin twrrea. Pandrassus brenhin yreifft. Mitipan brenhin babilon. Politetes brenhin bithinia. Teuter duc frigia. Evander brenhin suria. Eschilon brehin boetia. Ipolitus brenhin creta. Ac y gyt a hynny tywyssogeon a ieirll a barwnieit; allawer o wyrda a oed darystwnghedic y sened ruvein a vydei ry vlin ev henwi. Ac o sened ruvein yd oed Lles amheraudyr. a Meuric. a lepidus. a Gaius. a Metellus. a Chocta. a Chwyntus. a Miluius. Catulus. Cuintus. Cauricius. Sef oed hynny o rivedi ygyt deugeint wyr achant aphedwar cant Mil o vilioed. Agwedy daruot ydunt llvnyethu pob peth erbyn aust. wynt adoethant y tu ac ynys brydeyn. Agwedy gwybot oarthur hynny: ymgyweiriaw a oruc ynteu ay niver y gyt ac ef. Agorchymyn y vedrawt ynei vab y chwaer. ac y wenhwyuar y wreic briaut llywodreath ynys brydein. yny delei ef drachevyn: yw gadw yn didwyl gywir fydlawn. Ac yna yd aeth arthur y tu ar mor; aphan gavas gwynt gyntaf. ef agymyrth vordwy. Ac ef a welei breudwyt oed arruthyr ganthaw.Fol. 88 Sef y gwelei arth yn ehedec y wrth ydeheu a garw leis ganthaw: ac yn dysgynnv yn yr aruordir. Ac awelei dreic yn dyuot or gorllewyn: achan lleuver y lygeit y goleuhae yr aruordir. Ac ef a welei y dreic ar arth yn ymgyrchu; ac ymlad girat ryngthunt. A gwedy hir ymlad; ef a welei y dreic yn bwrw tanllachar ar yr arth. ac yny losgi yn ylw. Pan deffroas arthur; ef a datkanawd y vreudwyt yr niver aoed yn y gilch. Sef y dihonglassant; menegi yd ymladei arthur a ryw anghynvil o gawr. ac y gorvydei arthur arnaw. Ac ny chredei arthur vot y dihonglat (velly): namyn am y vynediat y ymgyhwrd a lles amheraudyr ruvein. Aphan doeth y dyd drannoeth y disgynassant yny borth a elwir barbe flyw. Ac yna tynnv pebylleu a orugant. ac aros yny doeth kwbyl o wyr yr ynyssoed. Ac yd oedynt velly: y nychaf gennat yn dyuot ar arthur. Ac yn menegi idav ry dyuot cawr anryved y veint y wrth yr yspaen a chripdeiliaw elen nith y hywel vab emyr llydav. ydreis yar ygwercheitweit. Amynet a hi hyt ymphenn mynyd Mihangel. A marchogeon y wlat a aethant yny hol; ac ny thygiws ydunt. A phei eleint ar longheu y ev hymlit; ef ay ssodei wynt yn y tonnev. Neu os godiwedei; ef ay llynghei wynt yn llet vew. Aphan oed nos mynet aoruc arthur a bedwyr vab pedrawc a chei vab kynyr yny uuant yn agos yr Mynyd. Ac wynt a weleint deu dan; vn aoed ar ben y Mynyd mawr. Ac arall aoed arben Mynyd a oed lei. Ac avon aoed yn amgilch y Mynyded heb allel o neb y veis idi:Fol. 88v sef y caussant ysgraf yev dwyn drwod. Ac yno gyrru a oruc arthur betwyr y edrych pa vn or deu vynyd yd oed y cawr. Ac yn gyntaf yd aeth; yr Mynyd bychan. Ac ef aglywei wrth y tan gwreigawl gwynvan. ac yn dawel ofnawc ay gledyf noeth yn y law y doeth ef yno. Ac ef a welei gwrach y eiste wrth y tan: abed newyd gladu yny hymmyl. Ar wrach yn drycyrverth vch pen y bed. Aphan welas y wrach betwyr yn dyvot y tu ac attei; y dywat wrthaw. O dydy dyreittiaf or dyneon hep hi; o dydy truanaf y dynghetven. Ef ath diheneidir yr awr honn; o angheu tervynnedic. Canys daw yr anghenvil ysgymvn hyt yma yr awr honn; yr hwn a duc elen nith hywel vab emyr llydaw ydreis hyt yma Ac yma y goruc y lleas; yn keisiaw kydiaw ahi. Ac am vy mot yn vamaeth ydi; y duc ef vyvi yma. Ac yr awr honn y kledeis y vy merch am eneit yny bed hwnn. Ac am hynny goreu yw ytti ffo; canys ef a daw yma ettwa y geisiaw kydiaw a mi. ac yth lad ditheu. Ac yna yd aeth betwyr y venegi y arthur yr hynn a welsei oll. A drwc uu gan arthur colli elen. Ac yn gyflym gall dawel kyrchu aorugant lle yd oed y cawr. Ac erchi a oruc arthur yr gwyr na deleint yny gyvyl; ony weleint mwy noc angheu arnaw. A phan doeth arthur yn agos attaw; yd oed ynteu yn troi bereidiev o gic moch coet vrth tan da. Agwedy daruot idav bwytta llawer or kic yn llet amrwt. Aphan welas ef arthur yn dyuot: bryssiaw a oruc y vwitta ykic. Ac yn gyflym kymryt y ffon; a nyt lei pwys y ffon. noc yd oed anawd y vilwr nerthawc y dyrchavael y wrth y llaur.Fol. 89 Achyrchu arthur a oruc ay daraw ar y darean yny glywit y datssein ymphell; ac yny gollas arthur y glybot oy glustieu o angerd y dyrnawt. Ac yno llidiaw a oruc arthur; a thynnv y gledif atharaw y cawr yny dal. yny vyd ygwaet yn kudiaw ylygeit ay wyneb. Ac yna llidiaw aoruc y cawr achyrchu arthur ar dor y kledyf: val y kyrchei baed coet yr heliwr ar hyt yr hych waew. Ac ymavael ac arthur: ay vwrw yny vyd ar ben y deu lin. Ac yna yn gyflymdrut greulongryf gan goffau Meir ymlithraw aoruc ygan y cawr; ac yn chwimwth fyrf ebrwidlym ymguraw ar cawr aoruc. yny ymgavas y gledyf ay emehennyd. Ac yna y rodes cawr disgrech athrugar adigwidaw yn vn kwymp yr llaur vegys derwen gan wynt. Ac yna chwerthyn aoruc arthur; ac erchi y vetwyr llad y benn ay dwyn yw dangos yr llu yr anryvedawt. Ac yna ydywat arthur na chyhyrdassei ac ef erioet vn creadur kyn gryfhet ahwnnw: onyt ricta gawr am y bylis. Sef val ybu am y bylis: gwneithur o ricta gawr pilis o grwyn barfveu brenhined. Ac adaw lle barf arthur yn vchaf ar y bilis yr parch ydaw; Ac erchi yarthur e hvn blinghiaw y varf ay hanvon idaw. Ac oni wnai hynny; erchi idaw dyuot y ymlad ac ef. Ar kryfhaf onadunt; kymerei y bilis a barf y llall. Ac yna y cavas arthur y bilis y gan ricta. A gwedy llad oarthur yr anghynvil hwnnw; wynt a doethant hyt ev pebylleu ytrydyd awr or nos ar penn ganthunt. A thristau a oruc hywel am ry golli y nith. Ar Mynyd hwnnw aelwir yr hynny hyt hediw bed elen. A gwedy dyuot y niver y gyt: wynt a gerdassant hyt yn dinas augustudium.Fol. 89v A gwedy ev dyuot drwy yr avon a elwit gwenn; y menegit idaw bot lles amherawdyr ruvein gwedy yr bebyllu yn agos attadunt a thorrec lu ganthaw. Ac ar lan yr avon honno y lluestws arthur y nos honno. Ac anvon kennadeu hyt ar lles: y erchi idaw adaw tervynev freinc. nev rodi cat ar vaes y arthur drannoeth. Sef kennadeu adetholet y vynet yno. Gwalchmei. a Bosso o ryt ychen. A Gereint carnwys. Allawen oed llu arthur am vynet gwalchmei yno; o dybygu y gwnay ef ryw gwrthgassed. val y bei dir ydunt ymlad ac wynt. A gwedy menegi y gennadwri y lles; y dywat yntev mae yawnach oed idaw llywiaw freinc. no mynet o honei. Ac yna y dywat Gaius nei yr amherawdyr: gwir yw arnawch chwi yr bryttannieit heb ef. ymae hwy llawer vyd auch tavodeu chwi; noc auch gledyfeu. Sef a oruc gwalchmei yna tynnv y gledyf; ac yn chwymwth llad penn gaius. Ac yn gyflym ysgynnv ar ev meirch a orugant; adyuot ymeith. Sef a oruc gwyr ruvein yna; ev hymlit y geisiaw dial ev gwr ry ledessit. Sef a oruc gereint canys nessaf oed yr ymlit; ymchwelut ar y nessaf attav ay wan agwaew trwydaw yny gyll y eneit. A drwc uu gan bosso na chaussei ef gwassanaeth or byt; ac ymchelut ar y nessaf attaw ay lad heb olud. Ac yna ydynessahawd Marcel mut ar walchmei y geisiaw dial gaius: Sef aoruc gwalchmei y daraw achledyf; yny hill y pen ar vynwgil hyt y dwy vron. Ac erchi idaw venegi yw gedymeitheon yn vffern vot llawer or ryw dyrnodieu hynny gan y bryttanyeit.Fol. 90 Ac o gynghor gwalchmei yna wynt a ymchweilassant ar y gwyr a ottoed yn ev hymlit allad y gwyr kyntaf agyvaruu aphob vn onadunt. A gwedy ev dyuot yn agos ygoet: ynychaf yn dyuot or coet attadunt yn borth ydunt chwech Mil o wyr aruawc or bryttanieit. Ac yn lle dodi gawr ar wyr ruvein. ac ev kymynv ac ev llad. a daly ereill onadunt. ac ev kymhell ar ffo. Pan gigleu petreius senedwr o ruvein hynny; y kymyrth yntev gyt ac ef deng Mil o wyr aruawc; a mynet yn borth y wyr ruvein. Ac yny lle gyrru aorugant ybryttannieit ar ffo; yny doethant yr coet ybuessynt gynt yndaw. Ac yna llad llawer o bop tu. Ac val ydoedynt yny govyt hwnnw ynychaf edern vab nvd a phym Mil y gyt ac ef o wyr aruawc yn dyuot yn borth yr bryttannieit. Ac yna gwrthnebu o newyd y wyr ruvein. ac yn wraul fenedic kynnal ev klot. ac ev syberwyt. Aphetreius a oruc val gwr doeth reoli y wyr ygyrchu ac y aros ev kyflev. Pan weles bosso o ryt ychen hynny: galw a oruc attaw niver da y veint o wyrda ac a digonei yn da; adywedut wrthunt val hyn. Avnbyn deylu hep ef. canys hep gynghor arthur y dechreuassam ni hynn agwyr ruvein; ymogelwn yn duhvn ffrwithlawn fyrff rac an digwydaw yny ran waithaf or ymlad. achaffel kywilid ynni ac yn arglwid. Ac or achos hynny dynessahwn y gyt yn wrawl ffynnedic. y geisiaw gwassanaeth ar petreius ay yw lad ay yw daly. Ac yna yd aethant am ben petreius ac ymauel ac ef. ay dynnv yar y varch yr llawr. Ac yna y bu brwydyr galet am petreius:Fol. 90v ac ordiwed ygoruu y bryttannieit adaly petreius ay dwyn ganthunt hyt ympherued ev gwyr ev hvnn. Ac odena mynet o newyd y ymfust agwyr ruvein. ac ev kymhel ar ffo; ac ar ny bu wiw ganthunt ev daly. wynt ay lladassant yn olofrud. Ac yna y doeth gwyr arthur ar carcharoreon ganthunt hyt yn lle ydoed arthur; amenegi idaw cwbyl oc ev damchwein. a llawen uu gan arthur hynny yny absent ef. Ac yna yd erchys arthur y vetwyr. ac y catwr. ac y deu dywyssauc ereill. nyt amgen no richart. a borellus. mynet yhebrwng y carcharoreon y tu apharis. rac dyuot gwyr ruvein ac ev dwyn y ar yfford kyn ev mynet yr castell. Pan gigleu gwyr ruvein hynny; yperis yr amherawdyr dethol pymptheng Mil o wyr aruawc. Ac ev gellwng o hyt nos or blaen y ragot y carcharoreon. ac y geisiaw ev rydhau. Ac ymlaen y niver hwnnw yd aeth vlteius senedwr. a chadell. achwintus cauricius. ac evander brenhin syria. a sertorius brenhyn libia. A mynet a orugant hyt yn lle y bu kynghor ganthunt y aros y carcharoreon. Athrannoeth y bore y doeth gwyr arthur ar carcharoreon ganthunt hyt yn lle yd oed y pyt ydunt. Ac yna yn diannot y kyvodes gwyr ruvein ydunt ac ev gwasgaru. Sef aorugant wyntev y gall kynghoras yna ymrannv. Sef val yr ymrannassant. gadel betwyr a richart y gadw y carcharoreon. Ac ymlaen ybydioned ayttoed yn ymlad yd oed catwr iarll kernyw. aborellus dywyssauc. Ac yn dirwol y kyrchws gwyr ruvein y bryttannyeit.Fol. 91 Ac wynt agausseynt ollwng ev carcharion pei na delei Gwyttart tywyssauc peittwf atheir Mil o wyr da ganthaw yn borth yr bryttannyeit am wybot bot pet ydunt. Aphan ymgaussant ygyt gwrthnebu yn wraul a oruc ybryttannyeit y wyr ruvein. athalu pwyth ev twyll ydunt ac ev brat. Ac yna y collet borellus tywyssauc canys Evander brenhyn siria ay gwant agwayw yny gyll y eneit. Ac yna y collet petwar gwyr da or brutannyeit: nyt amgen. hirlas o aber gwy. a Meuric vab catwr. a calliduc o dindagol. a her vab Ithel. Ac yr colli hynny o wyr: ny atdawd y brutannyeit yr vn or carcharoreon y ganthunt. Namyn or diwed gyrru gwyr ruvein ar fo. ac ev hymlit. Ac ar yr ymlit hwnnw y collet evander brenhyn siria. ac vlteius senedwr. Gwedy goruot or brutannyeit yna anvon a orugant y carcharorion hyt ympharis. ar rei adaliessynt ydyd hwnnw hefyt. Ac odena dyvot ynllawen hyt ar arthur. Athristau yn vaur a oruc lles amherawdyr ruvein am ydamchwain hwnnw. Ac y gymryt kynghor ydaeth pa beth a wnelei ay vynet y ruvein drachevyn yn ol porth y gan leo amherawdyr; ay yntev av mynet wynt ev huneyn y ymlad ac arthur. Sef y cawssant yn ev kynghor mynet y nos honno hyt yn Navvern yr lle a elwit lengrys ac yna y buant y nos honno. Pan giglev arthur hynny mynet a oruc yntev hyt y lle a elwit [glynn] soesia canys yr glynn hwnnw y deuwei lles [amherodyr] ay lu. Ac yna ev haros hyt trannoeth ac yna rodi y varchogeon arneilltu a Morud tywyssauc caer loew yn ev blaen.Fol. 91v Abydinaw y lu yam hynny yn wyth mydin. ac ym bop bydin yd oed pym Mil aphymp cant a hanner. a hynny owyr kyfrwys prouedic yn llawer o vrwidreu calet. Agwedy ev bydinaw ev dysgu aoruc arthur wynt y gyrchu ac y aros ev kyfle. Ac ymblaen vn or bydinoed y rodet arawn vab kynvarch a chatwr iarll kernyw vn ar deheu ac arall ar assw. ymblaen yr eil onadunt y rodet boso o ryt ychen. a gereint karnwys. ymblaen y dryded onadunt. y rodet achel vrenhin denmarc. a llev vab kynvarch. ymblaen y betwared y rodet hywel vab emyr llydaw. agwalchmei. Ac yn ol y pedeir hynny y rodet pedeir ereill. ymblaen vn onadunt y rodet kei abetwyr. ymblaen yr eil onadunt y rodet holdinus tywyssauc rwyten. agwittard tywyssauc peittwf. ymblaen y dryded onadunt y rodet ywein o gaer lleon. a gwynwas o gaer geint. ymblaen y bedwared y rodet vrien rac vadon. a gwrsalem o dorcestyr. Ac yn ol hynny oll yd oed arthur a lleng o wyr. ac ef aberys gossot delw dreic eureit oe vlaen. canys honno a oed arwyd gan arthur ydwyn ygwyr brathedic hyt attei. sef amkan vyd lleng o wyr. chwech gwyr athrugeint a chwechant a chwech Mil. Ac yna ydywat arthur wrth y lu. Ha wyr da hep ef hyspys yw; ymae oc auch nerth chwi ac auch kynghor y cavas ynys brydein vot yn bennaf o dec teyr nas arugeint. ac ettwa drwy nerth duw ar einwch chwitheu;Fol. 92 ny a oruydwn ar wyr ruvein. ac adialwn arnadunt keissiaw an keithiwaw oc an ryddit. achoffewch weithiawn y seguryt a gaussauch ys llawer o amser ac ymdidan a gwraged. a gware gwydbwyll a sseec a thapplys. Achoffewch bellach enynnv yn awch glewder ac awch milwriaeth abydwch duhvn diosgo pan ym gaffoch a gwyr ruvein kinnynwch wynt y megis ysgrybyl. ac nythybygant wy llauassu ohonnam ny rodi cat ar vaes ydunt. ac o gwnewch wyrda vyngorchymyn; mynheu awch anrydedaf wrth auch bod o bob da or a vo ymmediant ynnev. Aphawb onadunt a ymedewis gwneithur y orchymyn val y gellynt oreu. Pan gigleu lles bot arthur yn pregethu y wyr; sef a oruc yntev pregethu yw wyr ynteu. A menegi ydunt y dylyei yr holl vyt daristwng y sened ruvein: a choffewch chwitheu hep ef ymae awch tadeu ac awch teideu a gynheliis ruvein yn bennaf lle or holl vyt oc ev dewred ac ev mylwriaeth ac ev fynnyant. Ac or achos hynny na ochelwch chwitheu hediw angheu yr kynnal ruvein yn bennaf; ac y gymryt teyrngedoed o ynyssoed ereill. achwittheu a geffwch yr amkan avynnoch ora oresgynnoch y gyt a my. ac am hynny coffewch nat yr fo ydoethem ny yma; namyn yr ymlad yn duhvn ac yn gelynyon. ac wrth hynny kyt bwynt glew ar y dechre; sefwch chwitheu yn duhvn gadarn ac o hynny y goruydwch. A gwedy daruot idaw teruynv ar y ymadrawd; bydinaw y lu a oruc yn deudeng bydin. ac ymphob dydin rivedi lleng o varchogeon.Fol. 92v ac ymblaen y vydin gyntaf y rodet cadell vleid. ac alifantina brenhin yr yspaen. ymblaen yr eil y rodet Irtacus brenhin parthia a mar ysgyuarnavc senedwr o ruvein. ym blaen y dryded y rodet boctus brenhin midif. a gaius senedwr. ymblaen y bedwared y rodet serrex vrenhin libia. a chwintus miluius gwr o ruvein. yn ol y pedeir hynny yrodet pedeir bydin ereill. ymblaen vn onadunt y rodet serrex iterrea. ymblaen yr eil pandrassus brenhin yr eifft. ymblaen y dryded politetes brenhin frigia. ymblaen y betwared tenetus tywyssauc bitinia. Ac yn ol y rei hynny ydoed petdeir bydin ereill. ymblaen vn onadunt y rodet ypymet senedwr o ruvein. ymblaen yr eil y rodet lellius dryllwr tywyssawc o ruvein. ymblaen y dryded supplic. ymblaen y betwared Meuric or koet. Ac ar ol hynny yd oed lles amheraudyr ehvn yn dysgu y wyr lle gwelei reittaf. ac ympherued y lu y peris ef gossot delw eryr o eur yn arwyd ystondart. a hyt yno ydygeynt breynt nodua idaw y neb y bei arnav neb ryw berigyl or byt. Gwedy daruot ydunt ymvydinaw: ymgyrchu a orugant. achyntaf y kyuaruu y vydin yd oed brenhin yr yspaen yny llywiaw. a bydin arawn vab kynvarch. achatwr iarll kernyv. ac ny bu hawd gan neb onadunt gwahanv yr y gilyd. Ac ual yd oedynt velly: y nychaf gereynt karnwys a boso o ryt ychen ac ev bydin yn dyvot ac yn tyllu bydinoed gwyr ruvein. ac o hynny allan ymfust yn dirwol a orugant yny klywit ev sein ac ev dwrd yn edriniaw yn yr awyr.Fol. 93 ac yny klywit ydaear yn krynv gan sodleu y milwyr yn ellwng ev hyspryt. Ac yna y bu aerua vaur o bop tu yny vei ryvlin ev kyfrif. Ac yna y brathawt boctus brenhin Midif betwyr agwaew trwydaw yny gyll y eneit. Ac y brathwyt kei yn angheuawl. ac yr hynny ef ay vydin adugant corf betwyr ganthunt yny gyuaruu bydin brenhin libia ac wynt. ahonno ae gwasgarawd wynt yn athrugar. ac yr hynny wynt adugant corf betwyr hyt yn lle yd oed ydreic eureit. Sef a oruc hirlas nei y vetwyr yna; kymryt gyt ac ef try chant marchawc grymhus prouedic. ac vegys baed coet ymplith llawer o gwn. dwyn ruthyr yny ymgafas a boctus ay dynnv oe gyfrwy ay dwyn ganthaw hyt vch pen corf betwyr. ac yna y drylliaw yn drylliev man. Ac odeno yd aeth hirlas ar y getdymeithion. ac ev hannoc yn wravl. ac yna y collet llawer o bop tu. ac yna y collet o wyr ruvein alifantina brenhin yr yspaen. anntipan brenhin babilon. a chwintus miluius senedwr o ruvein. Ac o wyr arthur y collet holdin duc rwytten. a leodegar o volwyn. athri thywyssauc o ynys brydein nyt amgen. Gwrsalem o gaer geint. a gwallauc o amwithic. ac vryen o vadon. ac y bu varw kei or brath angheuol a gaussei. Ac yna y gwanhaawd y bydinoed blaen. ac enkyl a orugant yn y doethant ar vydin hywel vab emyr llydaw a gwalchmei. ac yna yn duhvn enynnv ynglewder a orugant Megis tan gan ssych wyd. Ac yn wychyr llym kyrchu ev gelynyon a orugant. ar neb agyuarffei a gwalchmei yna.Fol. 93v ef ay lladei ar vn dyrnawt. nev ynteu a wnai arnaw anaf anhesgor. Ac ny orffwissaut gwalchmei yna yny doeth y vydin amherawdyr ruvein. Ac yna ygwanhawit y bruttannyeit yn vaur am lad kynvarch tywyssauc tiger a dwy vil gyt ac ef. Ac yna hevit yllas try wyr da nyt oed waeth y digoneynt nor tywyssogyon. Sef a oruc hywel a gwalchmei yna ymgynnal yn ev llit a llad a gyuarffei ac wynt. hyt nat oed ydunt orfowis namyn rodi dyrnodiev mawr nev ev kymryt. Ac ordiwed y cafas gwalchmei yr hyn ydoed yny damvnaw sef oed hynny kyhwrd alles amherawdyr ruvein. Ac yna yd oed yr amherawdyr ympherued y dewred. Ac nyt oed well dim gan yr amherawdyr noc ymgaffel ac yntev. A gwedy ev dyvot ygyt ymfust aorugant yn gadarn ar ev tareanev. a phan yttoedynt llidiockaf yn ymfust y doeth anneirif o wyr ruvein am ben hywel a gwalchmei. yny uu dir ydunt enkyl yny doethant ar vydin arthur. Pan welas arthur hynny llidiaw aoruc mwy no meynt. athynnv caletuulch gan goffau Meir. a dechreu kymynv gwyr ruvein. adywedut yn vchel wrth y wyr ehvn. nac eirechwch wyr da dial cam auch tadeu auch hendadeu ar y gwreigiaul weryn hynn. Rodwch ydunt dyrnodieu llidiauc fyrf crulon tost. A gelwch auch nerthoed attawch. achynheliwch auch cof ac auch fynneant gennwch val y gwnaethawch erioet; ac ny bydwch wrthunt vn cam. Achyrchu y elynnyon a oruc megis llew lluchadenavl: ar neb a gyuarffei ac ef yna. ar yn dyrnawt ef ay lladei. nev ay hanafei. nev angheu teruynnedic. ac am hynny y foei paub racdaw val yfoei anivelieit gwann rac llew newynawc.Fol. 94 ac ny nodei aruev or byt racdaw. Ac yna y kyuaruu ac ef sertorius brenhin libia. a pholitetes brenhin bitinia. ac ef ay lladawt wynt ar vn dyrnawt pob vn onadunt. Pan weles y bruttannyeit arthur velly. enynhu gogonyant yndunt ac angerd a llit. ac ymlad yn wraul fynedic o hynny allan drwy dysg ev harglwyd ay fynnyant. Ac velly y goruc gwyr ruvein. annoc ev gwyr wyntev. hyt na ellyt rif ar a las yno o bop tu. Aphob vn or deu vrenhin yn annoc ev gwyr ac yn ev dysgu or mod goreu ac y gwippeynt. Ac val y bydynt velly yn ymfust ynychaf Morud tywyssauc caer loew yn dyuot a lleng o wyr ganthaw y rei a edewssyt ar neilltu kyn no hynny. Ac yna o newyd kymynu gwyr ruvein. ac ev llad ac ev hanafu heb drugared. Ac ympherued yr ymedrinaw hwnnw y gwant vn or brutannyeit lles amherawdyr ruvein a gwayw trwydaw yny digwyd yn varw yr llawr. Ac yna or diwed ygoruu ybrutanyeit achymhell gwyr ruvein ar fo y bopmann mal y dygei ev tynghetuenev wynt gan ev llad ac ev hanafu lle ymordiwedyt ac wynt heb drugared. Canys duw a oed yn dial arnadunt am geisiaw onaddunt keithiwaw deledogeon ryd y dalu teyrngedoed ydunt. Ac yna y perys arthur gwahanu y corfforoed ywyr ef y wrth corfforoed gwyr ruvein. a pheri ev dwyn y vanachlogoed yn vrdasseid ac ev kladu yn enrydedus. Ac anvon corfforoed y wyrda ay anwilieit y ev gwlat ev hvnein y ev cladu. Ac yna y ducthbwyt a chorf betwyr hyt yn Normandi ydinas awnathoed ehvn yno.Fol. 94v ac mevn mynwent a oed or parth deheu yr dinas y cladpwyt ef yn enrydedus. Achorf kei aducpwyt hyd yn gastell diarnvm yr hwnn awnathoed ehvn. ac y mevn manachloc ermydwr ger llaw y castell hvnnw y cladpwyt ef yn enrydedus. A holdin tywyssauc rvtein a ducpwyt hyt yn flandrys ac yn dinas tervan y cladpwyt ef. Ay holl wyrda ereill o ieirll a barwnyeit athywyssogeon aberys arthur ev dwyn yr manachlogoed nessaf y ev cladu yn enrydedus. Ac ef a berys cladu corfforoed gwyr ruvein yn llwyr; a dwyn corf yr amherawdyr ger bron sened ruvein. A gorchymyn ydunt na deleint eilweith y ynys brydein y ovyn teyrnget yr brutannyeit. Ac yna ytrigawt arthur y gaiaf hwnnw yn daristwng borgoyn. A phan yttoed yr wythnos kyntaf or haf yn dechreu mynet dros mynyd mynnei ytu aruvein: y gordiwedawt kennadeu ynys brydein ef. a menegi idaw yr daruot y vedrawt y nei vab y chwaer gwisgaw coron ydymas a chymryt Gwenhwyuar yn wreic gwely ydaw ahynny ar ostec ac yn diargel. Pan gigleu arthur hynny yn diheu ymchwelut a oruc tu ac ynys brydein. ac ellwng hywel vab emyr llydaw y daristwng y gwladoed yno. Sef aoruc Medrawt yna anvon Selix tywyssauc ysaesson hytyn germania y wahawd yr ysgymvnyeit a oed yno y rivedi mwiaf ageffyt onadunt ydyuot yn borth ydaw hyt yn ynys brydein. Ac yntev a rodei ydunt kymeynt ac y rodassei gortheyrn ydunt gynt. sef oed hynny o hvmyr hwnt.Fol. 95 a swyd geint. Ac yna ydaeth selix y tu agermania ac adoeth yny lle drachevyn. a seith cant llong ganthaw yn llawn o baganyeit aruawc. Ac nev yr daroed y vedrawt yr ennyt hwnnw ymgedymeithiaw ar ffichtieit ac ar ysgottieit ac ar gwydyl. ac aphob ryw genedyl or a wyppei vot yn gas ganthunt arthur. yny gavas yn vn ac ef petwar vegeint mil. A dyuot a hynny o niver ganthaw hyt ymphorth hamont y geissiaw lludyas arthur yr tir. Ac yna y llas llawer o bop tu ac yn enwedic yna y llas arawn vab kynvarch a gwalchmei nei y arthur. Ac yn lle arawn y rodet vrien vab kynvarch yn vrenhin. Athrwy llauur mawr a cholli llawer o wyr ydoeth arthur yr tir o anvod medrawt. Ac yn diannot kymell Medrawt ay lu ar fo a gwasgaru y wyr ac ev llad yny doeth y nos. A gwedy dyuot nos ymoralw a oruc medrawt ar y wyr: acymgynvllaw y gyt aorugant amynet hyt yngkaer wynt. achadarnhau y dinas arnadunt. Pan weles gwenhwyuar hynny ffo a oruc hithev o gaer efrawc hyt yngkaer llion ar wysc. Ac yn eglwys Julius verthyr y gwisgawd yn vn grefyd ar manachesseu a oed yno yn aros ev hangev. Pan gigleu arthur hynny mwihau y lit a oruc am nachaussei dial y lit ar vedrawt ysgymvn dwyllwr. Ac ymphen ytrydyd dyd gwedy daruot idaw peri cladu y wyr y doeth arthur hyt ynghaer wynt. Sef a oruc medrawt pan welas arthur ay lu yn dyuot; mynet allan or dinas y rodi cat ar vaes y arthur.Fol. 95v Ac yna y bu aerua girat y meint o boptu. ac or diwed Medrawt afoas ac adihenghys oy lu y gyt ac ef hyt yngkernyw. Ac ny hanbwyllws arthur yna peri cladu y wyr; namyn ymlit medrawt dwyllwr yn drist ovalus am diang pob vn or dwy weith hynny. Ac ar avon gamlan yd arhoes medrawt ef. sef oed rivedi llu Medrawt yna. chwegwyr achwechant athrugein Mil. ganys gwell oed ganthaw nogyt ffo o le y le aros arthur yna. ac yna bydinaw y wyr yn naw (den*) mydin. sef amkan a rodes ymphob bydin lleng o wyr. Ac yna yr edewis ef y baub os ef a orffei y wneithur yn vodlawn o dir a daear ac o bop da arall or a vedei arnaw. Ac yny erbyn yntev y goruc arthur naw mydin athywyssogeon kyfrwis kadarn yn ev blaen. ar pedyt a rodet ar neilltu rwng deheu ac assw. Ac yna y dywat arthur ha wyr da heb ef gobydwch chwi nac ymlad y bobil rackw vyth yn dvhvn canys pobyl casgyl angkyfieith ysgymvn ynt. Ac nyt ynt vn galon a dynyon bydawl ereill canys ny ny yssyd gristionogeon a chyd ac iawn ac wyntav yn baganieit ysgymvn a chyt ar [cam] A chan annoc y wyr ac ev dysgu ym gymyssgu ybydinoed ac ymlad yn chwerw dost kreulon athrugar engiriawl. Ac velly y buant yn ymfust. yny yttoed y rei byw yn dissynhwyraw y gwarandav disgrethin y rei a oed yn talu angheu o bop tu. A gwedy treulyaw onadunt llawer or dyd velly yn ymfust. Mynet a oruc arthur ay vydin am ben bydin Medrawt ay thyllu ay gwasgaru megys llew diwal newynauc ymplith aniueilieit gwar.Fol. 96 Ac yny ruthyr hwnnw y llas Medrawt a milioed y gyt ac ef. Ac yr colli Medrawt ny orffwissaut adianghassei oy lu o ymlad yny oed gymeynt yr aerua o bop tu ar mwiaf or a uu erioed na chynt na gwedy. A [hynn] o dywyssogeon Medrawt a las. Eiaes. Ebrut [aviuryuc] a hynny oll o saesson. Gillamwri. a Gillafadric a Gillassor. a Gillarch. gwidyl oed y rei hynny a chwbyl or ffichtieit ar ysgottieit a las ollyna. Oblegit arthur y collet yna. Ebrut brenhin llychlin. ac Achel brenhin denmarc. a chatwr lemenic a chasswallaun a llawer o vilioed or a dothoed o bop gwlat y gyt ac ef hyt yno. Ac yno y brathwyt arthur yn angheuawl yny benn. ac yducpwyt ef hyt yn ynys avallach y ev medegyn[eaythu] Ac yna y gorchmynnws ef coron y dyrnas y custennyn vab kadwr ygar. Sef oed hynny dwy vlyned a deugeint a phymp cant gwedy geni mab duw. [Ac yna y ysgrivennwyt] y gwersseu hynn. [Qui nunc mores probitas commendat laude] perhenni. Hic iacet arthurus [flos regum] gloria regni. [Qui] meruit celos [uirtutem proli fecunda Arthuri] iacet hec coniunx tumulata secunda. Ac ny dyw[at] yr ystoria [?] hyspyssach am angheu arthur no hynny.

A gwedy kymryt o Custennyn llywodraeth ydyrnas a gwisgaw y goron am y ben y kyuodes deu vab y vedrawt ar saesson gyt ac wynt yn erbyn y brenhin ac [ny thygiws] ydunt. Ac yn yr amser hwnnw y bu varw deynyol escob. ac y detholet theon escop caer loyw yn archescob yn llvndein.Fol. 96v Ac yn yr amser hynny ytervynavd dewi vab sant archescob caer llion y uuched yr hwnn a darogannws Merdyn yny broffwidoliaeth. Ac y perys Maelgwn gwyned dwyn y gorff hyt yn Mynyw ay gladu yn enrydedus yny vanachloc a adeiliassei ef ehvn. A phadric kyn no yeni adarogonassei y lle hwnnw ydaw. Ac yna y detholat kynawc yn archescop yngkaer llion yny le yntev. A gwedy llawer o ymladdeu y rwng custennyn ar saesson; ffo a oruc y saesson ac vn o veibion Medrawt hyt yn llvndein. ac yno y llas ef mevn manachloc brodyr. Ar llall afoes hyt yngkaer wynt ac yno y llas hwnnw mevn eglwys amphimbalus ger bron yr allawr. Ac yny dryded vlwydyn gwedy hynny y llas custennyn y gan Gynan wledic ac y clathpwit ef yn enrydedus ger llaw vthyr bendragon yngkor y kewri. yn ymyl salysburi.

Ac yna y kymyrth Gynan wledic y vrenhiniaeth yn eidaw ehvn. a gwas ieuanc clotvaur oed ac adas ydaw gwisgaw cororn a chwannauc oed y tervysc y rwng y gywdautwyr ef ehvn. Ac ewythyr ydaw ef ehvn adylyhei gwledychu gwedy custennyn: ac ef a ryuelawd a hwnnw. ac ay delhiis ac ay rodes yngkarchar. ac a ladawt y deu vab. ac a gymyrth y dyrnas yn eidaw ef ehvn. Ac yn yr eil vlwydyn o oet y dyrnas y bu varw.

Ac yn nessaf y hwnnw y doeth Gwerthevyr yn vrenhin. ac yny erbyn ef y kyuodes saesson adwyn attadunt niver o germania. Ac yr hynny gwerthyuyr a oruu arnadunt. Ac ef a uu vrenhin pedeir blyned ar vntu.

Ac yna y doeth Maelgwn gwyned yn vrenhin ar gwbyl or bruttannyeit.Fol. 97 A gwr mawr telediw oed vaelgwn a goresgynnwr uu ar lawer o greulonyon vrenhined. achadarn adewr oed yn aruev. a chwbyl oed o gampeu da pey nat ymrodei ymphechawt sodoma ac agomorra. Ac am hynny y bu atkas ef gan duw. A chyntaf brenhin gwedy arthur a oresgynnawt y chwech ynys wrth ynys brydeyn uu ef. Sef oed y rei hynny. Iwerdon. ac Islont. a Gotlond. ac Orc. a llychlyn. a Denmarc. Ac ay duc yn drethawl y ynys brydeyn. Ac yn eglwys ros yny creudyn y bu varw pan weles y vat velen drwy dwll a oed ar dor yr eglwys.

A gwedy ynteu y doeth Keredic yn vrenhin. a hwnnw a garei teruysc y rwng y gywdawtwyr ef ehvn. ac am hynny y bu gas ef gan duw a chan y bruttannyeit. A gwedy gwybot or saesson hynny. anvon a orugant kennadeu hyt yn iwerdon ar wr kreulon a oed yno aelwit gormwnt brenhin or affric. a hwnnw a doethoed a llynghes vaur ganthaw y oresgyn iwerdon y ervynneit idaw dyvot yn borth ydunt y oresgyn ynys brydein. ac wynt ay kynhalieynt a dan y arglwydiaeth ef: ac a rodeynt teirnget bop blwydyn ydaw ohonei. Ac yna o dyvyn y saesson y doeth y pagan ysgymvn hwnnw athrugein llong yn llawn o wyr arvauc ganthaw hyt yn ynys brydeyn. Ac yny neill ran or ynys yna yd oed y saesson yn baganyeit ysgymvn. Ac yny ran arall yd oed y brytannyeit ar ev gwir dylyet ac yn da ev ffyd y grist. Ac yn drwc y rwngthunt ar saesson. Ac yna gwedy dyvot gormwnt ar saesson y gyt:Fol. 97v ymlad a orugant a cheredic. ac yn yr ymlad hwnnw y cavas gormwnt y uudygoliaeth. ac y gyrrwyt keredic ar ffo hyt yngkaer uudeu nev o ieith arall circestyr.

A gwedy goruot o Gormwnt hwnnw arnadunt; y doeth Imbert nei y vrenhin freinc a gwrhau ydaw yr y dyuot yntev yn borth ydaw y geisiaw goresgyn freinc y ar y ewythyr. canys hwnnw ay gyrrassei ynteu o freinc y ar y wir dylyet ehvn kyn no hynny. A gwedy gwrhau idaw wynt a doethant y gyt am ben y dinas; ac ymlad yn greulon ac wynt bevnyd. ac ev gwarchae y mevn heb gaffel onadunt ford allan. ac yr hynny nyt yttoedynt yn ennyll dym: onyt colli ev gwyr yn olofrud. Ac yna y cafsant yn ev kynghor peri y bawb daly o adar y to a elleynt vwyaf o nadunt yn vew. ac ev gwarchae velly yny vei agos yr nos. Ac yno kymryt bsisg y knev. ac ev llenwi yn llawn o yspwng. a brynstan. a phyc. a dodi tan yndunt. ac ev rwymaw wrth yr adar hynny. ac ev gillwng gan y nos. Sef a wnaethant wyntev ehedec hyt yn to y tei yny dinas. ac yr deisiev. ac yr Mydylev. a chynydu y tan yn ev ehediat gan wynt ev hesgyll. yny yttoed y dref yn boeth kyn y dyd drannoeth. Ac yna ydoeth keredic allan y rodi cat ar vaes ydunt; ac ny thygyws ydaw dim. namyn y kymhell ar ffo. yny doeth drwy hafren y dir kymry. Ac wynteu yny ymlit gan llad a llosgi ydinessyd. ar kestyll. ar treuy ar dir. heb eiryach neb ryw dyn. nac ysgolheic na llehic or a gyuarffei ac wynt: hyt na didoriat neb or kywdawtwyr pa dir na phale or byt yffoeynt.Fol. 98 Pa beth a allei y genedyl lesg gyuarssanghedic druan o dirvaur gorthrum bynner bechawt ssyberwyt. y rei a vydeynt yn ssychedockau gwaet atheruysg ac anyhvndeb rwng y kywdawtwyr ev huneyn. Ac velly y genedyl druan o ynys brydeyn y gwenheysti. canys tidi gynt a gymhelleist y teyrnassoed eithyaf darystwng ytt. ac yth arglwydiaeth. Ac weitheon ydwyt tytheu megys gwinllan da vonhedic. yn ymchwelut yn chwerwed a cheythiwet. hyt na elly amdiffyn dy wlat nath wraged nath veibion o law dy elyneon. Ac am hynny y genedyl ssyberw druan kymer dy benyt. Ac ednebyd y geir a dywat duw yn yr evenghyl. Pob teyrnas a ranner ac awahaner yndi ehvn; a wenheir ac a diffeithyr. yny ssyrthyo y tv ar y gilyd. Ac am hynny canys ymlad ac anyhvndeb y gywdawt ev hvneyn. a mwc tervysg achynghorvynt; a dywyllhaws dy vryt ti. canys dysyberwyt ti ny mynnws vfydhau y vn brenhyn. Ac am hynny y mae y paganieit creulon yn distriw dy wlat ac yny divetha tra vo byw dy etiuediaeth; canys wynt avyd mediannvs ar yr hynn goreu or ynys. A gwedy darvot yr paganieit creulon anreithiaw yr ynys aellad ae llosgi or mor pwy ygilyd mal y dywetpwyt vchot; ef arodes gormwnt holl loegyr yr saesson. Ac yna y bu dir y wedillion y genedyl druan or brutannyeit kyliaw y eithaueoed yr ynys; tu a chernyw a thu achymre. a dwyn mynych kyrcheu am ev pen oc ev gelynyon gan ev llad ac ev llosgi heb drugared.

Fol. 98vA gwedy gwelet o theon archescob llvndein ac archescob caer efrawc yr eglwysseu gwedy ev distriw ar kwvennoed a yttoed yn ev gwassaneithu. Sef a oruc.gant wynteu yna kymryt yr holl greiriev ac esgyrn y sseynt. a ffo ac wynt hyt y lle ynealaf yn eryri rac ovyn y paganyeit. A llawer onadunt affoas hyt yn llydaw. canys nat oed yny dwy archesgobot vn eglwis heb divetha or paganyeit creulon allad y meibion llen yn olofrud. Ac yna drwy llawer o amseroed y colles ybrutannyeit coron y deyrnas ac ev teylyngdawt. Ac y gyt a hynny y ran a drigassei ganthunt or ynys nyt a dan vn brenhin y dalyassant: onyt a dan tri brenhin creulon a mynych ryueloed rwngthunt ev hvneyn. Ac am hynny ny chauas y saesson hevyt coron y deyrnas yna. Namyn dir uu yr brutannyeit darystwng yr tri brenhin adywetpwyt vchot; ac yr hynny wynt aryveleynt ar brutannyeit val kynt. Ac yn yr amser hwnnw y doeth austin y gan Grigor bap hyt yn ynys brydein y bregethu yr saesson ac y geisiaw ev dwyn y ffyd grist. canys nevr daroed ydunt dilehu ffyd grist yn llwyr oc ev plith. Ac yd oed y brutannyeit yn kynnal fyd grist yn gadarn: yr pan dothoed y ynys brydein gyntaf yn oes eleutherius bap. Aphan doeth austin escob gyntaf y ynys brydein: ydovyr y doeth y dir. Aphregethu a oruc yr saesson creulon: a mwy lawer ay guattwarei ef noc agredei ydaw. ac eysswys y niver a vynnei duw rodi yspryt yndunt wynt a gredeynt idaw. Ac odyno ef a doeth y tu a mynyded keint a niver mawr yny ganlyn.Fol. 99 A gwedy ev dyuot ar hyt pant diffeith meithach no dym; diffygeaw dwfyr arnadunt. a phaub yny damunaw. Sef a oruc austin yna gwediaw ar y arglwyd ar gaffel dwfyr. Ac y doeth anghel yn dirgeledic attaw y erchi idaw na phedrussei dim oe aruaeth; canys duw a rodei ydaw pob peth or a archei yn gyfyawn. Ac yna y doeth dwfyr or daear val y gallei paub onadunt aruer ohonaw digoned. Ac yna y gelwis austin cernel y lle hwnnw yr hynny hyt hediw. sef yw hynny lle dirgel o roec. Ac yna llawenhau o austin adyvot racdaw hyt yngkeint. a phregethu yno adwyn y brenhin y gret ay holl niveroed. Ac o dyna y doeth ef hyt yngkaer raw. a thra uu yno yn pregethu. nevr daroed gwniaw llawer o amravaelyon lysgyrneu wrth y esgob wysg o wattwar amdanaw. Ac yna ygwedyaut austin ar y arglwyd; pwy bynnac a enyt yny dref honno y vot yn llyssgyrnic o hynny allan. Ac o dyna y doeth austin hyt yn llvndein y bregethu adwyn llawer y gret onadunt. Ac yna ymovyn am yr archesgobtyev ar eglwissev ar meibion llen adaroed ev distriw. Ac yna ymanagwyt ydaw vot archesgobot yngkaer llion ar wyssg; a seith esgobot a danei yn gyflawn o breladyeit gredyfus gatholic. amanachlogoed llawer a chwuennoed yn gwassaneithu duw yndunt. Ac ymplith y rei hynny yd oed manachloc arbennic lle gelwyt bangor vaur ym maelor. Ac yn honno yd oed o rivedi meneich yn gwassaneithu duw hep y prioreu ac ev swydwyr pey rennyt wynt yn seith ran;Fol. 99v y bydei trychant manach ymphop ran. A hynny oll yn ymborth o lauur ev dwylaw. Ac abat y vanachloc honno a elwyt dvnawt. A hwnnw a wydeat o geluydodev mwy noc vn dyn. A gwedy gwybot o austin hynny; llawen uu ganthaw. Ac anvon a oruc hyt ar dvnawt y ervynneit ydaw dyuot yw gymorth y bregethu yr saesson ac yev dwyn y gret. Ac yna yr anvones dvnawt drachevyn ar austin y venegi nat oed teilwng ganthunt bregethu yr genedyl creulon hynny; canys o arallwlat y dathoed yr ystrawn genedloed hynny yn ormes ar ynys brydein; athrwy ev twill ac ev brat y lladassant yn rieni ni ac yn kenedyl. Ac yn treissiaw on gwir dylyet; ac yn alltudaw ac yn anreithiaw. ac yn dehol rei or ynys ereill y ymylev yr ynys. Ac am hynny ny pherthyn arnam ni na phregethu ydunt nac vfydhau y neb; onyt y archesgob caer llion. canys hwnnw yssyd primas dros ynys brydein. Pan wybu delflet brenhin keint ymwrthot o dvnawt dyuot gyt ac austin y bregethu ydunt; avon aoruc ar brenhin y gogled. a brenhin deheu lloegyr. ac erchi ydunt dyuot ar gallu mwiaf a vei ganthunt hyt yn Mangor y dial ar dvnawt y greulonder wrth y saesson. A gwedy ymgynvllaw or saesson y gallu mwyaf a oed ganthunt; wynt a doethant hyt yngkaer lleon. Ac yno yd oed Brochuael ysgithrauc ac agavas uuyaf or brutannyeit y gyt ac ef. Ac yny dinas hwnnw yd oed o veneych ac ermytwyr niver mawr. a hynny o bob manachloc or a oed yn ran y brutannyeit or ynys ac yn enwedic o vangor vaur.Fol. 100 Aphan welas brochuael y ssaesson yn dyuot ytu ar dinas; dyuot yn ev herbyn a oruc ac ymlad ac wynt yn wychyr creulon allad llawer onadunt. Ac or diwed rac amlet y saesson y bu dir ydaw adaw y dinas hwnnw amynet hyt ymbangor vaur. Ac yno dyvynnv attaw kwbyl or brutannyeit. A gwedy gwybot or delflet hynny; a gwelet y lladua a wnaythessyt ar y saesson; gorthrwm y kymyrth arnaw. A gwedy menegi ydunawt dyuodeat y delflet; anvon a oruc deu cant manach or rei doethaf hyt attaw: y ervynneit ydaw y drugared. Ac y gynnyc pob ryw da or a elleynt dyuot ydaw. yr ev gadel yn hedwch yn ev manachloc yn wassaneithu duw. canys na wnaethant wy dym or cam ydaw. Agwedy menegi yr delflet ev kennadwri; ef aberys llad hynny o seint. Ac a doeth ef ay lu am benn y vanachloc; Ac yny erbyn yntev y doeth brochuael ac ymlad ac wynt yn wychyr creulon a llad llawer o bop tu. A hwnnw a elwyt gweith perllan bangor. A gwedy ev bot velly hir amseroed yn ymbrwydraw; dir uu y vrochuael kiliaw drwy dyvyrdwy avon. rac lluossogrwyd y saesson. Ac yna gwarchadw y rydeu arborthlodoed yny delei nerth attaw. Ac yna y llas o veibion llen mwy no Mil heb vrodyr llehygyon ac ermytwyr. Ac yna y doeth yn borth y vrochuael. nyt amgen. Bledrws tywyssauc kernyw. Meredud brenhin dyvet. katvan brenhyn gwyned. Ac yna kyrchu ev gelynyon aorugant ac ymlad yn wychyr creulon engiriawl allad llawer o bop tu. Ac or diwed y goruu y brutannyeit:Fol. 100v ac y brathwyt y delflet ay gymhell ar fo ac a diengys or paganieit y gyt ac ef. Sef rivedi a gollet yno or paganieit. chwech gwyr athrugeynt a deng Mil. Ac oblegyt y brutannyeit y collet bledrys tywyssauc kernyw a llawer y gyt ac ef. ac vn or gwyr teckaf oed a phennaf a gynheuliis yr ymlad uu bledrys. Ac yna yd ymgynvllawt yr holl brutannyeit; hyt yngkaer lleon. Ac yno y caussant yn ev kynghor gwneithur Catvan vab Jago yn vrenhin.

A gwedy gwneithur Catvan yn vrenhin ymlit a oruc ef y saesson ar delflet yny aeth drwy hvmyr. Ac yna kynvllaw llu aoruc y delflet y ymlad a chatvan. A gwedy ev dyuot yn gyvagos y gyt; ytagnavedwyt wynt. Nyt amgen no gadu yr delflet tu draw y hvmyr; ac y Catvan or tu yma achoron y dyrnas yn ragor idaw. A gwedy ymrwymaw onadunt yny mod hwnnw drwy rwym a gwystlon; sef y daruu y rwng y delflet ay wreic briawt. o achos gorderch a oed ydaw. Ac ef a deholes y wreic briawt oe gyuoeth ahytheu yn veichiawc o honaw. Sef y doeth hitheu hyt yn llys catvan; y ervynneit idaw peri tagneved ydi. Ac ny wnay y delflet yr hynny dym. Sef ytrigawt hitheu yn llys catvan yny anet mab ydi. Ac yn yr vn nos honno y ganet mab y catvan oe wreic briawt. henw mab catvan oed catwallawn. henw mab ydelflet oed etwin. Ac ev kyt veithuyn a wneythpwyt yn llys catvan; yny oedynt gweission mawr. Ac yna ev hanvon hyt ar selyf brenhin llydaw y dysgu moes a mynvt a chyfreitheu llys. ac aruer o veirch ac arveu.Fol. 101 ac o bob dysg da or a oed yn llydaw. A llawen uu selyf vrthunt; ac anwil uuant ganthaw. A chynydu yno a orugant ar gampev da; hyt nat oed ym brwydyr ac ymlad deu wr well a digonei noc wynt yn reit arglwyd.

A gwedy marw catvan ac edelflet; y doethant wyntev olydaw. Pob vn onadunt yn lle y dat. Ac ymrwymaw yngkedymeithas a orugant; ual y buassei ev tadeu kyn noc wynt. Ac ymphen y dwy vlyned gwedy hynny yd erchys Etwyn canneat y Gatwallawn gwneithur coron ydaw val y gallei y wisgaw pan wnelei anryded yngwyluaev seint parth draw y hvmyr; val y gwnay yntev or tu yma. Ac yna y gyssodet oet dyd y ryngthunt am hynny; ar lan avon dulas; y dodi ar wyrda doetheon y dosparth ryngthunt am y neges honno. A gwedy ev dyuot hyt yno y ssyrthyawt kyssgu ar catwallawn. adodi yben a oruc ar vordwyt breint hir vab novyd ynei. Sef a oruc breint tra uuwyt yn ymgynghor am hynny; wylaw. a ssyrthiaw a oruc ydagreu oy lygeit yny wlychawt wyneb catwallawn ay varf. athra hynny dyffroi o dybygu bot glaw. ac edrych aoruc ar vreint; a govyn ydaw paham yd wylei. Defnyd wylaw heb ybreint a doeth ym ac yr bruttannyeit o hediw allan. canys rodeisti yr hynn oed o ragor teilyngdawt ytt ac yth genedyl. Ar hynn oed o vrdas ywch; yr yn oes Maelgwn gwyned hyt hediw. A hediw cannehadu yr saesson twyll wyr ysgymvn an fydlawn gwneithur brenhin onadunt ev hvnein.Fol. 101v wynt a ymgynullant y gyt. ac oresgynnant kwbyl o ynys brydein. oc ev twyll ac ev hystriw drwc. ac am hynny arglwyd: oed iawnach ytt ev hystwng nogyt ev kynnydu. Ac eres na daw cof ytt arglwyd a wnaethant a gorthyrn gorthenev; pan y hettelhiis ef wynt yn rith wyr kywyr fydlawn crededvn y ymlad gyt ac ef. Aphan gaussant wyntev gyntaf lle ac amser; wynt adattodassant ev twyll ac ev brat y daly drwc dros da. Pan ladassant tywyssogeon ynys brydyn yn salysburi oc ev twyll: a daly gortheyrn a dwyn y vrenhiniaeth yarnaw. A gwedy hynny y gwnaethant brat emreis wledic ay lad a gwenwyn. Agwedy hynny ylladassant vthyr bendragon a gwenwyn hevyt. Agwedy hynny y torrassant ev fyd ac ev haruoll am duhvnaw gyt a medrawt yn erbyn arthur. Ac yn diwethaf oll y dugant gormwnt brenhin or affric y oresgyn yar geredic y gyuoeth ac ywdehol ohonei yn waradwidus. A gwedy tervynv o breynt ar y amadrawd; yd anvones catwallawn kennadev y venegi y etwyn nat yttoed yny gynghor canheadu vn goron yn ynys brydein o nyt coron lvndein. Sef y dywat etwyn ygwnay ef coron ydaw; bei drwc bei da gan gatwallaun. Sef y dywat catwallawn y lladei yntev yben yadan y goron os gwisgei o vewn y tervynev ynys brydein. Ac o hynny allan y kynydawt tervysg ryngthunt vwy vwy. a chan mwyaf ev gwyr wynt ev hvn o bobtu yn annoc hynny.Fol. 102 Eny gynullawt pob vn onadunt y llu mwiaf a gavas. A gyssot oet kyfranc ryngthunt. Ac yny kyfranc hwnnw y goruu Etwin. A gyrru catwallaun ar ffo hyt yn Iwerdon.

Ac yna y goresgynnws Etwin drwy llad allosgi kwbyl o gyvoeth catwallawn. A thra yttoed etwin yn hynny; yd oed catwallaun yn keisiaw dyuot y ynys brydein heb tygieit ydaw. Canys pa le bynnac y keisiei ef dyuot yr tir; yd oed dewynn y etwin a elwyt pellicus. A hwnnw oe dewindabaeth ar esgill yr adar. ac ar kerdedeat y sser. y parei hwnnw bot etwin ay holl allu yny ludyas yr tir. Pan welas catwallawn hynny anobeithiaw yn vaur aoruc. o dybygu na chaffei byth dim oe gyuoeth. Sef y cafas yny gynghor mynet hyt yn llydaw. y gwynaw urth selyf vrenhin llydaw; ac y ervyn nerth ydaw achynghor y geisiau y gyuoeth drachevyn. Ac val ydoed ef ay lynghes ganthaw yn mynet tu allydaw; y nychaf gwint gwrthpwith yn dyuot ydunt. ac yn ev gwasgaru heb drigaw yr vn onadunt gyt ay gilid. A diruawr ovyn agymyrth llywyd y llong yd oed catwallawn yndi; athynnv yllyw y mewn a oruc. a gadel y duw a nerth y tonnev ev dwyn fford y trossei ev tynghetvenev wynt. Athra uu nos ny wybuant dim oc ev damchwein. A phan uu dyd wynt aweleint ynys vychan: ac o breid y caussant y tir yno. Sef oed henw yr ynys hono garnarei. A gwedy ev dyuot yr tir klevychu a oruc catwallawn o orthrwm heynt.Fol. 102v gyt a goveilieint a gymyrth yndaw am wasgaru y llynghes o echryslawn wint. a thymhestyl mordwy. hyt na allei ef mwynhau na bwyt na diawt teir nos athri diev ar vn tu. Ac yny petwared dyd y doeth arnaw chwant kic hely. Sef a oruc breint yna kymryt y vwa ay saetheu a mynet y rodiaw yr holl ynys y geissiaw ergyt y gwydlwdyn heb gaffel dym. Ac yna tristau a oruc breint yn vaur. Sef y cavas yn y gynghor torri achyllell dryll o gehyr y vordwit; a rodi hwnnw ar ver ay bobi drwy amriw o lyssieuoed da. Ay dwyn y gatwallawn yn rith kic gwydlwdyn. A gwedy bwytta peth o honaw; dywedut aoruc vrth y dylwith. na chaussei eryoet kic vn vlas ac ef. Ac ny bu pen y tridiev gwedy hynny; yny gyuodes yn holl iach. A phan gaussant gyntaf gwint yawn; hwiliaw a orugant hyt yn llydaw. Ac yr lle a elwir kytdalet y doethant y dir. Agwedy menegi hynny y Selyf llawen uu vrthunt ac ev gwahawd attaw tra vynneint trigaw yny wlat. A gwedy gwybot ystyr ev neges o honaw; adaw a oruc ydunt y kynghor ar kymmorth goreu or a allei ef yn dirion garedic. Athost oed ganthaw gallu o ystrawn genedyl gyrru brenhin y bruttanyeit o ynys brydein oe anvod; a phob ynys yny chylch yn gallu ymgadw rac y saesson onyt ynys brydeyn. A menegi ydunt yr pan doeth Maxen wledic a chynan meiriadauc gyntaf y lydaw a dyledogeon ynys brydein. ynys brydein gyt ac wynt:Fol. 103 ny bu yr hynny hythediw yno a allei gynydu breint na y gynal. Ac am hynny drwc yw gennyfi auch bot mor wan ac na ellwch ymdiala ac wynt. Pan daruu y selyf tervynv ar y ymadraud; kywilydiaw aoruc catwallawn adiolwch ydaw y dirionwch ay enryded. A dywedut vrthaw val hyn. Arglwyd heb ef na vit ryved gennyt bod yn llesc y bobyl a edewit yn ynys brydein; canyt edewyt yno vn gwr bonhedic namyn a doeth ymma gyt a maxen a chynan meiriadauc. A phan aeth medeant yr ynys yn llaw anyledogeon llesc diwibot; ny medrassant na y llywyaw na y chynnal. namyn ymrodi yormorder o vwyt a diawt. aforthmonnaeth agodineb gwraged. achynnal ryvic yndunt o hyder ev mynws val y gwna pob milein. A gwneithur val y dywat gildas; nyt amgen no chynnal y pechodeu ymplith y kynnedloed. a hynny a ystwg byt oll oe olwc. Sef yw hynny cassau gwirioned achynnal y kelwyd yr da. a chymryt da dros drwc. Ac enrydedu enwired dros hygarwch. ac aruoll diawl dros anghel da. ac urdaw brenhined creulon a wneit o dryc ystriw. ac o bei vn gwr ffydlon y wrthot; a theiru y vot yn vradwr. Ac ny myneint dim y gan vedic yr holl wirioned; mwy noc ymyn vn milein kybyd. Ac am hynny arglwyd na vyt ryved gennyt ti vot yn gas gan duw y genedyl truan a wnei velly. a rodi ohonaw ystrawn gynedloed yn bennaf arnadunt y dial y pechodeu hynny. Ac am hynny arglwyd y deuthym mynnev ymma y ym gystlwn kerennyd athydy.Fol. 103v Canys Maelgwn gwyned oed petweryd brenhin gwedy arthur ar ynys brydein. A deu vab a uu ydaw Eynion a Rvn a mab y Run oed beli. a mab y veli oed Iago. amab y iago oed catvan vyn tat ynnev. A Run gwedy marw eynion y vraut; ay dehol yntev or saeson hyt ymma. Ef a rodes y verch y hywel vychan vab hywel vab emyr llydaw; y gwr a uu gyt ac arthur yn goresgyn llawer o wladoed. Ac yr verch honno y bu vab a elwit alan o hywel vychan; a mab yr alan hwnnw oed hywel dy tat tytheu arglwyd. A gwr kadarn grymmvs oed hwnnw; allyna yn deu dat yn deu gyuerderw. Ac yno y trigws catwallawn y gaeaf hwnnw gyt a selyf. Ac yna y caussant yn ev kynghor ellwng breint hir hyt yn ynys brydein y warandaw chwedleu y wrth Etwin ac y wrth y dewin. A gwedy y dyuot hyt yn ynys brydein: ef adoeth hyt yngkaer efvrawc lle yd oed y brenhin yna. yn rith reidus a bagyl yny law. a ssoch haearn ar y ben. A gwedy y dyuot ymplith y reydusseon; ef a welei y chwaer yn dyuot or llys allestyr yny llaw y gyrchu dwfyr yr vrenhines o ffynhawn a oed ger llaw yllys. Ar vorwyn honno a dugassei etwin o gaervraghon ywassanaethu y vrenhines. A gwedy ymwelet onadunt ac ymdidan yn ofnauc; menegi a oruc y vorwyn y vreint anssawd y llys oll. adangos ydaw y dewin. Aphanrannawd y dewin yr alwissenev yr tlodyon; ef anessaws breint attaw aphan gavas kyflwr gyntaf:Fol. 104 ef awant y dewin trwydaw ar bagyl yny gyll y eneit. ac yn divereauc ymlithraw ymplith y reiduseon ac adaw y vagyl yny dewin hyt na wybuwyt arnaw ef hynny mwy noc ar arall. Ac odyno y doeth breint hyt y lle yr adawssei vrth y chwaer dyuot pan vei nos. Canys pan uuessynt yn ymdidan ygwnaethessynt oet y dyuot pan vei nos hyt yn ymmyl hen demphyl y ymdidan y gyt. Ac nychavas y vorwyn dyuot or llys allan; o achos llad ydewin a dodi gwerssyllev ac amgen caeadeu ar y pyrth y nos honno no nos arall aorugant. A gwedy gwelet o vreint nat yttoed y chwaer yn dyuot attaw. Mynet aoruc hyt yngkaer exon. A dyvynnv attaw llawer or bruttanyeit achadarnhau y dinas ar gaer a orugant; ac anvon hyt yn llydaw yvenegi y catwallawn ry lad y dewin. Ac erchi ydaw o charei ef ynys brydein; dyuot ydi val y galley gyntaf. Ac yntev abarei rebudiaw y bruttanyeit: y ev bot yn barawt yn erbyn y dyuodeat ef. Sef a oruc peanda tywyssauc y saesson pan gigleu ef hynny; kynullaw llu aoruc mwiaf ac y gallawd a dyuot y ymlad a chaer exon. A phan gigleu catwallawn hynny; ef adoeth y ynys brydein a deng mil o varchogeon arvauc yn borth ydaw y gan selyf brenhin llydaw. Ac ny orffwissws yny doeth y gaer exon. Ac yna bydinaw y wyr yn bedeir bydin; ac yna ymgyrchu aorugant ac ymlad yn gadarn.Fol. 104v Ac yny lle y dalpwyt peanda a llad kwbyl oe lu. Ac yna ybu dir y peanda gwrhau y catwallawn arodi gwistlon ar y ffythlondeb idaw. Ac yna yd anvones catwallawn ar gwbyl or bruttannyeit y dyuot attaw wrth vynet am ben etwin drwy hvmyr. Pan gigleu etwin kynullav llu a oruc ynteu adyuot yny erbyn hyt yn maes het ffelt. ac yna ymlad ac ef yn wychyr creulon tra dygyws ydaw. Ac yny lle y llas etwin achan mwiaf y lu. ac yna y llas offric vab etwin. adeu neieint idaw. a gotbolt brenhin orc. ac eanda brenhin yscotlont a phaub or a dathoed yn borth ydunt alas yn llwyr.

A gwedy goruot o gatwallawn yna; keissiav aoruc dilehu y saesson drwy greulonder. Nyt amgen noc ev llad ac ev llosgi; a gellwg beichiogieu y saesnesseu oc ev crotheu yr llaur achledyfeu ac achyllill. ac velly y keisswys ef ev dehol wynt o ynys brydein. A gwedy gwelet or saesson hynny; yn ev kynghor y caussant dethol Oswallt yn vrenhin arnadunt yn lle etwin. y geissiaw gwrthnebu creulonder catwallawn; ac ny thygyei ydunt. namyn ev kymhell ar ffo o le i le: gan ev llad yn olofrud. Ac yna y ffoassant hyt y Mur awnathoed seuerus amherrawdyr ruvein gynt rwng deivyr a bryneich. Ac yna yd anvones catwallawn peanda aran vaur y gyt ac ef or llu; y ymlad ac oswallt. A gwedy ev dyvot hyt yno;Fol. 105 y ogilchynv a oruc peanda ydaw rac y didor yganthaw. yny lle a elwyr yn saesnec hevyn felt; ac yn gkymraec maes nefawl. Sef a oruc. oswallt yna dyrchauel delw y groc; a dywedut wrth y gedymeitheon val hyn. Digwydwch ar dal awch glinniev oc awch llwyr dilhewyt; a gwediwch duw holl gyuoethauc hyt pan vo ef awch rydhao y gan y llu syberw rackw. ac y gan y tywyssauc creulon. nyt amgen peanda. Canys duw a wyr panyw amdiffin iechit an kenedyl ydem ny. Athrannoeth y bore y kyuodes oswallt ay lu achyrchu ev gelynyon gan ym diriet yn duw. Ac oswallt a oruu y dyd hwnnw. Pan gigleu catwallawn hynny kynullaw llu aoruc amynet y ymlit oswallt; ay odiwes yny lle aelwyt bwrrnei. Ac yno y lladawt peanda oswallt vrenhin. Sef oed oet crist yna; deudeng mlyned adeugeint a chwechant. A gwedy llad oswallt ydoeth osswyd ael win yn vrenhin braut osswallt. Sef aoruc hwnnw gwedy y vynet yn vrenhin kynullaw swllt; ac anvon llawer o hwnnw y catwallawn canys goruchel vrenhin oed ar gwbyl o ynys brydein. Ac yna gwrhau a oruc osswyd ydaw achymodi ac ef. Sef y kyuodes deu neieint meibion y vraut y ryuelu ar oswyd. A gwedy na thygiawt ydunt ymlad ac ef; wynt a doethant ar peanda brenhin mers y ervynneit nerth idaw y ryuelu ac osswyd. Ac y dywat peanda na lavassei torri a chatwallawn yr hyn a adaus sei idaw tra vey vew heb y ganeat.Fol. 105v Aphan doeth gwylua y sulgwyn daly llys a oruc catwallawn yn llundein. A gwisgaw coron am y ben achwbyl oe dywyssogeon kymre asaesson a doethant yno. or a oed yn ynys brydein. onyt osswyd ehvn. Ac yna y govynnws peanda yr brenhin paham na doeth osswyd yno; am y vot yn glaf heb y brenhin. nagef ysgwir arglwyd heb y peanda. Ef a anvones attafi kennadeu y erchi ymy dyhvnaw ac ef; vi am gallu ydial yvraut. Ac am na dyhuneisi ac evo; ef a yrrawt kennadeu y germania y wahawd y saesson attaw y dial y vraut arnafi ac arnat tytheu arglwyd. Ac weldy yna ef yn torri y dagneued ar hedwch yn ynys brydein: pan deholes y deu neieint. aphan geissiawd vnoliaeth genyfynev arglwyd yth erbyn di. A dyro dythe ymynnev arglwyd canneat yw lad os gallaf nev yntev yw dehol o ynys brydein. Ac yna ygelwis ybrenhin ygynghor attaw y wybot peth a wnelei am hynny; ac y dywat Moredud brenhin divet vrthaw. Arglwyd heb ef paham ytorreyst ar darpar kyntaf avynnassut am y saesson; ac nyt oed reit onyt ev divetha yn gwbyl or ynys. Achanys hynny yw arglwyd; dyro ditheu caneat y peanda mynet y ymlad ac ef. val y llado pob vn onadunt y gilid. canys ny dyly an ffydlawn cadw fyd vrthaw. ac velly y gellir ev dilev wynt oll or ynys honn. Ac yna y cavas peanda caneat y ryvelu ar osswyd: ac yna ydaeth ef a llu mawr drwy hvmyr ganthaw adechreu llad allosgi ar gyuoeth osswyd.Fol. 106 Ac yna anvon aoruc osswyd attaw. y gynnyc eur ac areant ydaw a thlysseu yr hynn a vynnei ehvn yr hedwch y ganthaw: ac ny mynnei ef dym namyn ryuelu racdaw. Sef o oruc osswyd yna dodi ar duw ydervynv ryngthunt: a mynet y ymlad ac ef ar lan avon a elwit wynnet. ac yno yllas peanda. Sef oed oyt crist yna trugeint Mlyned a chwechant. A gwedy llad peanda y rodes catwallawn y gyuoeth y wlfryt y vab: ac yntev ay kymyrth ac a wnaeth gwrrogeaeth idaw. Ac yna y daeth hwnnw ac etbert tywyssauc keint y ryuelu ar osswyd. ac or diwed y peris catwallawn ydunt kymodi. Ac yna y bu catwallawn yn gwledychu yn dagnavedus caredic: ac yn bennaf brenhin yn ynys brydein. ac yn eidaw coron y deyrnas. wyth mlyned a deugeint. ac yny ymdreiglwis yn heneint. Ac yny pymthecvet dyd o vis tachwed y bu varw. Ac y kymyrth y bruttanyeit y gorff ay iraw ac ireidiev gwyrth vaur. ay dodi mewn delw o lattwn dinewedic a wnathoedyt o aniffic kywreinrwyd. Ar delw honno a ossodat ar varch dinewedic o lattwn tec vch penn y porth yn llvndein y tu ar gorllewyn yr aruthret yr saesson. Ac a danav ynteu yno y gwnaethpwyt eglwys. ay kyssegru yn enw duw a marthyn. Ac yno y kenyt efferennev dros eneit catwallawn. A merdyn emrys a daroganws. y tywyssauc evydaul.Fol. 106v a geidiw pyrth llundein. d[ ]

Ac yn nessaf y gatwallawn y doeth Catwaladyr vendigeit y vab yntev yn vrenhin. Ac y bu deudeng mlyned yn frwithlawn dagnavedus yn kynnal coron y deyrnas ay llywodraeth. Ac yna y klevychws catwaladyr o orthrwm heint; ac y bu yn glaf yn hir. Ac yna yd enynnws teruysc yrwg y bruttanyeit ev hvneyn. Mam catwaladyr oed chwaer y peanda o vn dat ac ef. Ay mam hitheu oed wreic vonhedic o deledogeon erging ac evas. A phan gymodes catwallawn a pheanda gynt: y kymmyrth ef honno yn wreic idaw. a honno oed vam y catwaladyr. Ac yna y gyt ac ev tervysc: ef a doeth arnadunt ball a newyn girat. Ac ev llad yn olofrud; a hynny yn dial y gan duw holl kyuethawc arnadunt: am ev pechodeu. ac ev gormod ssyberwyt. Ac yna dros wyneb ynys brydein ny cheffyt vn tammeit or bwyt: onyt a geffyt o gic hely mevn diffeith coydyd nev forestev. Ac yd oed yvall yn gyngadarnet: hyt na alley y rei bew cladu y rei meiriw. Ac aallws onadunt mynet y wladoed ereill: wynt a aethant adan gwynvan a drycghyrverth. Adywedut wrth duw: ti an rodeist ni ymma. mal deveit yn uwyt yr bleidiev. Ac an gwasgereyst ni ymma; mal y gwasgarei y bleidiev y deveit y amryuaelion wladoed. Sef y perrys catwaladyr yna. parattoi llynghes ydaw ehvn. a mynet y tu a llydaw adan gwynvan val hynn. Gwae ni pechadurieit rac amlet yn pechodeu y rei y codassam ny duw onadunt tra yttoedym yn caffel yspeit y ev penydyaw:Fol. 107 ac y ymwneithur aduw amdanadunt. Ac am hynny y mae duw yn an dehol ny oc an gwir dylyet. Ac ny allws na gwyr ruvein na neb ryw genedyl vyt yn dehol ny or ynys honn; nac yn gwasgaru val hynn; namyn duw ehvn. Ac am hynny ymchwelet yr ysgottieit ar twyllwyr saesson y ynys brydeyn weitheon; canys diffeith yw oe phobyl dyledauc. A choffaent hagen nac wynt an deholes ny o ynys brydein: namyn duw ehvn. (dc.lxxxi.) Ac yna yd aeth catwaladyr hyt yn llydaw. ar alan vrenhin llydaw. a nei oed hwnnw y selyf. allawen uu alan wrthaw. Ac yna nyt edewyt yn ynys brydein rwng ball a newyn: namyn a allws kyrchu y diffeith coedyd y ymborth ar gic hely. Ac vn vlwydyn ardec y parhaws y vall honno yn ynys brydein. Ar hynn a dienghys or saesson yna: wynt a anvonnassant hyt yn germania y venegi vot ynys brydein yn wac. Ac erchi ydunt dyuot y gymryt yr ynys yn rat. Sef a oruc y bobyl ysgymvn honno: kynvllaw aneirif onadunt o wyr agwraged. a dyuot yr gogled y dir: a chyvannedu y wlat or alban hyt yngkernyw. canyt oed neb ay lludiei. Ac o hynny allan y colles y bruttanyeit ev llywodreath ar ynys brydein. (dc.lxxxiii) Ac ym penn ysbeit gwedy hynny y kigleu catwaladyr peidiaw or vall: ac yd erchys ef nerth y alan y vynet y oresgyn ynys brydein iar y paganieit aoed yny chyvanhedu. Ac ynteu ay hedewys idaw. A phan oed alan yn lyhudyaw y gyuoeth: a chatwaladyr yn parattoi y llynghes.Fol. 107v Sef y klywei llef anghel or nef yn dywedut wrthaw. ac erchi ydaw nat aruaeth ev mynet y ynys brydein; canys ny mynnei duw gwledychu or bruttanyeit yno. yny delei yr amser a darogannws Merdyn emreis ger bron gortheyrn gwrthenev. Ac yna yd erchys yr anghel y gatwaladyr mynet hyt yn ruvein ar Sergius bab y ev benydiaw; ac ef a rivyt yno yrwng y rei gwynvydedic. Ac yna y dywat yr anghel ymae drwy evyrllit y ffyd ef; y caffei y brutannyeit llywodraeth ynys brydein. Pan darffei idaw ef eflenwi yr amser tynghetvenawl. Ac ny byd hynny yny del esgyrn catwaladyr y ynys brydein o ruvein. A hynny a geffir or diwed: pan dangosser esgyrn y seint oll agudiwyt rac ovyn y paganyeit yn ruvein. A phan gaffer hynny: y keif y brutannyeit ev hen deilyngdaut a medyant cwbyl o ynys brydein. Pan daruu yr anghel tervynv ar y ymadrawd: y doeth catwaladyr hyt ar alan vrenhin llydav. amenegi idaw cwbyl or hynn adywedassei yr anghel wrthaw. Ac yno y kymyrth alan attaw holl llyffrev darogannev Merdyn emreis. ar hwnn yr eryr. achathleu sibilla: y edrych agyt retteint a geiriev yr anghel. A phan y gwelas yn kyt rydec da uu ganthaw; ac annoc y catwaladyr vynet yn ruvein. Ac anvon Iuor y vab ac ynyr y nei y geisiau kynnal ynys brydein o waet ac owir dylyet rac mynet gwelydon ar y brutannyeit. Ac yno yd ymwrthodes catwaladyr a phob kyffryw beth bydawl:Fol. 108 a hynny o gareat duw. Ac yna yd aeth ef hyt yn ruvein; val yd erchis yr anghel idaw. Sef oed hynny teir blyned aphedwar vgeint. a chwechant o oet crist. Ac yno y bu yn vew pymp mlyned. Allawen uu y pab wrthaw: ac ay cadarnhaws ef ymplith y seynt gleyneon. Ac yna y kleuychws ef o orthrwm heint. Ac yny deudecvet dyd o vis racvir y bu varw. ac ydaeth y eneit y nef. Sef oed hynny wyth mlyned aphetwar vgeint a chwechant o oet crist.

A phan aeth catwaladyr y ruvein o lydaw: y doeth Iuor vab alan ac ynyr y nei allynghes ganthunt hyt yn ynys brydein y ryvelu ar saesson: ac ny dygrynhoes ydunt dim. Canyt adaussei ball a newyn dim haeach or brutanyeit yn vew. ar rei hynny ar daroed ev dehol y ran kamber or ynys. Ac ny elwyt wynt yn vryttannyeit yna: namyn yn gymre. Ac o hynny allan y goruc y saesson yn diveryauc; kynnal tagneued ryngthunt ev hvneyn. Adiwyll ytiroed goreu; ac adeiliat kestill. achaeroed. a dinessyd. Ac val hynny y byriassant medyant y bruttannyeit iarnadunt: ac o hynny allann y colles y kymry ev breint. ac y bu dir ydunt godef saesson yn bennaf arnadunt. Ar tywyssogeon a uuant ar gymre gwedy hynny pob eilwers: a orchmyneis ynnev y garadauc o lan garban. vyng kyt oesswr y oed hwnnw. Ac ydaw ef yd edeweis y defnyd y ysgrivennv brenhined y saesson o hynn allan; a ffeidyaw or kymre.Fol. 108v Canyt ydiw ganthunt y llyvyr kymraec yr hwnn a ymchweylws Gwallter archdiagon ryt ychen o ladyn yng kymraec. Ac ef ay traethws yn wir ac yn gwbyl o herwyd ystoria y racdywededigeon kymre. A hynny oll adatymchweilieis ynnev o gymraec yn lladyn. Ac velly yteruyna ystorea brutus.

Pandrasus, King of Greece. Brutus, prince of the remnants of the Trojan nation, sends greeting.46b Since it was unsuitable / for the renown of the race of Dardanus to spend their lives in your kingdom otherwise than as befits the renown of their lineage, the princely race has sought the forests in which to hide themselves, choosing to live like animals on uncooked flesh and plants and to maintain their lives in freedom, rather than suffer what they did under the form of captivity to you and support themselves on every sort of voluptuousness. And if that raises the dignity of your possession
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you should neither punish them nor reproach them, but pardon them since it is a common urge for every prisoner to desire to return to his old dignity and his freedom. And therefore be moved by pity and deign to allow them, out of your abundance, the freedom that they have lost, and let them dwell in the wilderness that they have occupied [while] fleeing from their captivity. And if you will not do that, permit them with your good will and your permission to go to other countries to seek their freedom.

47And after the gist of the letter had been told to Pandrasus the Greek king, he was irate beyond measure, and he marvelled that they dared send such a letter / as this. And then he assembled an army without delay to come against them to kill them without mercy.1 And after they had come to a river—Ascalon was its name—they rushed into the river because of their anger and their vehemence. And after Brutus saw that they had got through the river, because of the notion that he could withstand them he fell among them, and his army with him, like an insatiable lion among a lot of sheep; and with all his might he killed them without mercy.1 And those of them who were not killed were driven to the river to be drowned. And after Antigonus, brother to Pandrasus the Greek king, had seen this slaughter, he drew aside, and his leading men with him, to try to defend themselves. And then Antigonus, Pandrasus’s brother,2 and Anacletus, his companion,
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were captured and the rest were killed. And when it was night, Pandrasus sought out his scattered army, and they encamped there that night. And he was more grieved over losing Antigonus his brother than over the whole army. And the next day, after deliberating, they decided to attack the castles of Assara/cus,47b thinking that the prisoners were there. And after they had fought against the castles for three days in every sort of way, and the men within had fought them bravely and laboriously, they sent to Brutus to ask him to come to defend them, for, because of the great numbers outside, they could not resist them. And then, after consultation, Brutus decided to take Anacletus aside to ask him which he preferred, his life and that of Antigonus his companion, and their freedom, or to suffer the pain of death. And he chose their lives. And then Brutus said to him, “You must do as I command in every respect.” And he gave his oath and his pledge that he would do everything he was ordered to. And then Brutus said to him, “When it is night you must go to the army of King Pandrasus, and when the sentries come to seize you,1 tell them that you have broken away from prison, and that you yourself carried Antigonus into a wooded glen by the road; and because of the weight of the iron you could not carry him any further, and ask them to come / with you to get him.48 And so2 if they try to awaken any of the army tell them there is no need of that but to come themselves.”

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And when it was night, Anacletus went as Brutus had ordered him, and he did everything in the way he had been told to, until he came to the wooded glen, and there he called to Antigonus. And then Brutus came with his army and killed them so that not a man of them escaped alive. And from there Brutus and his army came to the place where the army of Pandrasus the Greek king was about the castle of Assaracus. And then he commanded every man of them not to speak1 a single word until they heard his horn. And after they had heard the sound of2 his horn, he told every man to rush the tents and kill as many of them as he could. And after Brutus had come to the door of the tent of King Pandrasus, he blew his horn and slit the tent, and captured Pandrasus the Greek king. And then all fell upon the tents and killed as many as they could until the next day dawned. And the men in the castles came out on the other side and killed as many of them as they could,48b without / pity.3 And if one of them tried to flee, he fell over sharp stones so that he was in little pieces. And so Brutus conquered them, and they suffered4 their deaths as was fated. And the next morning, when it was day, every one marvelled that the slaughter was so great, and then Brutus thanked each of his men for his service.

And then he took counsel as to what he should do about Pandrasus the Greek king. Some advised him to take the wild woods they had occupied,
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to dwell in freely; others advised taking a third part of the kingdom, to dwell freely in that. And then a wise man among them said that they could not live together permanently in peace in the same kingdom. The reason was that when they remembered the slaughters and the massacres that had been inflicted upon them, they would keep it in their hearts until they got an opportunity to avenge themselves.1 And after a long time had elapsed and the people had grown more numerous, and war sprang up between them, it would not be / surprising, either,49 if two thirds of the island should defeat the other third, “and our chance would then be worse than it was before. And it is better now, since we have defeated them, to take from Pandrasus the Greek king his daughter Ignogen as a wife for Brutus our prince, and plenty of gold and silver and wine and wheat and horses and arms, and ships to take us to another island where God may will us to dwell in peace forever.” And after they had regarded2 everything, they fixed on this advice. And then they sought Pandrasus the Greek king, to ask him if he would do what they wanted, in return for sparing his life and his kingdom. And he promised them everything, for he was in their power. And then they told him their desire as has been mentioned above, and he was forced to submit to them. And he offered half of his kingdom for the sake of having his daughter live in the same island as himself. And they did not want it.3

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And after their supplies were ready they sought their ships and Ignogen with them, and no one was able to still her lamenting and weeping until they came to the bosom of the deep so that she did not see the land. And then a deep sleep fell upon her from extreme weariness and she slept. The number of ships that came with them from Greece were three hundred twenty-four, full of tried1 men and arms and horses and gold and silver and wine and wheat. And they came to Lygesti which was a deserted island that had once been inhabited, and there many of them went ashore to see the condition of the land and to hunt, because they were fond of woods and forests with wild animals in them.50 And there they found an old temple / that had been built in olden times in which to sacrifice to the goddess Diana. And in coming to the ships they killed a white hind, and they took it as a gift to Brutus and told him the condition of the land. And they asked him to go to pay homage to the gods before he went further. And then Brutus took with him Gerio the diviner and twelve of the elders and whatever was needful for the services. And after they had come to the temple, he twined2 a crown of laurel about his head before the door of the temple, as the custom of the old ritual was, and he lighted three blazes of fire to the three gods, Jupiter, Mercury, and Diana, and to each one of them he made appropriate sacrifice. And then Brutus took in his right hand the vessel of the sacrifice, full of wine and the blood of the white hind, and he raised his face
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toward the goddess and spoke in this manner, “Is it thou, powerful goddess, terror of the woodland dwellers, to whom is given leave to walk the paths of air? Thou givest obligations to the earth and to heaven.50b Say what land thou wishest us to dwell in; tell of / our certain seat from which I may honor thee forever and build1 to thee honorable temples of virgin choirs.” And having said that nine times, he circled the altar four times, and he poured out the wine that was in his hand on the fire before the altar. And then he lay down on the skin of the white hind that he had spread out before the altar. And after he had been overcome by sleep he slept heavily.2 And so when a third of the night was past he saw in his sleep Diana speaking to him in this fashion: “Brutus,” said she, “beneath the west, beyond France, there is an island in the ocean that was inhabited of old by giants; now it is deserted except for twenty giants that inhabit it; and that island3 will be suitable for you and for your nation to dwell in, and Albion is its name, that was4 in Welsh the White Island.”

And after Brutus had arisen, he told his companions the vision he had seen, and they sought their ships, giving thanks to the gods, and they hoisted their sails and plowed the seas for the space of5 thirty days / on end until they came to Africa.51 And thence they came to the Altars of the Philistines and thence they came along the Lake of the Willows, and thence they came between Rusiccada and Mount Azare, and there they
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fought with the tribe of the Piratae, and Brutus defeated them. And thence they came through the River Malve, and thence they came to the land of Mauritania and ravaged it from sea to sea. And thence they came to the Pillars of Hercules, and there they had much trouble with the sea-maidens singing songs until all who heard them were compelled to sleep; and then they came1 aboard the ships to try to sink and drown them, until the men were obliged to melt wax in their ears2 and fight with them with the force of all their weapons; and they barely escaped from them. And thence they came to the Tyrrhene Sea, and beside this sea they came among four tribes of the Trojan race, of those who earlier had fled with Antenor after the destruction of Troy.51b And after the two races had made inquiries concerning each other3 / they knew each other. And at that time Corineus was prince over them, and he was the strongest man, and the bravest, in this world. And after he and Brutus had come to know each other, they loved each other inseparably from that time on. And from there they went together to Anjou to the mouth of the Loire. And there they were continuously for a week. And after this had been told to Goffar the Pict, king of that country, he sent messengers to ask them to leave the country,4 and unless they left the country of their own good will he would drive them out5 against their will. And when the messengers came there, Corineus was
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hunting in1 a forest and killing the wild animals. And when the messengers knew that, they came to the forest to try to capture him and take him with them to prison. And since Corineus would not submit to them, one of them2—Imbert was his name—shot at him with an arrow, and Corineus dodged the arrow, and before he could shoot the second, Corineus hit him with his own bow so that he broke his head in pieces, and the others fled to Goffar the Pict and told him all / that had happened to them. And Goffar was much offended at that,52 and he mustered all his kingdom and came against Brutus and ordered him to surrender himself and all his men to prison for coming into his kingdom without permission, and hunting his forests and killing his men; and if he did not give himself up willingly he would compel him against his will by force of arms. And after Brutus had advised with his council, he refused the whole demand.

And then Goffar mustered his army and Brutus mustered his. And3 the leader of Goffar’s first army was Siward, his high steward, and he was the strongest man in France. And against him came Corineus and his army, and then there was a mighty battle,4 and a fierce, between the armies injuring each other; and then Siward was killed. And so closely were the armies mixed together that Corineus lost his sword. And he chanced upon5 a two-edged ax, and where he struck with it nothing stopped it until it reached the ground; and with this he put to flight the three hundred knights, and they did not know that
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the whole army was not following them and killing them, until he called out to them and / chided them because three hundred men fled before one man.52b And then they tried to turn about, and they had no success. And then Goffar the Pict and those of his men1 who escaped fled to the twelve peers of France to complain that a foreign invasion had come and driven him out of his country, and to ask them, for God’s sake, to defend him and his realm. And each one of them pledged himself to him. And when Brutus knew this, he had a castle made for him to guard against an attack of his enemies in a place where Homer built a city afterwards as he says himself. And when Goffar heard that, he grieved more over it than he had over all the affronts to him before that. And then they gathered together all their might from France to expel Brutus from the island. And when they had come there, Brutus and his army came against them and there the two armies rushed together until their monstrous din2 was heard on the earth and their spears breaking [were heard] in the firmament of the air, and they shrieking in suffering the agony of death on all sides so that no one could describe it. And after much of the day had passed in this fashion3 the Britons were forced to4 retreat to the castle because the French were too numerous.53 / And that night Corineus and three thousand armed men came secretly to a wooded glen and lay hid there until the next day. And when the next day dawned, Brutus and his army came, and against him came Goffar and his army and the twelve peers of France and their armies,
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and there they fought boldly and fiercely. And when they were doing each other most harm, behold Corineus and his army coming on the other side of them1 and killing them without mercy. And when the French saw this, they were disheartened and fled to various places as their fates directed them. And there2 fell Turnus, Brutus’s nephew, a young fellow and the mightiest man in the army except Corineus. And he slew3 six hundred men with his one sword before he was killed. And there he was buried, and the place has been called after his name from that day to this.

And after Brutus had got the victory there, he was advised, before he lost too many of his men, to go to the place where his design and his vision were [directing him.] And then they made their preparations and went to their ships, and sailed away toward the west until they came to the shore of Totnes, / and there they sent4 to see the state of the land.53b And after the state of the land had been reported to Brutus, he was well content, and they turned their ships to the land. And in the place where Brutus first landed he began5 a temple to the goddess Diana who had showed the vision to Brutus. And while he was making sacrifice to the gods, Corineus went to seek the giants in Cornwall, for he had heard that they were there. And when he arrived there, they had gone another way to look for Brutus and his army; and they made an attack on the army and killed many of them. And after this had been told
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to Brutus he did not come near them until he had finished the sacrifice. And then he drew up his army and came to fight with the giants. And then the giants were all killed except one—Gogmagog was his name—and he was twelve cubits tall and four broad, and he was the strongest man1 in the world. And for this reason Brutus had him left alive to fight with Corineus. And after Corineus came back from walking over the island, Brutus told him of his meeting with the giants, and Corineus was pleased with that. And then the great giant was taken up on top of a high flat rock on / the shore of the sea to fight with Corineus.54 And at the first touch the giant got him in a hand grasp under his two arms and squeezed him until he broke three of his ribs, one on the right side and two on the left. And then he lifted him up and struck him to the ground on his knees. And then Corineus got up quickly and angrily, and grasped the giant and squeezed him until he loosened all his grasp, and then he raised him on his shoulder and went with him to the shore of the sea, and from a high rock he threw him upon sharp stones so that he was in pieces before he reached the sea, and the waves of the sea were reddened with his blood. And from that day to this the place is called the Giant’s Leap. It was twelve hundred years after the water of the flood that Brutus first came to this island.

And then Brutus desired to do away with the name which the island had had before this—
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that was1 Albion—and2 to call it after his own name so that the race thereafter might remember that Brutus was the first who governed it. And then he gave the island the name of Britain, and the race that of Britons from that day on. And then he gave to Corineus the part / of the island that he should choose,54b and he chose the part that he had walked over and looked at. And then Corineus named his part3 of the island Cornwall after his own name, and the tribe Cornishmen from that day on. From there Brutus and his army came along the shore of a noble river—Thames was its name4—and when he saw a place suitable for building he made a city there and called it New Troy. And this name stuck to it until the time of Lud son of Beli son of Manogan. And after he had made the city, then Brutus slept with his wife Ignogen for the first time. And he had three sons by her, namely, Locrine, Camber, and Albanact. And after Brutus had ruled in peace over the Isle of Britain for twenty-four years, he died and was buried with honor in the aforementioned5 city which he himself had built.

And then the island was divided into three parts between the three brothers. That is, to Locrine for he was oldest—he got by ancient custom of the men of Greece the chief place which was Loegria as it bears6 its bounds from the Humber Sea to the Severn. And from his own name he called his part7 Loegria. And to Albanact came [the part] from the Humber / onwards,55 and
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from his own name he called his part of the island Albany. And to Camber came [the part] on the other side of the Severn, and he called his part Cambria from his own name. And after they had been thus a long time in peace, Humber King of Hainaut came with a fleet to land in Albany, after he had already ravaged Germany. And when Albanact knew of this he came with a small force to try to drive him from the land. And there was a fierce battle between them1 there, and a great slaughter; and then Albanact was killed and those of the army who escaped fled to Locrine. And when Locrine knew that, he sent to his brother Camber to tell it to him. And then by agreement they collected an army and came to Albany. And against them came Humber and his army, and there was a mighty battle there and a great slaughter on both sides. And at length Humber fled to seek his ships and he was not allowed [to reach them] but was driven into the river to drown. And from that time on the river has been called after his name—that is2 Humber—so that the race to come thereafter might remember that battle.

55bAnd after Locrine and his brother Camber / had won the victory they came to the place where Humber’s ships were. And in the ships they found three maidens of marvellous beauty, and the chief of the three was Iseult the daughter of the King of Germany, whom Humber had carried away when he ravaged that country. And then
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Locrine took Iseult as his concubine. And when Corineus knew that, he was angry because Locrine had previously promised to take his daughter Gwendolen as his lawful wife. And he sent to him and demanded that he send her away1 from the country.2 And when he did not send her away, Corineus assembled an army to attack Locrine and to compel him to drive her3 out of the country.2 And when Locrine knew this, he caused a vault to be made in a secret place and Iseult to be put in it without the knowledge of any one. And then he sent to Corineus to tell him that he had driven Iseult out of the island and to arrange a love feast between them.4 And when they had come to this appointment, Corineus came brandishing a5 two-edged battle-ax in his hand, and he said to him angrily,56 “Are you the wanton youth / who has insulted me and my daughter after I received so many wounds conquering a realm for you and for your father before you?” And thereupon6 he threatened to attack him with the ax. And then their companions7 came between them and made peace. And then Locrine took Corineus’s daughter Gwendolen as his wedded wife and his queen, and by her he had a son, Madoc was his name. And at the same time a daughter was born to Iseult and she was named Havren. And Locrine continued in this fashion for a long time, and under pretense of going to make sacrifice to the gods, he would go to Iseult when he went, and he would remain there two or three nights at a time8 without any one knowing anything about him until he came back. And after Corineus died he put away Gwendolen and raised
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Iseult to be queen. And thereupon Gwendolen went to Cornwall complaining to her kinsfolk, to tell them of the dishonor he had done her. And then, after deliberating, they decided to raise an army to avenge on Locrine the dishonor of their kinswoman. And when Locrine knew this,56b he too raised an army to oppose them. / And after the two armies had come together on the bank of a river—Sturham was its name—they shot great flights of arrows at each other, and there Locrine was slain by an arrow shot. And he had reigned for nine years previous to that time.

And after Gwendolen had won the victory she took the rule of the kingdom into her own hand; and she had Iseult and her daughter taken and drowned in the river which was the boundry between Cambria and Loegria, and from that time on had the name of the girl given to the river—that is Havren [Severn]1—to remind the people to come thereafter of these events. And then the river has been called Havren2 from that day to this. And after Gwendolen had reigned fourteen years after Locrine, she gave the government of the kingdom to Madoc son of Locrine,3 her son. And she took Cornwall as provision for her while she lived. And at this time Daniel the prophet ruled in the land of Judaea, and Silvius Aeneas in Italy, and Homer was reciting his poetry.

And after Madoc had been raised to be king,57 he married a wife / and had two sons by her. Their names were Member and Mael. And this Madoc
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reigned in peace and quiet for twenty-six years, and then he died. That was 1274 years after the water of the1 flood.

And after Madoc there arose dissension between his sons Member and Mael over the division of the kingdom. And after they had insisted on fighting, nobles came between them and appointed a day of reconciliation between them. And when they had come to this appointment,2 Member came and killed his brother Mael in a sudden cruelty; and then he took the kingdom into his own control entirely. And he became so cruel that he put to death most of the nobles of the island. And he left his lawful wife who had borne him a son whose name was Evroc,3 and he gave himself up to the sin of / Sodom, which was hateful to God.57bAnd one day when he was in a forest, after he had gone to hunt,4 he became separated from his men and he came to a wooded glen, and there came a plague of5 wolves to him there6 and they killed him dead.7 That was 1300 years after the flood, and he had reigned 26 years before that.8 At that time Saul was king in Israel and Eurystheus in Lacedæmon.

And after Member, his son Evroc took the kingdom and ruled it thirty-nine years. And he was the first man9 after Brutus who went with a fleet to fight with France; and he got the victory and subjugated it to himself. And at this time David the Prophet was king in Jerusalem, and Silvius Latinus
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in Italy,58 and Gad and Nathan and Asaph were prophesying / in Israel. And then the king built Evroc’s city [York], and Dumbarton, and the castle of Mount Agned which is now called the Castle of the Maidens and the1 Dolorous Mountain. And he had twenty sons by twenty wives that he had, and thirty daughters. The names of the sons were: Brutus Greenshield, Meredith, Cecil, Rhys, Morud, Bladud, Iago, Bodlan, Kingar, Spaden, Gwawl, Dardan, Eidol, Ivor, Hector, Kingu, Geraint, Rhun, Asser, Howel. The names of his daughters were: Glowgain, Ignogen, Eudas, Gwenllian, Gwawrdyd, Angharad, Gwendolen, Tangustel, Gorgon, Medlan, Mechael, Ovrar, Maelura, Camreda, Regan, Gwael, Ecub, Nest, Kein, Stadud, Evren, Blaengein,58b Avallach, Angaes, Galaes, (and she was the most beautiful girl ever seen in the Isle / of Britain in her days), Gwervyl, Perweur, Eurdrec, Edra, Anor, Stadyald, and2 Egron. And all these daughters Evroc sent to Silvius his kinsman, the king of Italy, to be given to the most worthy men of those descended from the race of Troy. And all of the sons except the oldest of them he sent to Italy with a fleet, to Silvius their kinsman,3 and Asser their brother was leader over them. And from there they went to Germany. And by the aid of Silvius they conquered that country and ruled it thereafter. Brutus Greenshield remained with his father in the Isle of Britain until his father finished his life. That was 1339 years after the flood.

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And after Evroc, his son Brutus Greenshield took the kingdom and ruled it in peace and quiet twelve / years after his father.59 And he loved truth and justice. And he had one son by his wedded wife, and Leon was his name. And then Brutus Greenshield1 died 13512 years after the flood.

And after Brutus Greenshield,1 his son Leon took the government of the island3 and ruled it a long time in peace and quiet. And he built a city in the north of the island and he called it by his own name Leon’s City. [Carlisle]. And this name has stuck to the city from that day to this. And after considerable time had elapsed, a grievous sickness fell upon him so that he could neither ride nor walk. And then there arose civil discord in the kingdom because of his weakness at the end of his life. And at that time Solomon the son of David was building the temple of Christ in Jerusalem, and Sibilla the Queen of Sheba came to listen to Solomon’s wisdom.59b / And after Leon had reigned twenty-five years he died. This was 13764 years after the flood.

And after Leon, his son Rhun Broadspear ruled forty years lacking one, and he brought the people to peace. And he built Canterbury, and Winchester, and the castle of Spearmount, which is called in English Shaftesbury. And while he was building this city the eagle prophesied and spoke predictions
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of the Isle of Britain, and the oracles were in this fashion.1

The Prophecy of the Eagle.

As the white expels the red dragon, so shall the dark overthrow the white. A wonderful dragon, the worst, shall fly, and with a breath of flaming fire from his jaws shall burn the whole island by its licking. From his loins shall come a ram with fine fleece,60 the blows / of whose horns shall darken in the east. Then shall come a bat with poisonous appearance, and with its sight it shall terrify faith and religion. Thence shall come a lion that shall draw nigh to the gleaming bat, and under its rule the stiffness of truth shall be corrupted. A crab from the sea shall draw nigh to the lion and under his authority liberty shall vanish from liberty. After the pickaxes have been turned into spears, a toothed boar shall draw nigh to the crab, and shall couch in the thick brambles and shall sharpen his teeth in the might of the kingdom. From the lust of the boar a cub shall be born, which shall give for the death of his father as for the death of a dog. The iniquity of the father shall take2 the sons, and the first of them shall rise suddenly to the summit of the kingdom, but like a flower of spring before his fruit he shall wither away. From the sin of the old the sons shall sin against the father and the first crime shall be the material of those that follow.60b Sons shall rise / against their father and to avenge the sin the bowels shall agitate against the womb. Blood shall rise against their blood until Albany weeps the penance of the pilgrim and there shall be desperate agony. Then shall come a mighty tumult of east wind and
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it shall rush to the west and shall uproot all the might of Ireland. Before that the princes shall bow, and after they have covenanted peace they shall love one another. Grief shall be turned into joy when they shall pierce the father in the belly of the mother. There shall draw near a lynx which shall descend from the seed of the lion, whose keenness shall pierce the strength of iron like that of stone. In his going Normandy shall leave the two islands, and by an enormous manner of change the sword shall be separated from the crown. Because of the discord of the two brothers, one who comes from another place shall reign.61 The chariot of the fifth shall be turned to the fourth and after his / own lines shall be raised up his shame which escapes1 shall trample on the kingdoms. In the last days of the white2 dragon his offspring shall be scattered in three parts. Part shall draw toward Apulia; with eastern wealth shall it be enriched. Part shall descend on Ireland; with western temperature shall it be delighted. The third part shall dwell in the profitless and desolate land that it shall obtain. A fiery ball shall descend from the east and shall swallow up Brittany round about. By its light birds shall fly to the island, and the greatest of them, when their wings are set on fire, shall fall into captivity. From that fire shall be engendered a spark, and at its tumult the islands shall be afraid. In the presence of the greatest the absent shall be seen, and the second coming shall be worse than the first. After the lion of truth is dead, the noble white king shall arise in the Isle of Britain, first flying, then riding, then
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61balighting, and / at this alighting he shall be caught in his vehicle. He shall be drawn thence and shall be pointed at with the finger and it shall be said that he is1 the blessed white king. Then shall his army be gathered together, and a hostage for him shall be taken. And then there shall be bargaining for men just as for an ox or a sheep. And men shall seek for an improvement on that, and there shall be none except head for head. And then the white one shall arise and shall come to the place where the sun rises, and the place where another sun falls. Then shall be said in the Isle of Britain, “A king who is no king.” After this he shall raise up his head and shall show that he is a king by many hideous deeds and not by one profitable one. After many shall be cut there shall be no restoration. Then shall be the world of the kites, and what every one shall take away by force shall be his own, and that shall last seven years. And there shall be violence and shedding of blood, and ovens shall be compared to the churches.62 And what one sows, another shall reap, and over / his wretched life death shall triumph and there shall be complete love in few men, and what is covenanted in the evening shall be violated in the morning.

Then shall come from the south on wooden horses and2 on the foam of the sea, a chick of an eagle, and it shall sail and shall land in the Isle of Britain. And straightway it shall dart to the house of the eagle and shall conquer it. And then there shall be war in the Isle of Britain for a year and a half. And then it will not do to practice exchange, but every one shall take care how to keep his own property and to seek the property of others. Thence shall come the noble, weak3 king, with his army about him, toward the west to the old place beside the running water,
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and there his enemies shall come against him, and every one shall be ranged in his place about him, and the army of his enemies shall be formed in the shape of a shield. There they shall fight each other with their foreheads and their sides,62b / and then the noble white king shall glide up into the air. Thence a chick of the eagle shall nest in the high places of the rocks of all the Isle of Britain. He shall not fall when young; he shall not come to old age. Then his glorious prosperity shall not suffer dishonor or insult to him; and after the kingdom is brought to peace he shall fall.

And at this time Capis Silvius was king in Italy, and Haggai, Amos, Jehu, Joel, and Zechariah were prophesying in Israel, and Solomon the son of David in Jerusalem. And then Rhun’s life ended; this was 1415 years after the flood.

And after Rhun came Bladud his son, and he was king twenty years. And he built Bath,63 and he made in it the warm baths for the cure and / refreshment of mortals. And this work he sacrificed to the goddess who is called Minerva. And under this bath he placed fire never quenched either in sparks or in ashes, but when it began to burn out then it began to kindle anew in fiery balls of stone. And at that time Elijah the Prophet prayed that there should not be rain in the land of Jerusalem. And for three years and six months continuously no rain fell, to punish the people for their wickedness. And all came to fast and to profess and to
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pray, until they got the mildness and fruittulness of the earth as they had had formerly. And this Bladud was learned in the art of necromancy and in various other arts, and he never rested from his inventing various crafts and curiosities until he made / for himself wings and pinions to try to fly.63b And after he had taken his flight from the top of a high tower in London, he fell on the temple of Apollo so that he was shattered to pieces. And he was buried with honor in London. This was 1435 after the water of the flood.

And after Bladud, Lear his son became king and reigned in peace and quiet twenty-five years. And he built a city on the river Soar, and called it Lear’s City, and in another language Leicester. And he had no son1 but three daughters; the daughters’ names were Goneril, Regan, and Cordelia, and very great love had their father for them, but he loved his youngest daughter more than the other two. And then he took thought how he could leave his kingdom to his daughters after him. What he did was to try which / of his daughters loved him especially,64 so that he might give her the best part of the island. And he called to him his oldest daughter Goneril and asked her how much she loved her father. And she swore by the powers of2 heaven and earth that she loved her father more than she loved her own soul.
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And he believed that that was true, and he promised her a third of the island1 and the man whom she should choose of the Isle of Britain as a husband for her. And after that he called to him Regan his second daughter and asked her how much she loved her father. And she swore by the powers of heaven and earth that she could not speak with her tongue to tell how much she loved her father; and he believed that all that was2 true, and he promised her a third of the Isle of Britain with the man whom she should choose of the Isle of Britain as a husband for her. And then he called to him / Cordelia,64b his youngest daughter and the one of them he loved most, and asked her how much she loved her father. “I do not think,” said she,3 “that there is a daughter that would love her father more than she ought; as for me I have always loved you as a father and shall still love you. And, lord father,4 if you wish to know how much you are loved, it is as much as your wealth and your health and your valor.” And he rose up in anger and said, “Since you have so scorned my old age and have not loved me as your sisters do, I shall condemn you to have no part in the Isle of Britain.” And then without delay he gave his two oldest daughters to two princes, namely the Prince of Cornwall and him of Albany, and half of the kingdom with them while the king lived, and after him the island in two halves between them.65 And after that story had gone abroad over / the face of the kingdoms, Aganippus King of France heard of the wisdom and the form and the beauty of Cordelia, and he sent
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messengers to the Isle of Britain to ask of the king Cordelia his daughter in marriage for himself. And he promised her, and told the messengers that he would not get land or territory or any other possessions of the Isle of Britain with her. And Aganippus said that he had no need of his land or his territory or his possessions, only of his noble and high-born daughter to bear him legitimate offspring. And there was no delay before Aganippus took the girl as his wife, and no one at that time had ever seen a girl so beautiful or so wise as she.

And after some time had elapsed and Lear had begun to grow feeble with age, the sons-in-law came with his two daughters and conquered the island from sea to sea;65b and they divided the island and the government between / the two of them. That was 1460 years after the flood. And then Maglaun Prince of Albany took the king with him, along with forty knights to be supported at his expense.

And the two years had not completely come to an end before Goneril became angry1 that her father had such a retinue, and she came to him and asked him to send away all that retinue except twenty knights, and she said that this was enough for a man who had no wars or battles. And then Lear became angry at his daughter2 because she had insulted him so, and he left the court of Maglaun and sought the court of Henwin Prince of Cornwall with the idea
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that his honor and his dignity would be better upheld by him there than in the court of Maglaun. And Henwin greeted him warmly1 and treated him with due honor.66 But / the end of a year and a month had not come before his daughter Regan became angry at him because his retinue was so great, and she asked him to send the whole retinue away except five knights, and she swore that she would maintain only that many in his train, and that that was enough2 for her. And after he had been forced to send away all his knights,3 he grieved for his old dignity and returned again to his oldest daughter with the idea that she would take pity on him and maintain his dignity for him. And then she swore by the powers of heaven and earth that she would maintain only one knight with him, and that that was enough for him since the knights of her lord were at his command. And after he failed to gain any of his entreaty, he sent away his knights except one who should remain4 with him. And then / after he had thought about his old dignity which he had lost,66b and his happiness and his might, great5 anxiety overtook him and he was saddened unto death. And then there came to his mind the words of each one of6 his daughters and their promise. And then he knew that what Cordelia his youngest7 daughter had said to him was true: that according to his health and his might and his wealth he was loved. And then he thought of visiting his daughter Cordelia to ask her mercy and to see if he would get from her any support in the world
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to try win back his realm. And after he had started to sea with two companions, lamenting his torment and his impotence in this manner with weeping and moaning, “O heavens!1 when2 did you raise me to the height of honor, since it is more pain to remember honor after it is lost than to suffer necessity without becoming accustomed to ease.67 / Alas, gods of heaven and earth! will a time yet come to me3 when I can repay the men who caused me to be in this necessity? O Cordelia, my beloved daughter, how truly you said to me that it was according to my power and my possession and my wealth that I was loved. And because you told me the truth4 I became angry at you. O my beloved daughter, how can I, for shame, come to you now after I sent you away so shareless of the Isle of Britain as I did?” And weeping his torment and his impotence in this fashion, he came to Paris, the city in which his daughter was, and he sent a messenger to her to say that he was coming as a poor, weak, sorrowful man to seek her mercy and to visit her. And when she heard this, she wept and asked how many knights he had. And the messenger said that he had but one squire. And / then she lamented more keenly than before,67b and sent him gold and silver, and bade him go secretly to Amiens or to some other place he might choose, to be
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refreshed with baths and precious ointment, and to change his appearance and his arms and his clothes, and to take to himself forty knights in the same costume as himself; and when he should be prepared and ready, to send a messenger to Aganippus the King of France, to tell him that, after having been driven shamefully out of the Isle of Britain by his two sons-in-law, he was coming to ask his help to win back his kingdom again. And all this Lear did as Cordelia his daughter had bid him.

And when the messenger came to announce to the king that Lear had come to visit him, he rejoiced and he came to meet him with a fair and goodly retinue, far outside the city, until he and Lear met.68 And then they dismounted / and embraced each other in loving fashion, and went together to Paris. And there they dwelt together for a long time pleasantly and joyfully. And after Aganippus had been told fully1 of the dishonor of Lear in the Isle of Britain, he became aggrieved2 and, after deliberating, they decided to muster France to conquer the island of Britain3 again. And then Aganippus gave to Lear the government of France while he was mustering the most distant parts of France. And when their army was ready, and their equipment, they decided after deliberating to send Cordelia with Lear for fear the Frenchmen4 might not obey Lear. And Aganippus bade the French, on their lives and their possessions, to be as obedient to Lear and to his daughter5 as
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they would be to himself if he were with them.1 And after they had taken leave, they set out for the Isle of Britain,68b and arrived there.2 And / against them came Maglaun Prince of Albany, and Henwin Prince of Cornwall, and all their powers, and they fought hard and valiantly with them; and because the French were so numerous they were not victorious, but they put them to flight and followed them and killed a multitude of them. And before the end of the year Lear and his daughter conquered the island from sea to sea and drove the two sons-in-law out of the island.

And after Lear had conquered the Isle of Britain, a messenger came from France to inform Cordelia that Aganippus King of France was dead. And she was greatly grieved at that, and thenceforward she preferred to dwell in the Isle of Britain with her father, rather than to go to France to her third part. And then, after the island had submitted to them, they ruled it a long time in peace and quiet until Lear died.69 And after his death he was buried with honor in a temple / he himself had made in Leicester under the river Soar in honor of a certain god called Bifrontis Jani. And when the festival of that temple came, all the craftsmen of the city came to do him honor, and then they began every work that was begun before the end of the year.

And after the death of Lear, Cordelia took the government of the Isle of Britain,3 and she governed it
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five years in peace and quiet. And in the sixth year her two nephews, her sister’s sons (namely, Margan, son of Maglaun Prince of Albany, and Cunedda, son of Henwin Prince of Cornwall), renowned young men, rose against her;1 and they assembled an army for themselves and fought with Cordelia. And after frequent battles between them, they conquered the island and they took her and put her in / prison. And after she had thought over her former dignity which she had lost,69b and she had no hope of raising herself out of it, out of exceeding grief over it she slept the sleep of death—that is, she stabbed herself with a knife under the breast so that she lost her life.2 And at that time it was considered the most ignominious death for a person to kill himself. That was one and a half thousand years after the flood.

And then Cunedda and Margan took the island3 and divided it between them, and to4 Margan came as his share5 the part beyond the Humber, and the North within its boundaries, and to Cunedda the part here, Loegria and Cambria, and Cornwall since he was sprung from that part. And after they had been thus in peace for four years, evil sowers of discord came between them and told Margan that it was a shame for him to keep the peace with his cousin, since he was the son of the oldest daughter of Lear and yet6 his part of the realm was the smallest.70 / And after he had been filled with anger by7 those words, he assembled an army and waged war against his cousin Cunedda. And
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against him came Cunedda and his army. And there was a dreadful, cruel battle, and the best1 men fell first. And Margan had to flee with his scattered army, pursued by Cunedda and his army from land to land. And after Margan had fled until he came to the great field in Cambria, he preferred to die like a man2 rather than to go into the sea and drown, for there was no place to flee further than that. And then he turned and gave open battle, and there was a hard struggle between them,3 and a great slaughter on both sides. And in this struggle Margan was killed, and from that day to this the place is called Margan’s Field. And he was buried in the place where the monastery of Margam now is.70b This was / one thousand five hundred and five years after the flood.

And then Cunedda took the island into his own control and ruled it for thirty-three years. And at that time Isaiah and Hosea were prophesying in the land of Jerusalem, and Rome was built by the two brothers, Remus and Romulus, on the eleventh day of the Kalends of March.4

And after Cunedda, his son Riwallon took the government of the island, and he ruled it twelve years in peace and quiet. And in his time there came a rain of blood three nights and three days, and a kind of insect like gnats in this rain and a kind of pestilence with them, and they killed many men.5 And then Riwallon died,
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one thousand five hundred and fifty years after the water of the flood.

And then1 his son Gorust took the government of the kingdom and he ruled it / seven years in peace and quiet. One thousand, 557.271

And after him Cecil the son of Gorust ruled six years.

And after him Gorust’s nephew, Iago, ruled seven years in peace.3

And after him Kynvarch son of Cecil ruled nine years.

And next to him ruled Gorboduc the Unloved, son of Kynvarch.4 And he had two sons, Ferrex and Porrex; and after their father was stricken in years there arose a quarrel between the sons over the kingdom. And Porrex sought to kill Ferrex, his brother. And when Ferrex knew that, he fled to Siward King of France, to seek his support and his aid to conquer5 the Isle of Britain from his brother. And after he had obtained all of6 these things from the King of France,71b he / and his army came to the Isle of Britain. And against him came Porrex and his army and then there was a fierce battle and a great slaughter on all sides. And then Ferrex and his army were killed. And when Judon their mother knew that Porrex had killed his brother Ferrex, she planned to kill the living son to avenge the dead son. And as Porrex was sleeping in his chamber one day after his meal, his mother came to the
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chamber accompanied by her handmaidens, and they beat him in his sleep until he was in small pieces. And thereafter for many years there was civil tumult among the people, and the kingdom was divided under five kings, and each one of them fought continually1 against the others.

And after a long time had passed in this fashion, there came Dyvynwal Moelmud son of Dodiein,72 Prince of Cornwall. And in aspect and in manner / and in courage he stood out above everybody. And after his father was dead he rose against Pymer King of Loegria, and fought against him and killed him. And after Pymer was killed, Nidawc King of Cambria, and Ystadyr King of the North, united2 and fought with Dyvynwal Moelmud. And against them came Dyvynwal with thirty thousand armed men, and he gave them open battle. And after they had spent much of the day in fierce fighting, Dyvynwal drew aside with six hundred men of the bravest of the young men that he had; and they put on the arms of their enemies who had been killed, and they marched through the armies of their enemies until they came to the place where Nidawc and Ystadyr were, and they killed them both in the midst of their army, and they conquered the island from sea to sea.

And after everything had been pacified,72b Dyvynwal had / a gold crown made for himself with very precious stones in it, and he put it on, and established laws which the Saxons still use, and he gave marking stones and privileges
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to the cities and the temples, as Gildas son of Caw afterwards wrote, so that any one who did a wrong might get safety in them; and to the ploughs and the cultivators of the land, and to the main roads between the cities and all that, the same privilege as to the temples. And in his time the swords of the thieves and the extortion of the oppressor were blunted, and no man dared do any wrong to his fellow. And he reigned twenty-seven years after taking the crown. And then he died in London, and was buried beside the temple of Concord which he himself had made to strengthen the laws that he had made. This was 1607 years after the water of1 the flood. /

And after Dyvynwal was dead there arose discord between his two sons—namely Beli and Bran—over the kingdom.73 And after many quarrels between them they were pacified and the kingdom was divided between them. This is how it was divided: to Beli, since he was the oldest, was left the crown of the kingdom, and Loegria and Cambria and Cornwall, since according to the ancient custom of the men of Troy the oldest son deserved this dignity. And to Bran, since he was the youngest, was given2 on the other side Humber with subjugation to his brother. And after this had been confirmed between them, they ruled their realms five years in peace and quiet. And then there came damned-angry, evil trouble-makers and cast slander between them. And they advised Bran to break the peace which was between himself and his brother which was3 a disgrace for / him to maintain,73b since he was obliged to submit to one
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whose descent was no higher than his own. And they told him it would be finer for him to take as a wife the daughter of the king of another island, and with his help to win back the dignity he had lost. And after these words had filled Bran with anger and jealousy, he went to Norway and he took in marriage a daughter of Esling King of Norway, and with his help he sought to conquer his brother’s kingdom. And after this had been told to Beli he mustered an army1 and conquered all of Albany, and he guarded the shore against the coming of any2 foreign tribe to oppress it, and to await the coming of his brother. And when Bran heard that, he took3 an infinite multitude of the men of Norway with him, and when they were ready for their expedition they came4 to the ships, and the girl with them,74 and they raised / the sails and ploughed the oceans until they came to the high seas. And there the fleet of Gwithlac King of Denmark met them, after he had been told that Bran had gone away from the island with the girl whom Gwithlac loved best. And in this engagement the two fleets fought boldly and fiercely, and in the fight the men of Gwithlac threw grapnels into the boat in which the girl was, and pulled it until the girl was in the middle of the boat of Gwithlac. And then came a scattering wind and scattered the ships onto various coasts. And after they had been thus five days on the point of drowning, the King of Denmark and the girl with him were cast ashore
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in the North. And the men of that country came and seized them and took them before the king where he was by the shore awaiting his brother.74b / And when Beli had been told what had happened to them he was glad, and he bade them be kept safely until he could take counsel concerning them. And a few days after that, Bran came ashore in Albany and sought for his scattered fleet; and he searched them out and collected them, as well as1 he could. And then he got news that the King of Denmark, and with him the girl that he loved best, had been captured and were in his brother Beli’s prison. And when he knew this, he sent to his brother Beli, and asked him to restore his kingdom to him, and the prisoners he had captured in his kingdom. And he swore by the powers of heaven and earth that unless he restored them he would burn the island from sea to sea and would kill every one he met, and would even cut off his head if he should meet him. And when this was told to Beli he refused it all, and / bade him do what was fated for him.75 And then Bran and his army made ready and came into the Forest of Calatir, and against him came Beli and his army, and there was a great slaughter and2 a hard fierce battle, and a multitude was slain on both sides; and yet ultimately Beli was victorious, and Bran and a few of his scattered army were driven in flight to their ships, and they put to sea and sailed to France. And in this battle were slain fifteen thousand of the men of Norway.

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And after Beli had gained the victory, he and his army with him went to York and there he sought advice as to what he should do with Gwithlac King of Denmark and his paramour. And then after consultation he decided to accept homage from him, and tribute every year, and to send him and his paramour away to their country.75b And this he did. And then Beli caused / funeral rites to the gods to be celebrated, and thanks to be given to each of his men according to his deserts. And then he caused the laws that his father had made to be confirmed. And then he caused legal highways of stone and lime to be constructed, one of them from the Cornish Sea to Caithness1 in the North, straight through the cities it came to, and another across the island from Menevia to Southampton, and two other roads diagonally across these. And he gave privileges and stone markers to these roads,2 so that no one dared do any wrong to any one else on them.3 And let any one who wants to know the privileges of these roads read the laws of Dyvynwal Moelmud, which Gildas the son of Caw translated from Welsh into Latin, and after that King Alfred turned them from / Latin into English.76

It was Bran’s fortune to come to France with twelve knights to seek aid from the princes of France to win back the realm he had lost; and after he had told all of
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them what had happened to him and what he asked of them, they refused him entirely. And after he had seen that he got nothing, he was very much in despair, and he went to Burgundy to seek aid from Segwin Duke of Burgundy, and he stayed with him a long time. And after he1 had become acquainted with him, Bran became dear to him because so good was his knowledge of hunting and dogs and birds, and of every kind of hunting and horsemanship that was fair and goodly,2 and he was a wise man in a lord’s council, handsome, comely, and agreeable, and loved by all, and bold and brave in arms. And then the duke sought advice,76b and gave / him his only daughter as his lawful wedded wife, and with her his whole realm after his day with the permission of the realm3 because he had no lawful heir but her. And the year had not passed after this before the duke died, and then Bran took the government into his own control. And it was not long after this before he sought advice about going to wrest the Isle of Britain from Beli his brother. And the advice he got was to make an agreement with the kings of France about going unharmed with his army through their territories to Flanders, without doing harm to any one or any one to them. And this they got. And then Bran assembled an army on that side, the largest he could, and came to the Isle of Britain. And against him came Beli with as large an army as he could. And after
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the two armies had come face to face,177 and were about to attack, behold Tonwen their mother coming between / the two armies and throwing away her head-covering and letting her hari stream over her shoulders, and tearing her clothes down to her girdle and coming with her two breasts bare to the place where Bran her son was standing, and asking him straightway,2 for the sake of the Being who created him to be man in her body out of something without anything (?) and for the sake of the breasts he had drawn and for the sake of the pain and anguish she endured for him before he came into the world, to moderate his anger and not to cause the shedding of so much noble blood as had been assembled together there from every country; and to remember that his brother had done him no wrong, but that he had done wrong to his brother and to himself when he went to seek help from the King of Norway to wrest the Isle of Britain from his brother. And she showed that his brother did him no wrong, but drove him from a small honor to one that was greater.377b / For a part of the Isle of Britain was a small thing, and it was a great thing to be duke in Burgundy. And after Bran had been pacified by those tender remarks which his mother Tonwen had spoken,4 he took off his helmet and came with his mother to his brother. And when Beli saw Bran his brother coming with a peaceful aspect, he threw his armor off him and embraced his brother. And then they were reconciled and went together to London, joyfully, and merrily, and happily, and their armies with them. And there
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they remained that winter. And then, after deliberating, they decided to prepare a fleet to go to conquer France. And at the end of the year they came1 to France, and they conquered it and every country as far as Rome.2

And at that time two princes / were ruling in Rome,78 namely Gabius and Porcenna. And when they heard that Beli and Bran were coming towards Rome and that every one had been subdued by them, they were afraid and sent to them to make their peace with them, and to give them much gold and silver as tribute every year for the sake of getting it, and twenty-four young men, the noblest in Rome, as hostages for that. And after they had confirmed their agreement to this effect they turned their armies toward Germany, and began to fight against that country. And after the men of Rome had seen that, they repented of the peace they had made, and they sent their forces as aid to the men of Germany. And when Beli and Bran knew that, they decided, after deliberating,78b that Beli and his army should remain / there fighting3 with the men of Germany, and Bran and his army should go to Rome. And when the men of Italy knew that, they separated from the men of Germany and tried to get to Rome before Bran. And when Beli knew that, he went with his army by night and lay in ambush in a wooded glen through which the men of Italy would come to Rome. And
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on the morrow when it was day the men of Italy came to the glen, and Beli and his army rose up before they knew it, and killed without mercy those of them who did not manage to escape. And from there Beli came to Rome after his brother had been fighting for three days against the city. And then they prepared to raise a gallows before the gate of the city, and to hang the twenty-four young men whom they had taken as hostages from the men of Rome for their arrangements and their tribute. And then came a messenger to tell the men of Rome that the two emperors,79 / Gabius and Porcenna, would arrive the next day to help them. And when Beli and Bran knew that, they mustered their army and went against them and fought with them boldly, strongly, and fiercely, and there Gabius and Porcenna and all of their fellow-citizens were slain. And then Beli and Bran went back to the city and destroyed and took it without delay. That was 1635 after the flood.

And after they had won that victory they rejoiced; and then, after deliberating, they decided to leave Bran there as emperor in Rome, and to subdue the people as his lordship might see fit. And he subdued them with unheard of cruelty, as the history of the men of Rome after that shows. And Beli came to the Isle of Britain, joyful,79b happy, and rejoicing, and / he finished his life in peace. And he made a city on the River Usk beside the Severn Sea, which
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was called City of the Usk for many ages and was the seat of the Archbishop of Demetia after that for a long time. And after the men of Rome came to the Isle of Britain the name of the city was done away with and it was called in their language “Caer Legion,” for they came in legions to this island, and there they dwelt during the winter for the most part. And after many languages were mixed together it1 was called the City of the Legion. And it was one thousand six hundred and thirty-six years after the water of the flood when the city was begun. And he made in London, on the bank of the Thames, a gate of skillful workmanship, and a tower of marvellous size on it, and a landing-place for ships beneath it. And he called it Beli’s Gate, and after the foreign race came to the island / it was called Billingsgate.80 And after the end of his life had come, his body was burned and the ashes were put2 in a golden cask and were hidden in the tower that he himself had made in London. This was 1645 years after the flood.

And after Beli was dead, his son Gurgant Cut-beard was made king, and his practices were like those of his father. And when the King of Denmark knew that Beli was dead, he sought to withhold the tribute from his son. And when Gurgant knew this, he prepared a fleet and went to Denmark and fought with Gwithlac King of Denmark, and killed him and conquered his country and forced them to pay their tribute every year, as it was paid to his father before him. After after he had received assurance of that
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he returned / home, joyful, happy,80b and rejoicing. And when he was coming through the Orkney Islands there met him thirty vessels full of men and women. And after he had inquired of them whence they were come, they told him that they had come from Spain and that they had been going about the seas looking for a place to dwell in for a year and a half before that time. They had been expelled from their country and Bartholonn was prince over them, and they asked Gurgant for a place in his kingdom to live in. And after he had learned their entreaty he went and showed them1 Ireland and gave it to them, for it was then deserted without inhabitants in it.2 And they went to Ireland and settled it, and they have dwelt in it from that day to this.

81And in the time of Gurgant were the Seven Wise Men who / first got the arts of nature and of many other things and wrote them and taught them. And3their pupil was Anaximander and his pupil was Anaximenes; his pupil was Anaxagoras; his pupil was Archelaus, and his pupil was Socrates, and his pupil was Plato, and his pupil was Aristotle.4 And in that time Sibylla the Wise enlightened many by her deeds. And after the end of Gurgant’s life had come he was buried in Caerleon on Usk, in which his father had built, and he himself had honored it with
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buildings and walls. 1670 after the flood he died.

And after Gurgant Cut-beard was dead, his son Kuhelyn became king.1 And he had a noble wife—Marcian was her name—and she knew all the arts, and she helped / the king rule the kingdom in peace and quiet while he lived.81b And she had one son by him, and Cecil was his name. And she made the laws which were called2 Marcian’s laws, and by them the island was managed for a long time. And King Alfred turned them from British into Saxon and called them “merchyenlage.” And after Kuhelyn had reigned thirteen years in peace and quiet he died, 1683 years after the flood.

And after Kuhelyn was dead, Marcian the queen took the government of the Isle of Britain into her own possession, because she was wise, and accomplished, and skillful in all things, and her son was only seven years old. And after she had reigned eight years in peace and quiet she died, 1691 after the flood. /

And after Marcian the queen,382 Cecil her son took the crown of the kingdom, and he governed it kindly and gently nine years on end, and then he died. That was one thousand and seven hundred years after the water of the flood.

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And after Cecil, Kynvarch his son took the government of the kingdom, and he reigned only five years before he died. That was one thousand seven hundred and five after the water of1 the flood.

And after Kynvarch was dead, his brother Dan took the government of the kingdom for he was nearest in blood. And he reigned but ten years before he died. That was 1715 years after the flood.

And after Dan was dead, his son Morud took the crown of the kingdom. And he was very great, such was his praise for generosity and courage, if he had not / given himself up too much to cruelty. And in his time the King of Moryan came with a great army to land in the North,82b and he began to fight mightily. And against him came Morud and his army, and they fought boldly and fiercely; and truly2 Morud himself killed more than the greater part of his army did. And after he was tired of killing them, he commanded them to be flayed3 alive, and then to be burned to fill up his cruelty. And after that some kind of fate4 came to avenge on him his cruelty and his5 wickedness. This was a kind of cruel beast that came out of the Irish Sea, and it swallowed everything it met with. And when Morud heard of that he came himself to fight with the beast. And after he had used up his weapons in vain,83 this animal rushed at him with his mouth open and swallowed him like / a little fish.6
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That was the fifteenth year of his reign, and one thousand seven hundred and thirty after the flood. And yet he had five sons, namely, Gorboniaun, Arthal, Elidir, Owen, and Peredur.

And after Morud, his son Gorboniaun took the government of the kingdom, because he was the oldest of them. And there was not in his time a man who was1 juster than he, or who loved truth more without desiring anything wrong. And after he had reigned sixteen years in peace and quiet he died and was buried in London, 1746 years after the water of2 the flood.

And after him his brother Arthal became king;3 and in everything he was contrary to the doings of Gorboniaun his brother.83b The nobles and / the aristocracy he subjugated, and the ignoble and the wealthy4 he raised up, and he spoiled the wealthy to collect5 treasure for himself. And after he had been thus for six years, his nobles were angered by his rule,6 and, after deliberating, they decided to depose him from the kingship and raise Elidir his brother, who was afterwards called Elidir the Meek, to be king. And that they did.

And after Elidir had been made king, he reigned in peace and quiet for six years on end. And one day, when he was in the Grove7 of Calatir, after he had gone to hunt in the forest, his brother Arthal, the
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man who had formerly been driven out from his kingdom, met him unexpectedly and nine knights with him. And after Elidir had seen him, his heart rejoiced over him,84 and he hastened to embrace him. And / after he had talked with him, he wept and lamented to him1 his misfortune. And in secret he took him with him to Dumbarton, and hid him in his chamber. And after that he pretended that he was sick himself, and he sent messengers to summon to him the chief princes of the island to visit him. And after all had come to the city, he sent for each one of them, one after the other, to come to the chamber quietly lest something hurt him. And he ordered the servants to take each one of them as he came, and to bring them into the chamber to them; and to take any who would not obey their orders and cut off their heads. And after they had come in this fashion2 to the chamber, Elidir caused them to do homage a second time to his brother Arthal, and whoever would not should have his head cut off.84b And after the princes / had been brought by threats into harmony with his brother Arthal, he made peace with them. And from there they went together to York. And he caused a prepared banquet to be made, and he took the crown from his own head and put it on the head of Arthal his brother. And for that he was called Elidir the Meek, from that time forth. This was one thousand 763 years after the flood.

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And after Arthal had been made king a second time, he reigned ten years in peace and quiet, reforming the evil customs he had practiced before. And finally he died and was buried in Leicester, 1773.

And after Arthal, Elidir was chosen king for the second time. And after he had reigned three years, his two youngest brothers, Owen and Peredur, came and made war against him on all sides. / And they fought with him strongly and fiercely;85 and at length they got the victory and captured Elidir and put him in prison in a tower in London and a guard with him. That was1 1776 after the flood.

And then Owen and Peredur took the kingdom and divided it between them: that is, to Owen Loegria and Cambria and Cornwall, and to Peredur from the Humber onwards. And after they had reigned thus for seven years,2 Owen died and the kingdom fell wholly into the hand of Peredur, 1783 after the water of3 the flood.

And after Peredur was king over the whole of the island he governed it in amiable peace, so that it was clear that he was better than all his brothers before him, and Elidir was not remembered because Peredur was so good a lord. And after Peredur had reigned over the whole of the island for eight years he died.85b That was / 1791 after the flood. And then Elidir was taken
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from prison and was made king for the third time.

And after Elidir had been made king he reigned that time1 twenty-one years in peace and quiet over the whole of2 the Isle of Britain, and this through every kind of good deed that any one could do. And then he died, 1812 years after the flood.

And after Elidir, Rhys the son of Gorboniaun became king, and in discretion and prudence and wisdom he was like his uncle. And he reigned but two years before he died. That was 1814 years after the flood.

And after Rhys, Margan the son of Arthal became king, and he loved righteousness and truth. And he reigned but one year, neither more nor less,3 before he died. That was4 1815 years after the flood. /

And after Margan,86 his brother Einion became king, and he departed from the qualities5 of his brother Margan in governing the people. And after he had reigned thus cruelly for six years, the princes were6 together and threw him out of the kingship, and chose Idwal the son of Owen7 as king. This was 1821 years8 after the flood.

And after Idwal the son of Owen7 was made king, he amended the evil deeds of Einion his kinsman. And he ruled but two years before he died. That was4 1823 after the flood. And in those days Joshua the son of Josedech was chief of the priests and Ezra and Zerubbabel were princes.

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And after Idwal, Rhun the son of Peredur became / king,86b and he ruled but seven years. And then he died, 1830 years after the flood.

And after Rhun, Geraint the son of Elidir the Meek became king, and he reigned twenty years. And in this period Cambyses the son of Cyrus was king in Persia; and by another name he was called Nebuchadnezzar, King of Kings of the east. And then Geraint died, 1850 years.1

And after Geraint, Cadell the son of Geraint became king, and he reigned ten years, and then he died, 1860 years after the water of the flood.

And after Cadell, Coel the son of Cadell became king in2 the Isle of Britain, and he reigned ten years and then he died, 1870 after the flood.

And after Coel, Porrex the son of Coel became king,87 and he reigned / twelve years and then the end of his life came, 1882.

And after Porrex, Cherin the son of Porrex became king, and he reigned seven years and had three sons. And then the end of his life came, 1889 after the flood.

And after Cherin, Sulien the son of Cherin became king and he reigned five years in peace and quiet, and then he died 1895 after the flood.

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And after Sulien, his brother Eudav the son of Cherin became king and he reigned but1 five years and then he died, 1900 years after the water of the flood.

And after Eudav, his brother Andrew the son of Cherin became king, and he reigned twelve years and then he died, 1912 years after the flood. /

And after Andrew,87b Urien the son of Andrew became king, and he reigned eight years and then he died, 1920 years.

And after Urien, Ithel the son of Urien became2 king and he reigned twenty years and then he died, 1940 years after the water of the flood.

And after Ithel, Celydauc the son of Ithel3 became king, and he reigned twenty years, save one, and then he died, 1959 years after Noah’s deluge.

And after Celydauc, Clydno the son of Celydauc became king, and he reigned4 thirteen years, and then he died, 1972 years after the water of5 the flood.

And after Clydno, Gorust the son of Clydno became king, and he reigned thirteen years,6 and then he died 1985 years after the flood.

88And after Gorust, Merion the / son of Gorust became king and he reigned7 twelve
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years and then he died, 1997 years after Noah’s deluge.1

And after Merion, Bladud his son became king, and he reigned three years over the Isle of Britain and then he died. That was2 two thousand years after the flood.

And after Bladud, his son Caph became king and he reigned thirty years, and then he died, 2030 after the water of3 the flood.

And after Cap h, Owen the son of Caph became king and he reigned but three years4 and then he died, 2033 after the flood.

And after Owen, Cecil his son became king and he reigned5 eight years and then he died, 2041.

And after Cecil, Blegabred became king, and there never was a singer as good as he in the art / of music, nor a player as good as he in enchantment.88b And for this reason he was called the god of drama. And he reigned over the Isle of Britain twenty-eight years, and then he died, 2069 after the flood.

And after Blegabred, his brother Arthmael became king and he reigned twenty-seven years and then he died. That was 2088 years after the flood.

And after Arthmael, Eidol the son of Arthmael became king and he reigned twelve years and then he died, 2100 after the flood.

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And after Eidol, Rydeon the son of Eidol became king and he reigned nine years and then he died, 2109 after the flood.

And after Rydeon, his son Rhydderch became king and he reigned1 sixteen years and then he died. That was 2125 after the flood. /

89 And after Rhydderch, Saul the son of Rhydderch became king and he reigned2 fifteen years in peace3 and then he died, 2140.

And after Saul, Pyrr his son became king and he reigned4 ten years and then he ended his life.Guttyn Owain’s part begins here That was 2150 years after the flood.5

And after Pyrr, Capoir his son became king five years and then he died.6 2155 after the flood.

And after Capoir, Manogan his son became king and he reigned over the Isle of Britain nine years and then he perished, 2064.7

And after Manogan, his son Beli the Great8 became king over the Isle of Britain and he ruled it twelve years. And he had four sons, namely, Lud, and Levelis, and Caswallaun, and Nennius.989b And then / Beli the Great died. That was 2176 after the flood.

And after Beli the Great was dead,10 his son Lud became king because he was the oldest of the children. And he renewed the walls of London, and its buildings, and surrounded it with numerous
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territories and pastures.1 And he dwelt in it the greater part of the year and called it Lud’s City from his own name. And after the foreign2 people came to it, it was called Lundene, or others call it Lundrys, and finally London. Now he loved Levelis most of all3 his brothers, for he was prudent and wise and accomplished. And after they had heard that the King of France was dead, with no heirs except one daughter and the kingdom4 in her hand, they decided, after deliberating, to send a fleet with5 Levelis to the princes of France to ask for the girl as a wife for him, and the rule with her. And that he received with joy. And he took it and ruled it6 kindly and faithfully and beloved while he lived.90 And in the time of Lud, / Pompey and Crassus and Julius Caesar were princes of the Roman senate, and this Pompey conquered the land of Judaea and subjugated it to the Roman senate.

And after some time had elapsed, three oppressions happened in7 the Isle of Britain, the like of which had never been seen. One of them was a tribe called the Coranians, and8 so great was their knowledge that there was not a speech that the wind met with that they did not know when this wind got to them. And for this reason no one could harm9 them. The second oppression10 was a scream that was uttered every May Eve over every hearth in the Isle of Britain; and this scream went through the hearts of all, so much11 that the men lost their color and
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their strength, and the women their unborn children, and the boys and girls all1 their senses,90b and the animals and the trees and the whole earth2 it left barren. The third oppression was that no matter how great were the preparation / and provisions of food and drink made ready in the royal courts,3 even though it were the provision of a year, nothing of it was ever had except what was used in the very first night. And yet the first oppression4 was open5 and known; as for the other two, no one knew what import they had. And because of that, Lud was worried and troubled, since he did not know how to drive these oppressions out of the island. And he thought about going to visit his brother Levelis to6 take counsel with him. And when Levelis knew of the coming of his brother, he rejoiced; and he came towards him with honor, and a great number with him, and he embraced him. And after Lud had told his brother the meaning of his business, the latter had a long horn made so that they could talk through the horn in such a way that the Coranians might not get any wind of the conversation or know it. And when the horn was ready they talked, and / neither one of them got from the other anything but a bitter answer.791 And then Levelis knew that deviltry8 had got into the horn, and he had it washed out with wine, and by virtue of the wine the devil went out of9 the horn. And then they talked well.
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And then Lud told all his business to his brother Levelis. And then Levelis said he would give him a kind of insect and asked him to crush them in water after he got home, and to bring together1 everybody in the whole2 kingdom and to throw this water over the people indiscriminately; and he assured him that all3 the Coranians would die and the Britons would not be harmed.4

“The second oppression which you have mentioned is the dragon of your nation and another dragon of the foreign nation who fight every May Eve, and each of them trying to overcome the other. And when your dragon sees the other winning over her, then in anger she utters the horrible scream that you hear.91b / And this is the way you can know that this is true. When you get home, have the island measured in length and breadth; and where you find the middle point, have a pool dug there, and put in this pool a cauldron full of the best mead that is to be found,5 and put a covering of brocaded silk over the mouth of the cauldron and watch over it yourself. And you will see them fighting fiercely in the air and casting flaming fire at each other. And after6 they come to the middle point of the island, neither one will flee from the other and there there will be a frightful fight between them. And after they are exhausted they will fall in the form of two pigs on the top of the covering and will pull the covering down with them to the bottom of the cauldron. And then after they perceive it is wet about them7 they will drink up the mead and become drunk and
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go to sleep. And then fold the covering around them, and in the strongest and most deserted place you can find in your kingdom,1 bury them deep in the earth in a stone tomb.292 / While they remain there no oppression from another country shall land in the Isle of Britain.

“The third oppression is a mighty man of magic who takes away your food and your drink through magic and enchantment, and causes every one to sleep so long as he is in it. You must therefore, in your own person, watch over your preparation and your supplies. And in order that you may not be overcome by sleep, have a cauldron of cold water beside you, and when sleep oppresses3 you go to the cauldron of water,4 and when you see your chance at the man avenge yourself on him if you want to.”

And after they had finished their conversation,5 Lud came to the Isle of Britain and summoned to him his whole realm6 to the same place,7 and he crushed the insects in water as his brother had told him to, and he threw the water over them indiscriminately. And straightway the Coranians died, without injury8 to the Britons. And a while after that, Lud had the island measured in length and breadth, and he found / the middle point to be in Oxford.92b And in this place he had men dig a pool and put the cauldron and the mead in it9 and do everything as his brother Levelis had told him to.10 And in truth he saw everything as it had been told to him. And after he had seen the dragons fall into the cauldron and go to sleep, he approached them and folded the covering
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securely about them; and in the strongest and most secure place1 in the island he had them buried securely2 in the depths of the earth in a stone tomb3 in Snowdon, the place that was afterwards called Ambrose’s Fort. And the stormy scream stopped after that. And then Lud had a feast of great size prepared; and after it was ready he put a cauldron full of cold water beside it, and he himself, in his own person, watched over it courageously.4 And while he was doing that, he heard many different kinds of songs impelling him to sleep, and in order that he might not be overcome by sleep he went often to5 the cold water.93 And at length he / saw a gigantic man with strong heavy armor on him come in with a hamper, and, as he had been accustomed to do before, put all the provisions, food and drink, into the hamper and start away with them. And when Lud saw that, he leapt after him and vehemently bade him halt and spoke to him in this fashion. “Although you have already done me many6 injuries without being punished,7 you will not go any further unless your fighting ability proves you to be better than I.” And the other waited for him here bravely,8 and they exchanged cruel blows until the sparks flew from their swords and other arms; and finally after using up their weapons,9 they grappled fiercely and mightily, and the king10 succeeded in throwing the oppressor between himself and the ground. And after he had overcome him by strength and violence, he11 asked his mercy, assuring the king he would make good
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to him all the losses he had ever caused him and that he / would be a faithful man to him from that time on.93b And the king took this [pledge] from him and released him. And so Lud got rid of the three oppressions of the Isle of Britain. And from then until the end of his life he ruled in peace and quiet. And after he died his body was hidden in London beside the gate which in Welsh is called after his name Lud’s Gate, and in Saxon Ludysgate.1 That was two thousand two hundred and four years after the flood. And he had two sons, namely, Avarwy and Tenevan; and since they were not of an age to govern the kingdom, Caswallaun son of Beli, their uncle, brother of their father, was chosen king over the Isle of Britain.

And after Caswallaun had been made king, he so devoted himself to mildness that nobody was dissatisfied with him, and he loved truth and righteousness. And although he was king, he did not wish to blot out his nephews from the island, but he gave them a great part of it.94 To / Avarwy his nephew he gave London and the Earldom of Kent, and to Tenevan, his other nephew, he gave the Earldom of Cornwall, and he himself was king over the whole. And in this time Julius Caesar the Emperor of Rome was conquering the islands all about. And after he had conquered France he came to Rutenia, and he saw2 the island opposite him toward the west; and he asked what land he saw from the3 sea. And a guide told
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him that it was called the Isle of Britain. And then he asked for full details about the history of the island and the people who inhabited it. And after all he asked had been told him in detail, he said, “This is from the line of us men of Rome,1 for Aeneas2 first came to Rome from Troy, and he and his descendants have ruled in Italy from that day to this; and grandson3 to this4 Aeneas was Brutus, the man who first conquered that island.94b And I think / it will not be difficult for us to subdue that island to the Roman senate, for they are in the ocean and know nothing of fighting or bearing arms.” And then Julius Caesar sent messengers to Caswallaun to ask him for tribute from the Isle of Britain and submission to the Roman senate, through their good will and for the sake of5 their kinship, so that he should not spend effort on it with his army and be forced to shed the blood of the nobles of the Isle of Britain and compel them by force of arms, for they were descended from the same blood as the men of Rome. And he told them it was no disgrace for them to be tributary to the Roman senate, for they had subdued all the islands6 from the east to the west except the Isle of Britain itself. And when Caswallaun knew their entreaty, he decided, after deliberating, to refuse it completely. And he told him that his relatives, rather than suffer servitude, had fled from every island as far as the Isle of Britain, and to have this in freedom they7 / had dwelt in it.95 And if any one tried to take their freedom from them they would try to defend it

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if they could.

Caswallaun’s letter.

Caswallaun King of the Isle of Britain, sending to Julius Caesar the emperor of Rome a letter like this.1 It is a marvel to us2 that the lust of the men of Rome in thirst for gold and silver is so great3 that they cannot leave us in peace in this island which is4 amid the perils of the seas outside the world to suffer5 our affliction, without presuming to seek6 tribute of us from the place we had always7 possessed up to this time in freedom and peace. And that is not enough8 for them unless they take our freedom away from us and make us captives making submission to them. And therefore, Julius Caesar, what you have asked is a disgrace to you yourself, since a common vein of nobility descends from Aeneas to the Romans and the Britons, and a single chain / binds the same nobility of kindred,5b which ought to be a mighty bond of friendship between them. This is what they ought to ask of us and not servitude, for we were more accustomed to give freely than to bear the yoke of servitude, since we had been so accustomed to freedom that we do not know how to submit to servitude.9 And if the gods10 themselves should think to take our freedom away from us, we would try to take it from them, and we would resist them with every sort of effort we are capable of, to keep them from it, and we would hate them.11 And therefore be it known to your intention, Julius Caesar, that we are ready to fight for our freedom and our realm if you come to the Isle of Britain as you threaten.”

And when Julius Caesar knew the answer of the Britons and the purport of their letter, he was much offended at it, and he caused a fleet to be prepared without delay for him to come12 to the Isle of Britain. And when the fleet was ready they came to
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the mouth of the Thames.1 And against them came Caswallaun, and Nennius his brother, and Beli his / steward, and Avarwy his nephew, the Prince of London,96 and Tenevan Earl of Cornwall, his other nephew,2 and Caradoc King of Albany, Gorthaed King of Venedotia, and Brithael King3 of Demetia, and all4 their armies. And after they had come to Castle Doral they saw their enemies encamped on the beach. And after consulting together they decided to attack the Romans without delay; and they fought fiercely with them and slew many on all sides. And in this fight Nennius the son of Beli5 met Julius Caesar, and Nennius rejoiced over that for he had heard of the fighting ability of Julius Caesar and of his fame before that time. And after they had exchanged fierce blows, Julius Caesar was angry that he was withstood so long as that, and with all his might he raised his sword and struck at Nennius on his head. And the latter received the blow on his shield, so that the sword stuck in his shield and in his head. And he could not pull it out, so closely were the armies mingled together. And after Nennius / had got the sword,96b no one stood up before his stroke.6 And then he met Labienus the earl and killed him. And then the greater part of the Romans were killed, so that one could walk on the corpses thirty measures of land without treading on the ground. And Julius Caesar fled7 in disgrace to his ships, and he barely escaped to the sea. And when the men of France heard of that, they tried to keep him out, because they heard that the ships of Caswallaun were following him over the sea. Then he opened
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the treasuries where his money was and gave a great quantity of it1 to the princes of France. And he gave freedom to all who had previously been in captivity to him,2 and so he pacified the French.

And after that victory, Caswallaun came to London with his fellow-knights to celebrate funeral rites to the gods. And on the fifteenth day Nennius died of the blow / on his head,97 and he was buried beside the North Gate and his sword with him; and the sword was called “red death,” the reason being that whoever had blood drawn by it would die. And at this time Julius Caesar made the castle of3 Odnea, lest he should happen to be driven out another time by the French as they had wanted to do before. And when the castle was ready, at the end of two years, Julius Caesar collected an army to come to avenge the shame he had previously suffered in the Isle of Britain from the Britons. And when Caswallaun heard that, he had iron stakes as thick as a man’s thigh planted along the channel of the Thames where the ships would come. And without warning Julius Caesar’s fleet came on the stakes, and his ships4 were rent, and sank by thousands, and as many as were able to seek the land sought it. And against them came Caswallaun and all the youth of the Isle of Britain,97b and he fought with them boldly and fiercely, and / then there was a great slaughter on both sides, and yet Caswallaun got5 the victory and drove Julius Caesar in flight to the shore of Morian, and then
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he went to the castle of Odnea which he had had made earlier, out of fear of his enemies.

And after Caswallaun had obtained the victory he rejoiced, and he invited all his princes with him to London, and there he made a feast for them in honorable fashion, and he sacrificed to the gods; in that feast were slain1 twelve thousand cattle and a hundred thousand sheep and birds beyond number, besides thirty thousand woodland animals of various kinds, and winged creatures.2 And after they had finished sacrificing to the gods,3 they partook of what remained as was the custom in this time in such sacrifices; what was left of the night and day4 they spent in various amusements and games. And in that5 it happened that two noble young men,98 / namely Hirlas the king’s nephew, and Kuelyn Avarwy’s nephew, had a quarrel spring up6 between them while tilting, and in this quarrel Kuelyn killed Hirlas, and from that there was great excitement in the court; and the king was angered beyond measure and he tried to get Avarwy’s nephew within the jurisdiction of his court. And Avarwy was dubious about that, for he did not know the king’s intention toward his nephew. And he said that it was in London that atonement should be made for every sort of wrong that was done within the bounds of the island, and that he was ready for that.7 The king did not want that, but to get Kuelyn at his will. This was not easy for Avarwy,
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for he did not know what his desire was.1 And Avarwy left the king’s court lest there should be a greater brawl, and he sought his own territory, and his nephew with him. And when the king knew that, he complained of it to2 the princes, that Avarwy had left his court without his permission and had taken with him the man who had killed his nephew.98b / And after consulting with them, he decided to go after him with his army, and to destroy his realm completely with fire and iron. And when Avarwy knew that, he sent to the king to ask for peace and his mercy. And the other3 denied it to him wholly. And when Avarwy knew that, he considered how he might withstand the king. And after deliberation he decided to send to Julius Caesar to ask him to come to the Isle of Britain to help him, and he, for his part, would assure him that he would subjugate the Isle of Britain to him. Avarwy’s Letter.4 “Avarwy, the son of Lud sends greeting to Julius Caesar, and says to him as follows: Previously I wished the death of Julius Caesar and now I wish life and health for him, and I am sorry that I was against you when I was. And now I shall be of one mind with you, and because Caswallaun the Proud was able to drive you twice / from the Isle of Britain,99 now he is dispossessing me of my kingdom, and I with as good a right to the Isle of Britain as he. And I was a helper to him in his becoming king.” And he gave in the letter the gist of the quarrel as it all took place. “And therefore lord I pray you for
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help from you to maintain my kingdom. And through me, lord, you will yet be ruler over the Isle of Britain. And do not suspect, lord, that this letter may not be true, for there is neither deceit nor treachery in it. And mortals make use of deceit and treachery after1 they can not do anything else.”

And in confirmation of this he sent his son Conan and thirty hostages from the sons of nobles besides. And then after consultation Julius Caesar decided to prepare a fleet2 and come to Port Rutenia. And toward him came Avarwy to receive him on land. And at that time Caswallaun and his army were fighting against London. / And when Caswallaun heard of the coming of Julius Caesar to the Isle of Britain,99b he made preparations and came against him. And when he came into a valley near Canterbury, they saw near them the tents of the Romans. And then Caswallaun lamented bitterly at seeing their enemies so bold toward them as they were, and after deliberating they decided to attack the Romans manfully. And then there was a great slaughter on both sides, and finally the great numbers of the Romans drove the Britons to the top of a high mountain. And they held the top of this mountain against them courageously, and they killed multitudes of the Romans. And when the Romans saw that they had no success in getting the top of the mountain from the Britons, they decided to surround the mountain and shut them up there until they died
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of hunger. And after they had been there in this fashion for two days and two nights without either food or drink and Caswallaun saw that there was no way for them1 to get out except by a cruel death / or by starving,100 he sent to his nephew Avarwy to ask him to make his peace with Julius Caesar. And then Avarwy marvelled greatly over that and said, “It is strange for the man who would be a lamb in war and a lion in peace to become furious at any one who loved him.2” And yet he came3 to Julius Caesar and spoke to him as follows. “Lord,” said he, “I promised you the subjugation of the Isle of Britain, and here it is for you, lord, leaving Caswallaun the kingdom to hold under you, on condition of giving tribute every year to the Roman senate.”

And after Julius Caesar had listened to him, he refused it. And after Avarwy had seen4 that, he said to him, “Lord,” said he, “although I promised you the subjugation of the Isle of Britain, I did not promise you to destroy my race or to exterminate it, and they have not done so much evil that they cannot make it good. And that which I have promised you,100b here it is if / you want it. If you do not want it, I do not agree to destroy my race or to exterminate them.” And after Julius Caesar had heard Avarwy’s answer, on the latter’s advice he gave peace to Caswallaun on condition that Caswallaun should pay every year three thousand pounds of gold and5 silver as tribute to the Roman senate from the Isle of Britain. And after those terms had been confirmed
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between them, they came together to London, and there they dwelt that winter. And the following spring Julius Caesar went to Rome, and Avarwy with him, against Pompey, the man who was holding the imperial power at that time. That was two thousand two hundred and twenty years after the flood. And Caswallaun remained, ruling the Isle of Britain seven years after that in peace and quiet. That is, he reigned in all twenty-three years, and then he died and was buried in York. That was after the flood 2227 years. The end of Caswallaun.1

And after Caswallaun, Lud’s son Tenevan, the Earl of Cornwall,101 became king and he reigned in peace and quiet nineteen years, and then he died. That was 2246 years2 after the flood.

And after Tenevan, Cymbeline Tenevan’s son3 became king,4 the man whom Julius Caesar had brought up. And since he loved the Romans so much, although he could have withheld the tribute he did not do so. And in his time was born our Lord5 Jesus Christ. And the night He was born the statue of the Romans, which had been made in the city of Rome with flawless skill, fell. And it was said that this symbol would not fall until a son was born to a virgin maid. And that day a circle of gold color appeared about the sun, and for that reason all the wise men of the city came together to consult with their wizards.101b And then they said / that the king was born whose kingdom should last forever.6 And Augustus
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Caesar was ruling the land of Rome at that time—others called him Octavius—and Herod [son of] Antipater in the land of Judaea, the cruel man who killed the boys while seeking Jesus Christ. About the fourth year after the birth of Christ, John the Evangelist was born. The fifth year Jesus came back from Egypt to Galilee and then He made the seven lakes out of the dust,1 and brought water from the Jordan to the lakes, and from the lakes back to the river. The sixth year Herod the Cruel died, and Mariamne his wife, and his three sons, namely, Alexander, Aristobulus, and Antipas, of a horrible disease between the flesh and the skin, which rose in boils2 and scabs, and they were full of maggots and worms. The seventh year Jesus came to Israel. The eighth year Rome was flourishing in the time of Sallust,102 Terence, / and Horace, and the wisest of the wise. The ninth year Vergil spoke of the incarnation of Christ and of the renewing of the tribes of heaven. And in the tenth year a son was born to Cymbeline who was named Gwyder, and in the eleventh year another son was born to him who was named Gweiryd. The twelfth year Jesus was found in the temple among the wise men, listening to questions and asking them. The thirteenth year Augustus Caesar died, who was called Octavius Emperor of Rome. The fourteenth year Tiberius was made emperor in Rome. The sixteenth year Herod Antipas was made
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lord over the fourth part of Galilee. The eighteenth year Ovid and Naso1 were in captivity in the Island of Pont.2 The twenty-seventh year of Christ’s age3 Pilate of the Island of Pont2 was made procurator in the Land of Judaea.102b / The thirtieth year John the son of Zacharias preached about baptism, and baptised4 Jesus Christ who fasted forty days5 and forty nights in the wilderness and was tempted by the devil.6 The thirty-first year Jesus Christ was fed at the marriage-feast where He turned the water into wine.7 The thirty-second year after Christ, John the Baptist was imprisoned and his head was cut off on the prayer of the daughter of Herodias. The thirty-third year, Jesus Christ suffered, and He rose from death to life8 and He ascended into the heavens. The thirty-fourth year, James the son of Alphæus was made bishop in Jerusalem; he was ordained by the apostles. And the Apostle Peter placed his chair at Antioch. The thirty-fifth year, Stephen the Martyr was stoned to death with stones, and Paul the Apostle was turned to belief9 on the road going to Damascus,103 and Cassius the Wise died of want and nakedness10 until / there were no decent clothes to cover him with. The thirty-sixth year after the birth of Christ, Persius the Wise was born, and Herod Agrippa, nephew of Herodias, was arrested by Tiberius the Emperor of Rome, and was put in prison there. The thirty-seventh year, Tiberius the Emperor died and Gaius became
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emperor in Rome after him, and he took Herod as his confidant, and delivered him from prison, and he gave him three parts of the land of Judaea1 and caused him to be called king. The thirty-ninth year Gaius asked to be honored as a god, and he bade Petronius King of Syria2 make a statue of him and place3 it in the temple of Jerusalem, to be honored by the Jews; and Petronius did not venture to do it for fear of the Jews. The fortieth year after the birth of Christ,4 Mathew the Evangelist5 was writing the gospels / in the land of Judaea.1103b The forty-third year after Christ, Cymbeline died and the kingdom fell into the hand of his son Gwyder.6

And after Gwyder had been made king, he strengthened himself in his kingdom and withheld the tribute from the Romans. And after he had been thus for fourteen years Gloyw Caesar, or Claudius in the other language, came to the Isle of Britain and a great army with him.7 And after they had landed they came to Porchester, and fought boldly and fiercely against the citadel. And after they had seen that they had no success in fighting against the citadel, they closed the gates of the city with a stone wall to try to shut up all those who were within until they died of hunger. And when Gwyder8 knew this, he assembled his army and came there and fought boldly and fiercely with the Romans, and he himself killed more of them than the greater part of his army did.9 And when Hamon the Deceiver10 who had previously learned the language11 from the hostages from the Isle of Britain
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in the land of Rome, saw the courage and the cruelty of Gwyder to the men of Rome,104 and knew that unless he could be resisted his right arm / would kill too many of their numbers, and he threw away his own armor from off him and he took the armor of one of the Britons who had been killed; and he went among the troops in the guise of one of the Britons, and when he found an opportunity he cut off Gwyder’s head,1 and he slipped through one place and another until he came to his own men.2 And then he threw away the armor and took his own and fought. Christ’s age3 62.

And after Gweiryd had seen that his brother Gwyder was killed, he took off his own armor and put on his brother’s armor,4 and he fought fiercely5 and exhorted his army manfully and scattered the Romans and killed them and put them to flight. And then Hamon fled, and the greater part of the army with him, to Port Hamont. And then before he could get possession of the ships, Hamon6 was killed, and all those who had fled with him. And thence7 Gewiryd came8 to Porchester where Gloyw Caesar and his army were fighting against the city; and then it was called Caer Peris.9 And when all those who were in the city saw the Britons coming, they / came out of the city and fought with them bravely and killed many on all sides.104b And yet because of the numbers of the Romans they were victorious there,10 and captured the city and drove Gweiryd in flight to Winchester. And then Gloyw Caesar and his army came about the city, and tried to shut them up within until they died of hunger. And when Gweiryd saw that, he mustered his army and came out.

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And after Gloyw Caesar had seen the eagerness and the cruelty of the Britons, he sent to them to seek peace from them, and straightway the peace was made between them there. And Gloyw Caesar gave his daughter who was in Rome to Gweiryd as a wife to confirm the peace. And when they were agreed between them, with the help of the Britons they conquered the Orkney Islands1 and the other islands that were round about.pp. 105-6 are missing And after the winter had slipped by, the girl came from Rome to the island,2 and her beauty was proverbial. And in the place where Gweiryd slept with her, Gloyw Caesar made a city3 / on the bank of the Severn, on the boundary between Cambria and Loegria, and he called it from that time forth Gloyw’s City [Gloucester] after his own name. And Gloyw Caesar, after he had settled the islands and had seen them in peace, went to Rome and left the government of the Isle of Britain in the hand of Gweiryd, his son-in-law by his daughter. And after he had gone away it was scarcely any time before Gweiryd became proud and assuming and withheld the tribute of the Romans. And after this had been told to the Roman senate they sent Vespasian with a great army to force their tribute from the Isle of Britain. And after they had come to Port Rutupi, Gweiryd and his army came against them, and kept them from landing. They turned their sails and landed at Port Totnes, and after they had landed they went to Exeter and fought against it. And when the king knew that, he made ready his army to go there, and on the seventh day he arrived
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there with his army, and he attacked the Romans and fought boldly and fiercely against them, and killed many on all sides that day until night separated the battle. And the next morning they engaged, and because of the numbers of the Romans it was difficult to tell of them. And then the queen came and made peace between them. And after peace had been made between them they came together to London, and there they dwelt together that winter, and they sent their fellow-knights to Ireland to conquer it. And at that time Nero was emperor in Rome and under him Peter and Paul suffered martyrdom in Rome. And after that he caused Rome to be burned, out of desire to see a great fire, and from that day to this much of it is deserted and will never be inhabited. And after the winter had passed, Vespasian went to Rome, and Gweiryd remained ruling the Isle of Britain victoriously to the end of his days. And after he died he was buried in Gloucester in the temple that Gloyw Caesar had made in his honor before that. That was 70 of Christ’s age.

And after Gweiryd, Merrick his son became king over the Isle of Britain. And at that time Rodrick, King of the Picts, came from Scythia to Albany with a fleet, and he conquered Albany. And when the king knew that, he assembled an army and came against them and fought bravely against them and put them to flight, killing them. And in that flight
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Rodrick and the greater part of his army were killed. And those who escaped from the scattered army gave themselves up to the king as captives in return for receiving their lives. And he gave them a part of Albany to dwell in, and after it had been settled by them they came to the Britons to ask for their daughters as wives for them. And the Britons did not see fit to espouse their daughters to strangers from another country, without knowing from what race they came, and they strangers to them too. And for this reason they refused them wholly. And after they had been refused, they went into Ireland and took the Irish women as wives, and from them are descended the Scots from that day to this. And after Merrick had established the island in peace, he gave the Romans their tribute. And at that time Galba, and Otho, and Vitellius were emperors in Rome. And Vespasian and his son Titus killed Galba and Vitellius, and Vespasian took the empire into his own possession. And after Merrick had reigned, as has been said above, he established new laws in his realm, and he treated it in peace and quiet while he lived.

And after Merrick, his son Coel became king; and he had been brought up in Rome, and he loved the Romans so much that although he might have withheld the tribute from them, this did not happen. And in his days Titus Vespasian’s son came to Jerusalem and captured it and killed,107 between / starvation and fighting, ten hundred thousand of the pagans. And he sold
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a hundred thousand of them, that is1 thirty for every penny, on the days of Easter because they had sold Jesus Christ for thirty [pieces] of silver. And after Coel had reigned in peace and quiet over the Isle of Britain while he lived,2 he died. And that year Christ’s age was 116 years.3

And after Coel was dead,4 Lucius Coel’s son became king, and he was of the same temperament as his father. And after he had strengthened himself in his kingdom, he sent to Rome to Pope Eleutherius to ask him to send him5 teachers of the Christian faith, that he might believe in Christ through their learning6 and their preaching. And the other sent him7 two teachers, namely Doevan and Fagan. And they preached to him the coming of Christ in the flesh, and they washed him in the pure fountain of baptism.8 And with no delay he had everybody baptised after him.107b And he gave over the temples which were / devoted to the false gods to be consecrated in the name of Almighty God and His saints. And in them he put various ordained persons to dwell in them and to render divine service to God. And at that time twenty-eight bishop-houses were created in the Isle of Britain, and three archbishop-houses supreme over the others. And the three archbishop-houses were in the three most noble cities of the island, that is, London, and York, and Caerleon on Usk. And when the bishop-houses were divided between them, to York belonged Deira and Bernicia and all the North, as the Humber separates [them] from Loegria. And to the archbishop-house
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of London was partitioned Loegria and Cornwall, as the Severn separates them from the other two archbishoprics. And to the archbishop-house of Caerleon, all Cambria within its boundaries.1 And in his time Titus and Domitian and Nerva and Trajan2 and Hadrian were emperors in Rome; and although Lucius might have withheld3 their tribute he did not wish to.4 But he added gifts of land and territory and other goods to the churches while he / lived.108 And from one good work to another he finished his life in Gloucester. And in the chief church of the city he was buried, in the one hundred and fifty-sixth year after the coming of Christ in the flesh.5

And after Lucius had no heir,6 civil strife arose between the Britons and the Romans, and the Romans were greatly weakened by it. And after this had been told to the Roman Senate,7 they sent Severus, a senator, and two legions8 of fighting men with him, to the Isle of Britain. And after they had come to the island of Britain9 they conquered the greater part of the Britons; and another part of them fled through Deira and Bernicia, with Sulien as their prince. And there were frequent battles between them and this grieved the emperor greatly; and he caused a deep ditch to be made at public expense from sea to sea between Deira and Albany, and a stone wall to be placed on it,10 so that it would be easy to oppose the Britons, and then to conquer the island from them11 for a long time (?).108b And after / Sulien had seen that he had no success fighting with them, he decided, after deliberating,
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to go to Scythia to seek help from there, for the Scots had come from that place and they were1 Sulien’s men. And after he had come there, he got all the youth of that island, and they came with him to the Isle of Britain and they went to York and fought bravely against the city. And after the tale had spread over the face of the kingdom, the greater part of the Britons left the emperor and came to Sulien. And when Severus knew that, he assembled his whole force and came against Sulien and fought with him boldly and fiercely. And in that conflict Sulien was mortally wounded, and Severus was killed and was buried2 in York after reigning five years;3 one hundred and sixty-one years of Christ’s age.

And two sons were left to him,4 Bassian and Geta; and Geta’s mother came from Rome5 and Bassian’s mother / came from the Isle of Britain.109 And after the death of his father,6 the Romans took Geta as king over them because his mother came from Rome, and the Britons took Bassian because his mother came from the Isle of Britain. And for this reason discord grew up7 between the brothers and a meeting was arranged between their parties, and in that meeting Geta was slain and Bassian took the kingdom into his own control. That was 163 of Christ’s age.

And after that8 Bassian had taken all of the island into his own possession, there was at that time
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a famous young fellow, Carausius was his name,1 sprung from the Isle of Britain and of a mean race. And after he had proved himself in many hard battles, he thought of going to Rome to seek support from the Roman senators in exchange for his service. And after he had come to Rome, he asked the Roman senators for permission to guard2 the Isle of Britain on the sea3 with ships against foreign nations. And he promised an immense amount of goods in return for getting4 that. And after they had taken / counsel over it, they gave him permission,109b on condition that he should do no injury to5 any one of the island because of that. And after that had been confirmed between them, Carausius came home and assembled the whole strength of the Isle of Britain in ships with him, and they set out for different strands and for different ports, and they made a great stir and violence and extortion over all6 the islands that were about them,7 looting them and killing and burning. And every one who loved violence and robbery and extortion came to him until his numbers were so great that he had no fear of anybody. And he took the property and the riches of this island until no one could tell of it. And when he had seen everything increase before him,8 he sent to the Britons and asked them to make him king over them, and he, for his part, would take it upon himself to destroy the Romans out of the Isle of Britain, and he would free them from every sort of bondage that they were in, so far as foreign races went.110 And after the Britons had taken counsel and had seen9 that / Carausius had never done any injury to any one of the Isle of Britain, but what good he could,10 and for that reason11 they promised
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him they would take him as king over them1 if he could defend them from the oppression of foreign nations. And when Carausius knew the answer of the Britons, he came with a great army, and against him came Bassian and his army of Romans and Picts, and they fought angrily and fiercely on all sides; and in that fight the Picts turned with Carausius against Bassian, and they fought with him and killed him. And the Romans fled without knowing where,2 for they did not know who was against them and who was not. Christ’s age was then 184 years.3

And after Carausius had secured the victory through the treachery of the Picts, he gave them Albany, and there they have been from that day to this. And after the Roman senators had been told4 that Bassian had been killed by Carausius, and that he had raised himself to be king,5 and that he was withholding the tribute of the Romans, they were grievously offended thereby,110b / and they sent Alectus, a senator, and three legions6 of fighting men with him, to the Isle of Britain. And against them came Carausius and his army, and fought with them boldly and fiercely, and killed many on all sides. And because the Romans were so numerous it was not easy for the Britons to withstand them. And in that battle Carausius was killed and a great storm was raised on the Britons, who were killed and destroyed without mercy. Christ’s age then 216.7

And after Alectus had raised himself up to be king through his cruelty, the Britons took it very grievously. And they chose Asclepiodotus Earl of Cornwall as king over them, and they went against Alectus in
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London where he was then making a festival to the ancestral gods. And after that had been told to the cruel pagan, he left the sacrifice and came against the Britons, and fought against them boldly and fiercely. And then there was a great slaughter on both sides, and1 finally the Romans were scattered in flight and the Britons followed them and slew many / thousands of them.111 And then Alectus their king was slain. Lillius Gallus, the companion of Alectus, shut the gates of London on them and tried to keep himself within. Asclepiodotus and the Britons surrounded the fortress and the city, and they sent to all the princes of the Isle of Britain, to tell them that they were sitting down before London, and to ask all of them to come agreed to help them. And at this summons came the Demetians and the Venedotians, and the men of Deira and Bernicia, and the men of Albany. And after they had come together before the city, they all attacked the city according to their courage, and they broke down2 the walls and entered, both through them and over them, not making any treaty with the Romans but killing them without mercy. And when the Romans saw that, they came before the king and asked3 mercy on their4 lives, and that they might go back alive to their own country. And while the king was taking counsel over that, the men of Venedotia rose up and mustered on the bank of a brook, and attacked the Romans / and cut off their heads without leaving one of them alive.5111b And for this reason this brook is called in Welsh Gallgwn Brook from that day to this, and in Saxon Gallesbroc or (? ?) 250.6

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And then Asclepiodotus took the crown of the kingdom, and he governed1 it for the space of ten years. And in his time began2 the tempest which Diocletian the Emperor of Rome made on the Christians, and Christianity was well-nigh destroyed then, for at that time Maxen and Hercules, two stewards, came to the Isle of Britain by command of that cruel man, and destroyed the churches and burned the books of the Holy Scripture and the relics3 and killed all the clerks and the Christians. And then Saint Alban of Verolam was slain, and his companion Aron of Caerleon. And then arose a quarrel between the king and Coel Godebog Earl of Gloucester, and everybody took sides vigorously; and a day of meeting was set between them, and all of them came to the meeting with the greatest forces they had, and they fought fiercely and angrily and killed many of each party.4112 And in that fight / Asclepiodotus and his chiefs were slain. Christ’s age then 268 years.5

And then Coel Earl of Gloucester took the government of the kingdom into his own control, for there was no one with a better claim than his. And he had no heir except one daughter, and Helen was her name, and she was the most beautiful woman of the island. And her father caused her to be taught until she was versed in all of the seven arts. And at that time Constantius, one of the Roman senators, came with a great army to the Isle of Britain, after subjugating Spain to the Roman Senate, and he tried to render Britain tributary to the Roman Senate as it had been formerly.6 And when
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Coel knew of that, he assembled an army and came against him. And after the two armies had come face to face, peacemakers came1 between them, and without delay they were pacified. And a week and a month after the peace Coel died. That was three hundred and nine years of Christ’s age.2

And after Coel was dead,112b Constantius took Helen / Coel’s daughter as his wedded wife, and the crown of the kingdom with her. And the like of her beauty had never been seen;3 and she was called after that Helen of the Hosts because she won the cross.4 And she had by Constantius a son who was called Constantine the son of of Constantius. And after Constantius had reigned eleven years in peace and quiet, he died and his body5 was buried in York. 320 of Christ’s age.

And after Constantius was dead, his son6 Constantine took the government of the Isle of Britain into his own control. And at that time Maxentius the Cruel was emperor in Rome, and he was destroying the worthy men of the whole island, killing them and hanging them and plundering them, and enriching himself with their wealth, and giving to the unworthy their land and their territory and their wealth, and driving the nobles to other islands. And after multitudes of these had come to the Isle of Britain, they complained of him to Constantine the son of Constantius, for properly he should have been emperor in Rome by right of inheritance from his father. And he7 was greatly offended that his race and his friends had been treated as shamefully as that.8

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And then, / at the urging of the Romans,113 he decided to go with them to Rome to try to win back their freedom which they had lost. And it was more honorable to be emperor in Rome than king in the Isle of Britain, and he was getting both. And after he had left the keeping of the Isle of Britain in the hand of Eudav Earl of Archenfield and Ewias until he should come back again, he1 set out for Rome. And with him went Helen his mother and Helen’s three uncles; namely, Llywelyn, Trahaearn, and Merrick, and their armies with them. And they wrested Rome from Maxentius the Cruel, and he took the imperial power into his own control,2 and he gave the daughters of the princes of the Roman senate to his uncles as wives, to try to get from them legitimate children to uphold the Roman senate. And after he had rectified everything and had settled the island in peace, Helen Coel’s daughter3 made her pilgrimage to Jerusalem, and she conquered that country. And for that reason she was called thenceforward Helen of the Hosts. And by her skill in magic and her learning she got4 the tree / of the cross on which Jesus Christ suffered.113b And it had been hidden under the earth from the time when Christ suffered—that was three hundred years and more. It was then 323 of Christ’s age.5

And after Eudaf Earl of Erchenfield had seen that nobody opposed him, he assumed the crown
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of the kingdom, and took the government of the island into his own control, and withheld the tribute of the Roman senate. And when Constantine knew that, he sent Trahaearn, Helen’s uncle, to the Isle of Britain and three legions1 of armed men with him, to subjugate the Isle of Britain to the Roman senate. And after they2 had come to the Isle of Britain, they went to Porchester, and fought continuously against it, and won it at the end of two days. And when Eudav knew that, he assembled to him the youth of the Isle of Britain, and came against them close by Winchester, at a place called Urien’s field, and fought with them boldly, stoutly, and fiercely, and in this fight Eudav was victorious. And Trehaearn fled with the Romans to his ships, and they went along the sea until they landed in Albany, and then they collected to themselves an army from there3 and began to fight against Eudav. And when Eudav knew that,114 he came / against them with his army,4 to the place that was called Westmoreland, and there he gave them open5 battle and killed many on all sides, and in this battle Trehaearn was victorious. And Eudav fled to Norway to Gudbert King of Norway to seek help from him to seek to win back his realm. Christ’s age then.6

And then Trahaearn came and conquered all7 the Isle of Britain and subjugated it to the Roman senate. And at that time Eudav sent to the Isle of Britain to his companions and his followers to ask them to arrange for the death of
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Trahaearn if they could. The earl of the strong castle came to an entangled1 glen near the road by which Trahaearn would come from London, having a hundred knights with him, and he hid in that glen until Trahaearn came that way, and then without delay2 he attacked him and killed him. And after that had happened,3 he sent a messenger to Eudav to tell him that Trahaearn had been killed. And then the Romans fled to their own country for fear of the treachery of the Britons. And at that time Constantine son of Constantius, Emperor of Rome, died. And / then Eudav came back4 [to] the Isle of Britain. Christ’s age then.5114b

And after Eudav had conquered the Isle of Britain the second time, he took the crown into his own control, and straightway he enriched himself and maintained6 armed men and horses until there was not a king who could easily contend with him. And in this fashion he maintained his kingdom in peace and quiet until nearly the end of his life. And he had no heir except one daughter and Helen was her name,7 and her beauty exceeded that of everybody.8 And after old age had fallen upon him,9 he asked the advice of his nobles as to what he should do about the government of the island after him, and about making arrangements for his daughter while he was alive. Some of them advised him10 to give his daughter to the prince of the Isle of Britain that she should choose, and the government with her after him. Others advised giving his kingdom11 to Conan Meriadoc, his nephew, his brother’s son, and giving his daughter to the king of some other island, and plenty of the goods of this island with her. And then Caradoc Earl of Cornwall said, “Since we are subject to
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the Roman senate, it is more proper for us to send to Rome to select the one / of the nobles of the Roman senate whom we wish,115 to marry the daughter of our king and to uphold the kingdom after him, and by this means we shall have everlasting peace. And if we need help from them, by this means we shall get it.1 And there are nobles there from this island, if you remember, who are more entitled to this island than any who are now in it.”2 And on that advice they rested.

And then Caradoc Earl of Cornwall, at the request of the king, sent his son Merrick to Rome to seek to get Prince Maxen to come to the Isle of Britain to take Helen3 Eudav’s daughter as his wife, and the government of the kingdom with her,4 for that Maxen was son to Llywelyn, uncle of Helen of the Hosts; his mother was daughter of the most noble prince who came from the Roman senate. And when Merrick came to Rome there were, at that time, three emperors contending there5 for the preeminent place in the Roman senate, and making many appointments for meetings between them without being able to settle anything.6 And when Merrick saw that, he said to Maxen, “I marvel,” said he, “that you endure7 so many provocations8 as you suffer9 from / those men.”115b “What shall I do?” said Maxen. “This is what you shall do,” said Merrick. “Come with me to the Isle of Britain, and take as your wife Helen Eudav’s daughter, the most beautiful maiden a man ever saw, and the most agreeable, and the government of the Isle of Britain with her,10 for the king of the Britons has no lawful heir
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save1 her. And with the help of the Britons you can subdue every island that resists you.” And after Merrick had told of the beauty of the maiden,2 Maxen was filled with love for her until he did not know what to do. And then Maxen caused a fleet to be prepared, and as soon as they were ready they hoisted their sails and clove the seas until they came to the French Sea. And then they lowered their sails and3 subjugated France, and wrung from it the gold and silver they desired.4 And then warning came to the king5 of the Britons that a fleet was seen on the French sea, and it was not known where they would land. And then Eudav asked Conan Meriadoc, his nephew,6 to summon to him all the youth of the Isle of Britain to defend the / shore where he heard that they were,7116 lest they should without notice be subdued by a foreign nation. And after Conan Meriadoc and his army had come to the mountains8 of Kent, Maxen was terrified by so great an army with the look of fighting on them. And after deliberating, they decided to select twelve men of the most prudent and wisest among them, and send them to land in a boat, with a branch of olive tree in the hand of each one as a sign of peace. And they went to the place where Conan Meriadoc was, and they saluted him and told him that they were messengers from Maxen the Roman emperor to Eudav King of the Britons. And then Conan asked why so great a fleet as this came with a message, and they told him it
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was lest they be overcome on the way by foreign tribes. And when Conan knew the gist of their message, he desired to keep them away from the island for fear lest he might lose the kingship. And then Caradoc Earl of Cornwall said, “Let us send them to the king,116b and let what the king1 desires be done.” And then / they came together to Carnarvon where the king was holding court at that time. And the king was joyful over the messengers, and still more joyful over their message. And without delay he sent after Maxen and gave2 him his daughter Helen as his wedded wife, and the government of the kingdom3 with her.

And then Maxen took Helen as his wife, and the government of the kingdom with her. And when Conan Meriadoc knew that, he went to Albany and united Albany with him, and they assembled an army and came through4 the Humber and began to pillage. And when Maxen knew that, he came to Albany with his army and conquered Albany and drove Conan in flight to Norway. And after Maxen and his army had returned5 home from Albany, Conan came the second time with a great6 army to try to upset Albany, and Maxen came against him.7 And then the nobles came between them and made peace between them. And then they became “common friends and common foes.” And then Prince Maxen reigned over the Island of Britain for five years in peace and quiet.117 And then there came to his mind / the ancient dignity
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which he had lost in the land of Rome, and he determined to win it back if he could. And then he assembled an army, all the youth of the Isle of Britain with him, and he left the keeping of the Isle of Britain in the hand of Dunod Earl of Cornwall. And when they were ready they set out for France, and that was called one of the three plagues of the Isle of Britain.1 And at that time a man named Himbald was leading2 in France and in Brittany also.3 And when he had heard that the Britons were coming, he made ready against them to try to keep them out of their territories.4 And he fought with them boldly and fiercely, and in that fight Himbald was killed and fifteen thousand men with him. And Maxen conquered Brittany and gave it to Conan Meriadoc, because he himself had taken the Isle of Britain from Conan before that. And then the Britons first came to Brittany,5 and for that reason it was called Little Britain. And Conan Meriadoc was left ruling there.6

And Maxen went7 to the city of Rennes,8 and the French fled before him and left the cities and castles / empty where they heard that he was coming.9117b And from there he went to Rome to fight against Gratian and Valentinian who were emperors in Rome at that time. And after he had come to Rome he killed one of them and drove the other out of Rome.

And at that time there were frequent battles in Brittany between the French and the Britons, and yet in spite of the
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wars they had, they have governed it from that day to this.

And after they had settled things, they began to think about taking wives for themselves. And since they could not, for fear of massacres, ally themselves with any race but their own,—and besides it would not be fitting for them—they sent1 to the Isle of Britain to ask Dunod Earl of Cornwall to send them eleven thousand daughters of the nobles of the Isle of Britain as wives for them, and sixty thousand daughters of servants, because he2 was keeper of the Isle of Britain at that time. And after all3 that was made ready, and they had set out on the face of the ocean toward Brittany, a tempest came upon them and many of them were drowned. And then came a dispersing wind and scattered to various shores / those of the ships that had escaped,4118 without their fate being known. And at that time Gwynwas King of Hainaut and Melwas King of Poitou were on the sea, and they were making war on Germany on behalf of the Emperor5 Gratian, and they met with two of the vessels full of the maidens mentioned above. And after they had learned from these maidens6 that the Isle of Britain had been left empty, they turned their sails toward the Isle of Britain. And after they had landed in Albany they killed the people without mercy wherever they went. And the miserable remnants that had been left in the Isle of Britain were unable to resist them. And after Maxen had heard this in Rome he sent two legions7 of armed men with Gratian as gift-taker8 over them, to help the Britons. And
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after they had come to the Isle of Britain, it was not long before they met their enemies and fought with them boldly and fiercely, and killed many of them and drove Gwynwas and Melwas in flight to Ireland. And at this time Maxen was slain in Rome and all his companions who had come from / the Isle of Britain except those who escaped on foot to Brittany to Conan Meriadoc;118b and this the companions and kin of Gratian did in a quarrel1 out of anger that Maxen had driven Gratian from the imperial throne.

And after the Gratian above2 knew that Maxen was killed,3 he took the government of the Isle of Britain into his own control, and assumed the crown of the kingdom, and reigned for a long time in cruelty to the Britons. And after they had seen that they had no success against his cruelty, his own men fell upon him and killed him. And when Gwynwas and Melwas knew that Gratian was killed, they collected the men of Norway and Denmark, and the Scots and the Picts, and came to the Isle of Britain and ravaged it all4 with fire and iron, and that from sea to sea,5 and they killed the citizens without mercy.6 And when the Britons had seen that they could not resist them, they sent to Rome to seek help from the Roman Senate7 to drive out their enemies from their territories. And then they got a legion8 of armed men to help them. And after they had come to the Isle of Britain,119 / the Britons joined them, and attacked their enemies manfully, and fought with them bravely, strongly, and fiercely, and killed9 multitudes of them
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and drove the rest in flight to their ships, and forced them out to sea. And after they had expelled their enemies from their borders, by common agreement they made1 a stone wall at the national expense between Deira and the North, so that it would be difficult for foreign races to oppress them after that. And after that had been done and everything was subdued, they came together to London. And there the Romans asked Kuhelin Archbishop of London to advise the Britons to defend their country bravely and strongly against the foreign nations, and to do this with skill and the practicing of horsemanship and the bearing of arms, so that they might be familiar with them when they needed them.2 And they announced that they had lost their men and their wealth,3 their gold and their silver, more than ever they had received from the Isle of Britain, in trying to defend their dignity for them,4 and that they would labor no more at this for them, but would renounce the Isle of Britain and its / tribute thenceforth.119b And after the archbishop had announced the speeches of the Romans5 to the Britons, then the heavens and the earth were heard to resound with the horrible shriek that the wretched downtrodden people, whose strength had all failed, gave.6 And after the Romans had taken their leave, they went to their ships and set out for Rome.7

And after this had been told to Gwynwas and Melwas, they collected an army, the largest they could, and landed in Albany and made war upon the Britons and slew them without mercy, and conquered all of8 Albany as far as the Humber Sea. And they made many attacks on the
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Britons, killing them and burning without mercy. And after the Britons had seen that they could not resist their enemies,1 they sent to tell their feebleness and their affliction and their dreadful lament to Agitius, the Roman emperor, to ask him, for God’s sake and for his soul’s sake, for his help once [more] to repel their enemies from their borders. And after this had been told in full to the Roman senate, they were wholly denied,120 and they renounced the Isle of Britain and its tribute / thenceforward for ever. And after the answer of the Romans2 had been told to the Britons, it was grievous to God to listen to their dreadful lament,3 that all their strength and their trust had gone and they were left to their enemies as men condemned to death. And then after deliberation they decided to send Kuhelin Archbishop of London to Brittany to seek help from Aldur King of Brittany, the fourth king after Conan Meriadoc. And after he had come to Brittany, the king was joyful over him and invited him to be an honored guest so long as he desired to remain in that country.4 And when Kuhelin saw the time to broach his business, he first claimed kinship with the king, and he said that there was no noble of the Isle of Britain who had reigned there since the time when Prince5 Maxen and Conan Meriadoc had first come to Brittany, and the reason was that Maxen had taken all the nobles of the Isle of Britain with him, and had left the island empty except for foreigners and servants and feeble men who knew nothing.
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And he reminded him that there was not on earth an island / where it was more just for the Britons to seek to maintain their privilege and their right than the Isle of Britain;120b and that there was no way to maintain it except by his help.1 And after he had told the king of the affliction of the Britons, and their misfortune from foreign nations, he greatly lamented their suffering and gave them two thousand knights to help them, with Constantine his brother as prince over them. And after they had got their ships ready, they set out for the Isle of Britain, and landed at the port of Totnes. And when the wretched, oppressed Britons knew that, they flocked to them; and when Gwynwas and Melwas heard that, they made preparations against them, and it was not long before they met with them and fought boldly, angrily, and fiercely, and killed many on all sides. And at length Constantine got the victory2 and killed his enemies without mercy. And after they had been victorious over their enemies they came to Silchester.

And then for the first time Constantine assumed the crown of the kingdom, / and he was given, as his wedded wife,121 the daughter of one of the Roman nobles, whom Kuhelin the archbishop of London had brought up, and by her he had three sons, namely, Constans, Ambrosius, and Uther. And that Constans was brought up in the monastery3 of Amphibalus in Winchester, and the other boys were given to Kuhelin the archbishop to foster. And after Constantine had reigned twelve years in peace and quiet
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one of the Picts came and, on the pretext of speaking with the king apart from his hosts, wounded him with a knife under the breast, and of that wound he died.1 And at that time Vortigern Gortheneu, lord of Archenfield and Ewias, was one of the elders of the Isle of Britain and most was made of his advice. And after he had considered that there was no heir truly entitled to rule over the Isle of Britain except one of the three sons of Constantine, and the oldest of them would be entitled to the dignity2 were it not for the fact that he was a monk, and the other two were not old enough, and even though they were he knew that he would get no profit by that, for their foster-father would rule the kingdom for them until they should be of age;3121b and after he had considered all these things he came / to Winchester4 and asked Constans the Monk what honor he would receive from him in return for making him king. And the other promised him that in return for it the Isle of Britain should be in his control and at his will. And after he5 had held up his hand on that, he took off the habit from about him and put the clothes of the world upon him, and took him with him from the monastery against the wish of the abbot and the whole chapter. And after he had come with him to London, Vortigern put the crown on the head6 of Constans and made him king of the Isle of Britain.7

And after Constans had been made king over the Isle of Britain, he made Vortigern high steward under him over his whole realm, and everything he wished was done as though he were the king himself. And then he summoned all the princes to do
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homage to the king, and all came obediently. And after they had been so a little while in peace and quiet, Vortigern in his ancient treason considered how he himself might become / king.122 And after he had considered everything, he came to the king and told him that there was a fleet on the sea, and that it was not known where they would land, and that it would be best to strengthen the castles of the coast, and in all places throughout the island, with men and arms and food and drink, lest they should be overcome by the foreign race. And after this had been told to the king, he bade him do as seemed to him good about everything. And then Vortigern went from castle to castle throughout the island, putting into each of the castles men sworn to him of the bravest and strongest he could find, and enough food and drink [to last] to the end of three years.1 And after he had finished all that, he came to Albany and selected eighty men, of the most worthy young men and the noblest and the best at feats of those who were sprung of the race of the Picts, to come with him2 to the king to take service with him and follow him at his horse’s head. And after they had come to the king the king made them welcome.3122b And Vortigern told him how he had been storing the castles and how / he had brought these sons of the nobles of Albany at his horse’s head, the reason being that if war came to the island it was usually from there it came, and then they could be held4 as hostages for their fathers, and he could be assured that their fathers would never break with the king while their sons were
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with him. And after Vortigern had told the king1 the whole matter, the king was satisfied with everything he had done. And after they had been thus for a while, Vortigern satisfied the young men of Albany with respect and honor and ease and gifts.

And one night after they had been drinking in his chamber for a long time2 after the king had gone to sleep, and the young men were sufficiently drunk, Vortigern spoke to them in this fashion. “My lords and companions, with your permission I must go to the little territory3 that I have, to see if I can get any wealth out of it so that I can spend4 it on companions who are agreeable to me.” “How is that,” said they, “do you not possess the kingdom to do with it as you wish?” “Not I, by my faith,” said he, “I have no territory / except Archenfield and Ewias,123 and if I had there is nobody on earth I would honor sooner than yourselves.” And then Vortigern took his leave and went to sleep. And they, between drunkenness and Vortigern’s words, went to the king’s chamber and cut off his head, and came to the place where Vortigern was and threw the head into his lap. “Here you are!” said they, “now be king if you want to.” And then after Vortigern had seen that the king was killed, he wept, and that out of deceit and not out of grief for the king. And then Vortigern caused all the men to be seized and put in prison, lest vengeance should be taken upon him for the murder. And after Kuhelyn the archbishop had heard5 that the king had been killed by the Picts through the treason of Vortigern, he fled with the other two boys to Brittany to their kinsman Emyr of Brittany, for fear of the deceit of Vortigern.

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And after that story had gone over the face of the island, all of the princes came to London,123b / and after deliberating they decided to hang the eighty men who had killed the king, and to entrust the realm to the hand of Vortigern until they could get a rightful king over them. And when the Picts knew that their sons had been hanged, they collected an army and made war on Vortigern. And when Vortigern knew that, thinking that he would soon be victorious over his enemies, and his desire for the kingdom being so great, he took the crown of the kingdom and put it on his own head and became1 king without permission of any of the princes.

And after Vortigern had become king, he sent to summon to him all the Britons to come to his help to try to drive his false enemies the Picts2 from the island. And after this had been told to the Britons, they refused him completely and bade him make amends for what he had done by his deceit and perfidy3 and his injury to them, or he would get what might come to him.4 And after they had refused him completely, he sent to other islands to seek for help from foreign nations, but he got almost none.124 And after they had been thus with frequent / fights between them, and he was not able to overcome his enemies, and he saw, on the other side, the anger of the Britons against him, he was greatly distressed that the island was being spoiled for him because it was so restless under him and it was so dangerous to his life if he lived in it.5 And after they had come to the mountains of Kent6 he saw three ships of marvellous size, marvellously ornamented, on the French Sea. And he sent to know what sort of ships they were and from what land they had come and from what race they were descended,
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and where they were going and what was their design. And after the messengers had come to them and had inquired of them as they had been bidden by the king, they told them that they had come from Saxonia, one of the kingdoms of Germany. And they told them that every seven years they had to select numbers of people from that island to go to live in other islands, since the island could not support them because they were so numerous. And they had been chosen a year and a half before that and Horsa and Hengest were two princes over them,124b and they / had been wandering about the seas for a year and a half already without finding a place to land. And they asked the King of the Britons for a place to dwell in, if he saw fit, and they assured him that they would be true and faithful subjects to him. And after this had been told to the king, he sent for them. And after they had come, the king asked them in whom they believed, and they told him that it was Woden in their language. And the king asked what that was, and the interpreters told him that it was Mercury, one of the false gods, and that they1 honored the fourth day of the week in his name and called it Wednesday. And they had another false god who was called Frey, and Friday was called from his name.125 And after the king had seen the comeliness of the men, he took their homage and they came together to London. / That was four thousand three hundred and sixty-one years after the beginning of the world. Christ’s age was then 454.2

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And after the Picts had been told that Vortigern had received help from foreign nations, they made ready their army and came against him and fought with him fiercely and killed many on all sides,1 and yet in the end the king was victorious, and that through the help of the Saxons. And when the king saw that,2 he rejoiced and gave to the Saxons the land that since then has been called Lindesey, to dwell in. And after they had received permission, they sent into Germany after eighteen shiploads of armed men to help them. And at that time Horsa and Hengest came to the king to seek from him either a castle or a city that in them3 they might keep themselves from the attack of their enemies. And then the king said that he did not dare [give] that without the permission of the Britons, and if he should do it he would be driven out of the island, and they too.125b And when they did not / get that, they asked for permission to build a fortress of their own, as broad as an ox-hide, to try to defend themselves from their enemies. And this the king granted them: land the breadth of an ox-hide for the building.4 And then they went home and sought out5 the largest ox-hide they could get, and cut it into one thong as thin as they could, and stretched it as well6 as they could, and with it they made7 the City of the Thong, and it is now called Twongchester.8

And after the city was made, the ships which have been mentioned above came to the island, and with them Hengest’s daughter, Ronwen was her name,9 and she was a girl of such famous beauty that her like was never seen. And then after deliberating they decided to
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make a feast and invite the king to the feast, and as many as he desired to bring with him, to see the building. And when the king had come to the feast,1 they greeted him joyfully. When the end of the meal came he saw a maiden of marvellous form and2 beauty, coming from the chamber, with a cupful of wine in her hand and kneeling down before the / king and saying, “Loverd king,3 wassail.”126 And then the king asked what she said and the interpreter said, “She called you ‘lord king,’ ” said he, “and she is4 serving you.” “What shall I say?” said the king. “Dring hail,” said an interpreter. “Dring hail,” said the king to the girl, as the interpreter had taught him.5 And that was the first “wassail” and “dring hail” that ever came to the Isle of Britain.6

And when the king had seen the girl’s form and her beauty, he was filled with love and affection for her, so that without her he could not be anything that he had been;7 and he asked her of Hengest, and the latter, after deliberating, decided to give her to him. And that night they slept together and the next morning Hengest came to them8 to ask her marriage gift, and the king bade him specify what he wanted and he should have it. And Hengest bade him9 hold up his hand on that and the king held it up. And he asked the earldom of Kent, because it was there that they first landed, and because10 it was a maritime country with many harbors, so that they could receive their nations when they came to the island without asking permission of any one. And because11 the king had promised them that, he gave it to them. And when Gurgant Earl of Kent knew / that, he was greatly offended at being dispossessed,12126b
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and he complained to the princes of the island about it. And when all the princes1 knew of that, they were in an ugly mood and particularly so his own three sons born of another wife.2 The three sons’ names were Kentigern, Vortimer, and Pasgen. And when Christ’s age was four hundred and sixty-two years,3 Leo the Pope of Rome made Easter Day on Sunday for it had been on Saturday before that.4 And the next5 year after that Saint Bride was born. And at that time came Garmon and Lupus Trauscens—or in Welsh Bleid (wolf)—his companion, from Rome6 to preach to the Britons, for they were consecrated in the Christian faith, and from the time when the7 pagans had come among them, heresies and the false preaching of Pelagian had come with him,8 for the poison of that false preacher was corrupting many among the Britons from the faith. And after Garmon and his companion Bleid had preached to the Britons, then they renewed / their faith,127 for everything that they said with their tongues they confirmed with their daily miracles. And God did great wonders for their sakes, and Gildas the son of Caw afterwards treated well and truly9 of these miracles.

And then Hengest came and said to Vortigern, “Now you are son to me and I am father to you, and it is right for every son to be under the command of his father, and right10 for you now to do as I advise11 in everything. And I will advise you as well as I know and as I can. And here is advice for you lest you be crushed by the foreign nations,
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or your own nation out of anger toward you, and misery.1 Send to Germany for Octa my son and Ossa his uncle, famous knights, and give them Scotland, from which you are oppressed by frequent wars, and they will guard that province against foreign nations and will uphold2 you, lord, so that none will dare / to oppose you.”127b

And after the king had seen that the advice was good he stayed with that. And he sent into Germany for Octa and Ossa, and they came to the Isle of Britain with three hundred ships full of armed men. And then Octa and Ossa and Celdric were princes over them. And when the Britons heard that, they were in great fear because of the greatness of the numbers they heard were landing. And they sent to the king and asked him to keep them out of the island. And when that was told to the king he wholly denied them, but gave land and territory to these to dwell in. And when the princes of the island knew that, they chose Vortimer Vortigern’s son as king over them and began to fight strongly against the Saxon pagans.

And after Vortimer was king, he gave them four battles and he was victorious in every one. The first of them was given on the River Derwent, and the second at the Ford of the Pyfford,128 and in that battle / Kentigern and Horsa met and each one of them slew the other. And the third battle was on the shore of the sea when they fled
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to the Isle of Thanet, and Vortimer followed them to that place and there was the fourth battle with them. And there they were killed without mercy. And after they had seen that there was no place of escape1 for them, they left their wives and their children and their wealth, and they themselves fled to the ships and sought the high seas in the direction of Germany. And there Vortimer took2 their wealth and divided it as seemed good to him.3 And after he had secured the victory he came to the Isle of Britain to govern the kingdom.4 And when Ronwen Vortigern’s wife heard that the Saxons had been killed without mercy, she made an agreement with one of Vortimer’s men and gave him an untold amount of gold and silver to poison him.5 And the deceitful traitor did this to his lord. And when Vortimer knew that he was poisoned,6 he sent to summon all the princes of the island to him. And when they had all come to him he advised them to defend their just rights7 against foreign races, and he pointed out to them their dangers. And after he had done that, he divided his wealth among his princes, to each one of them as he deserved.8 And he asked them,128b when he was dead,9 to burn his body and / put the ashes in a brazen image made in his own likeness, and put the image in the harbor where10 the foreign nations would come to the island.11 And he was sure that not one of them would ever come12 to that island while they saw his image on the land with its face toward them.13 And after he was dead14 the princes did not do as
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he had commanded them, but they buried him honorably in London. And after consultation they decided, since there was no one truly entitled to it who could be king over the Isle of Britain then, to take Vortigern a second time as king over them on his strong oaths that he would admit none of the foreign race to the island except with the consent of all the princes.

And after Vortigern had secured the government of the kingdom1 for the second time, Ronwen sent to Germany to Hengest her father, to invite him to come with an appropriate number of companions to visit her in the Isle of Britain. And she told him that Vortimer was dead,129 and when they knew that / they rejoiced.2 And Hengest assembled three hundred thousand armed men to come with him3 to the Isle of Britain. And when the Britons heard that so great a number as that had come to the island, they sent to the king and asked him to keep them out of the island.4 And when the Saxons5 knew that, they sent to the king and to the princes to ask them not to take amiss their coming6 in such numbers as that to the Isle of Britain. And they told them that they had not come to trouble any of the Britons of the island, but that they had come to visit their kinswoman, that is7 the queen. And they had not thought that Vortimer the Blessed would be dead, and for fear lest they should be oppressed by him as they were before, they had brought this multitude with them. And since Vortimer was dead they
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asked the Britons and1 the king and the princes, if they saw fit, to leave them the place where they used to live, and2 to hold it under the crown of London, and they would take it upon themselves to defend the island on that side3 against the attacks of foreign nations while they / lived.129b And if that did not seem good to them, they asked that a set day might be appointed between them,4 in any place in the island they might desire, to know how many of them they desired to have live in the island, how many they did not desire.5 And if any one of them had done wrong to the Britons they were ready to make it good, in good will, for every wrong it could be proved they had done.

And after they had filled the Britons with fair speeches, the day was set for May Day in the great field in Cambria, the place that was afterwards called Salisbury. And they forbade any of them to bring arms with them lest a quarrel should spring up between the parties, and lest one of them should do harm to6 another. And when the appointed day came, Hengest thought of his old treachery and he bade every one of his men have a knife concealed in his hose,7 and when he should bid8 “Draweth hwr sexes,”9 draw out their knives, each one of them,10 and kill as many of the princes taken unawares as they could.11 And when the king and all the princes had come together to consult / as to the number they wished to have dwell in the island and the number they did not wish to have,130 Hengest came to them to the council, uttering bland, deceitful words, and the Saxons about them,
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listening to them. And when the damned, deceitful traitor1 saw his time he said “Draweth hwr sexes,”2 and then they drew their knives and killed four hundred and sixty men, between earls and barons, of the Isle of Britain. And Hengest put his hand on the king and seized him. And of the princes who were in the Isle of Britain, not one escaped unkilled except Eidol Earl of Gloucester who escaped with the help of a bar he found under his feet, and with that bar alone he slew seventy men of the Saxons3 and escaped unharmed to his own territory. And then Idwal the bishop had the bodies of the princes who had been killed4 buried in Caradoc’s city (Salisbury) beside the monastery of Ambri, and he was the first to appoint an abbot there.

And then Hengest took from the king London and York and Lincoln and Winchester, and all Loegria within its bounds, / and he divided it among the Saxons.130b And then each one called his part “sex” (that is, Essex, Sussex, Wessex), to bring to mind the damned treachery5 and the slaughter which they had made with their knives on the nobles of the island of Britain.6 And then Vortigern was released7 from prison, and was driven out from the bounds of Loegria. And then he fled in sadness8 to Cambria; and after he had come to Cambria he was greatly grieved that he had been put out of the kingship as shamefully as that. And he thought of building a strong castle lest he should be trampled on by his enemies as ignomoniously as they had done before. And after they had walked all over the bounds of Cambria to seek a place fit to build in, they came to the place that is now called
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Ambrose’s Fort in Snowdon. And there they saw the strongest place, so they thought, in all Cambria to build a castle in. And after they had brought stonemasons and had begun work on the city, however much they built by day, the next morning not one stone would be in its place. And after they had thus labored in vain for a long / time,131 all wondered greatly what caused that. And when there was no one who knew it, Vortigern called his twelve chief bards and asked them what caused the work not to stand. And then they went to consult and when not one of them knew what sort of answer1 to give the king they were greatly grieved and ashamed. And then one of them said to the others, “Let us figure out,” said he, “the thing that cannot be, and bid him seek that, and it will never be found and so we shall be blameless before the king.” And on consultation they decided to say, “If the blood of a boy without a father is got, and that blood is mixed with the water and the lime it is said (?) that the work will stand.” And to say that until that is got not anything of it will stand. And after that was told to the king, he sent throughout Cambria to seek for a boy without a father. And he sent letters everywhere2 [to the effect that] wherever such a thing should be found there should be no delay in sending it to him.

And after they had walked everywhere3 without getting anything, they came to Carmarthen. The reason this town was called Carmarthen [Caer vyrdyn] was that it was first founded by a myriad [myrd] of men, and for that reason it has been called
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Caervyrdyn from that day forth. And after the messengers had arrived just outside the city and had seen boys playing ball, they rested and watched the boys playing. / One of the boys got the ball and struck another boy1 grievously; and the other boy snatched the ball away from him and hit him harder with it.131b And from this a contention2 sprang up between the two boys. “Keep quiet,” said one boy to the other, “you are not [one] to contend with me, for I am noble on my mother’s side and my father’s side, and you have no father at all.”3 “Between me and God,” said the other boy,4 “my mother is nobler than your mother and your father.” And after the men5 had heard the contention of the boys, they seized the boy who was said to have no father and brought him before the highest officials of the town and showed them the king’s letters. And as soon as they had seen the king’s letters and had understood them, they sought the boy’s mother and sent them together to the king at Ambrose’s Fort.

And after they had come before the king he6 asked her if she was the boy’s mother. “Yes, lord,” said she. “Who is his father?” said he.6 “I do not know, lord,” said she, “I never7 had anything to do with a man.” “How did you become pregnant?” said the king. “Lord,” said she, / “I was daughter of the King of Demetia,132 and when I was young I was put8 as a nun in the church of Peter in Carmarthen. And one night as I was sleeping among my sisters, I saw in my sleep a young man having intercourse with me, and when I awoke I saw nothing. Nevertheless when the time came I grew heavy9
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and when it pleased God the boy you see there was born; and by my confession to God, lord, I never had anything to do with a man except that one.” And then Vortigern asked Meugant, a man of great knowledge was he, if that could be true. “It could, lord,” said he. “Formerly, when Lucifer fell from the tenth circle of heaven and many angels with him, in the fashion they were when God bade them remain they have remained, from that day to this. And many1 of them are able to take upon themselves the likeness of a human body, and appear in the form of a woman and receive embraces from a man,2 and at another time appear in the form of a man and have intercourse with a woman in her sleep, and from this embrace she may become pregnant.”

And after / it3 had been fully told to the king,132b he asked the woman4 if she would have him for her son instead of her own son, and he would take it upon himself to satisfy her as well5 with his own body while he lived. (?) “Lord,” said she, “what will you do with my son if you can have him?” “Mix,” said he, “his blood with the water and the lime to try to make the work stand.” “Alas, lord” said she, “kill me and do not kill my son.” “Why, lord,” said the boy, “will you kill me?6 What will you do with my blood that will make the work stand more than the blood of any one else?” “My twelve chief bards,” said the king, “have said that the work will never stand until the blood of a boy without a father is got to mix with the water and the lime.” “Lord,” said the boy, “let
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whoever said that come before you.” And then the twelve chief bards were called before the king and they were asked if they owned what they had said—that the blood of a boy without a father would make the work stand. And after consultation they decided to own what they had said,1 thinking that the word of all twelve would be stronger than that of the boy himself.2

And then the boy asked / them what was keeping the work from standing.133 And when they did not know what to answer him, the king asked the boy what was hindering it. And then the boy said, “Lord,” said he, “under the patch of rushes that is there in the middle of the court is the most beautiful lake anybody ever saw,3 and the deepest, and in the bottom of the lake is a chest of stone4 of the best workmanship anybody ever saw. And in the stone chest two dragons are sleeping, and when they wake up they fight, and from the intensity of that fighting the stone chest and the water and the earth are shaken until the work is scattered, every stone from off every other. And after they have been fighting5 at night, they sleep in the daytime out of weariness, and then the work is undisturbed.”

And after that had been told to the king, he had them dig6 where the boy had told them to; and they had not dug far before they found the deepest and fairest lake anybody had ever seen.7 And then they tried to empty the lake, without any success. And after the king had seen this,8 he9 asked the boy if there was any way to get the lake out of there. “There is, lord,” said the boy, “and getting it out is the worst.” “Even though it is the worst,” said he, “I want it out.” And then the boy10 came to it and by his arts let it go in
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five running jets.1133b And up to that time he was called An, son of the / Nun,2 and after that he was named3 Merlin [Merdyn] because he was found in Carmarthen [Caer Vyrdyn]. And after he had let out4 the lake until he got to the stone chest already mentioned, the king wanted to see what was in the stone chest. And then after the chest was opened, two dragons arose as the prophecy of Merlin Ambrose testifies, to wit:5

Vortigern Gortheneu sitting on the edge of the drained pool, two dragons arose, one white and one6 red, and fought fiercely between themselves. And the white dragon drove the red to the furthest part of the lake and the red dragon, grieved, drove7 the white one back again. And after Vortigern had seen that, he asked Merlin what that signified. He broke into weeping, and called his spirit to him, and spoke in prophecy.

“Woe to the red dragon, for her destruction is hastening! The white dragon which signifies the Saxons shall seize her caves. The red dragon signifies the Britons8 who shall be oppressed by the white. With that the mountains shall be made / level with the valleys,134 and the rivers of the glens shall run with blood. The cult of Christianity shall be blotted out, and the fall of the churches shall be made manifest. At length the oppressed race9 shall become strong, and the ferocity of the strangers shall be opposed, for the Boar of Cornwall shall give aid, and the necks of the strangers he shall trample under his feet. The islands of the ocean shall make submission to him and the lands of France shall he possess. The house of Rome shall fear his ferocity and his end shall be doubtful. In the mouths of the people he shall be honored, and his deeds shall be food to those who recite them. Six after him shall cleave to the scepter and after them
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shall arise the worm from Germany. The sea-wolf whom the groves of Africa shall accompany shall exalt that. Religion shall be destroyed a second time, and there shall be a moving of the highest thrones. Canterbury shall bear the dignity of London, and the seventh shepherd of York shall frequent the kingdom of Brittany. Menevia shall be clothed with the mantle of Caerleon, and a preacher of Ireland shall be dumb because of the boy growing in the womb of his mother. A rain of blood shall come, and terrible hunger shall rule mortals. When these things shall come, / the red dragon shall grieve,134b and after the earth has slipped he shall grow strong.1 Then the malice of the white dragon shall hasten and the buildings of the gardens shall be uprooted. Seven bearers of the scepter shall be killed and one of them shall be a saint. The wombs of their mothers shall be slit and the sons shall be born before their time. Men shall have great torment to pay the needy. He who shall do these things shall wear a brazen man, and on a brazen horse for many ages shall keep the gates of London. After that the red dragon shall return in his own customs and shall strive to grow fierce within himself. With this shall come the vengeance of the Almighty, for every land shall deceive the husbandman. Death shall deal hardly with the people, and all nations shall be made barren. Those that remain shall leave2 their native land and shall sow foreign gardens. The Blessed King shall prepare a fleet, and in the hall of the twelve shall be numbered among the blessed. Then the promise of the kingdom shall be miserable and the corn-fields shall turn unfruitful.135 Again the white dragon / shall arise and invite the daughter of Germany. Again
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our gardens shall be filled with foreign seed, and the red dragon shall grow weak1 in the furthest parts of the pool. After that the worm from Germany shall be crowned and the brazen prince shall be buried. There is a bound set for her over which she cannot pass. A hundred and fifty years shall she be in fickleness and subjugation, but she shall rest three hundred. Then a north wind shall rise against it, and shall ravage the flowers which the south wind created. Then the temples shall be gilded, and the sharpness of their swords shall not rest. The worm from Germany shall hardly gain2 his caves, for the vengeance for his treason shall come against him. In the end the slow shall be strengthened, but the tithe of Normandy shall be injured,3 for a people shall come against him in wood with iron coats about them, who shall take vengeance for his ferocity and his iniquity. He shall establish the old cultivators in their dwelling-place, and the fall of the strangers shall be conspicuous. The seed of the white dragon shall be cut off from our gardens, and the remains of the nation shall be decimated.135b / They shall bear the yoke of perpetual servitude, and shall wound their mother with mattocks and ploughs. Then the two dragons shall draw near; one of them shall be suffocated4 with a blast of envy; the other, however, shall return under the shadow of her name.

“Then the lion of truth shall draw near, and with his roaring the towers of France and the island dragons shall tremble.5 In those days gold shall be turned out of the lily and the nettle, and silver shall flow from the hooves of those that roar. The curly-haired shall put on various fleeces, and the topmost habit shall show the things within. The feet of those that bark shall be lopped off; the wild animals shall have peace; mankind shall suffer their
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pain. The form of commerce shall be split and the half shall be round. The extortion of the kites shall fail and the teeth of the wolves shall be blunted. The lion’s cubs shall be changed into sea-fish, and that eagle shall make its nest on Snowdon. Venedotia shall become red with the blood of its mother, and the house of Corineus shall kill six brothers. The island shall be moistened with nightly tears, and thereafter every one shall be called to / everything.136 Woe to Normandy! for the brain of the lion shall be poured out1 on her, and after his limbs are shattered he shall be thrown out of his paternal sod. His children shall strive to fly to the heights, but the support of the new things shall be raised. The possesser of meekness shall be injured2 by wickedness until he shall be clothed with his father. Thereafter he who is bound with the teeth of the woodland boar shall ascend the front of the mountain and the shade of the man who wears a helmet. Albany shall become angry, and by having called the sides3 shall strive to shed blood. In his mouth shall be put a bridle that is made in the lap of Brittany; the eagle of the break of the alliance shall gild that, and shall rejoice in her third nest. Then the lion’s cubs shall arise and after they have neglected the groves they shall hunt within the walls of the cities. And they shall make no small slaughter of those who oppose them, and shall cut the tongues of the bulls. They shall oppress with iron4 chains the necks of those who roar, and shall make new the ancient4 ages. Thence from the first to the fourth, from the fourth to the third, from the third to the second, the thumb shall be turned in oil. The sixth shall uproot the walls of Ireland / and shall change its groves5 into tranquillity.136b He shall bring various parts into one and shall be crowned with the head of the lion. His beginning shall crowd6 together to vanity
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but his end shall fly to sublimity.1 He shall renew the seats of the blessed throughout the countries, and shall place the shepherds in fitting places. Two cities shall put on two mantles, and maiden2 gifts shall he give to the maidens. For that he shall merit the praise of the Almighty and shall be placed among the blessed.

“From him shall proceed a lynx who shall perforate everything; he shall shine forth in the fall of his own nation. Through him Normandy shall lose the two islands and shall be spoiled of her old dignity. Then the citizens shall return to the island, for the disunion of the strangers shall appear. The old white man on a pale horse shall certainly turn the river Perydon, and with a white rod shall measure a mill on it. Cadwaladr shall call Conan and shall take Albany into his fellowship. Then there shall be a slaughter of the foreign races and the rivers shall run with blood. Then the mountains of Brittany shall break and / the Britons shall be crowned with the scepter.137 Then Cambria shall be filled with joy and the might of Cornwall shall become green. The island shall be named from the name of Brutus and the name of the strangers shall fail. From Conan shall come a warlike boar who shall sharpen the ends of his teeth within the groves of France. He shall raise up all of the mightiest and shall give protection to the least. Arabia and Africa shall fear him, for his attack shall extend to the furthest parts of Spain. Next to him shall come a buck of the amorous castle, having a beard of silver and horns of gold. From his nostrils he shall breathe such vapors that he shall darken the whole island. There shall be peace in his time
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and the grains shall multiply from the fruitfulness of the sod. The women in their walk shall become serpents, and each step of theirs shall be filled with pride. Then the castles of fornication shall be renewed, and the arrows of avarice shall not cease to wound. The running fountain1 shall turn to blood, and two kings shall combat for the lioness of Stafford. Every soil shall be in heat, and mankind shall not cease from fornication.2 Every thing of that three ages shall watch, until the king / buried in London is uncovered.137b A second time hunger3 and the death of the people shall return, and the citizens shall grieve over the desolation of the cities. Then shall come the boar of commerce who shall call the multitudes (?) to their lost grazing-places. His breast shall be food to those who are in need, and his tongue shall give peace to the thirsty.4 From his mouth streams shall flow, which shall refresh the withered lips of men. Then on the tower of London shall be created a tree with three branches which shall darken the whole island by the breadth of its leaves. The north wind shall rise against it, and shall tear away the third branch with its wicked breath. The two, however, shall remain and shall take the place of the one that is torn off, until one defiles the other by the multitude of its leaves. Then, however, the one shall take the place of the two, and shall support the birds of the furthest kingdoms. To the birds of the country it shall be oppressive,5 for they shall lose their free flying out of fear of its shade.

“Next to him shall come the ass of wickedness, quick in the work of gold, and sluggish against the ravening of wolves. In his days the oaks shall burn in the groves,6 and acorns shall grow on the branches of the lime-tree. The Severn sea shall run through seven
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doors and the River Usk shall take a breeze1 for seven months. Its fishes shall die of the heat / and from them shall be created snakes.138 Then the bath of Badon shall grow cold and their flowing waters shall breed death. London shall lament the death of twenty thousand, and the River Thames shall be changed into blood. The owner of a cowl shall be invited to the marriage feasts, and his voice shall be heard as far as the Alps.

“Three fountains shall spring up out of Winchester; their streams shall divide the island into three parts. Whoever drinks of one of them shall live a long life, and shall not be oppressed with feebleness thereafter. Whoever drinks of the second shall perish of grievous hunger and in his face his paleness shall be marvellous. Whoever drinks of the third shall perish by sudden death, and his body shall not remain in a grave. Those who wish to escape that tempest shall strive to conceal themselves in various hiding-places. With this, whatever weight shall have been put upon them shall take the form of another body, for earth shall turn into stones, stones into wood, wood into ashes, ashes into water, what is cast on top shall change to the bottom. After this a maiden from the city of the grey grove shall be raised up to give a cure for that, and after / every art has been tried,138b she shall dry up the hurtful2 fountains with her own breath. Then, that she may heal with her curative medicine, she shall take the Grove of Celidon in her right hand and the strength of the walls of London in her left. Wherever she walks she shall make sulphurous steps which nourish a double flame. That smoke shall rouse up the men of Rutenia, and shall make food for those under the seas.
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She shall be fed1 with miserable tears and the island shall be filled with a terrible shriek. The stag of ten branches shall kill her; four of them shall bear gold crowns; the other six shall be turned into buffalo horns which shall rouse up the three islands of Britain with their damned sound. Then the Grove of Danet shall dry up and shall break out in crying with a human voice. ‘Draw near, O Cambria, and press Cornwall to your side, and say to Winchester, “The earth shall swallow you. Move the seat of the shepherd to the place where ships land and let the other members follow the head, for the day is hastening in which the / perjured dwellers of the cities shall fail.” ’139

“The whiteness of the wool shall do harm,2 and the various colors of it. Woe to the perjured nation, for a splendid city shall fall because of her! The ships shall rejoice at so great an addition, and one of two things shall be. A hedgehog loaded with apples shall build that anew; at the smell of them the birds of various groves shall fly. A great road shall run to the palace, and it shall be strengthened with six hundred towers. London shall be jealous of that, and shall add to her walls threefold. Thames shall surround her on all sides and the story of these deeds shall traverse the Alps. The hedgehog shall hide his apples in her, and shall make a road to her3 under the ground. In that time the stones shall speak and the sea on which men go to France shall be narrowed for a long time. From the two shores men shall hear each other, and the strength of the island shall be lengthened. Then shall be told the secret of the seas, and France shall tremble for fear. After that,
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from the Grove of Calatir shall come a heron, who shall go around the island for two years.139b / With nightly crying she shall call to the birds, and every sort of bird shall keep company with her. They shall rise up in the cultivation of mortals,1 and shall swallow all the grains of the corn. Thence shall come a famine on the people, and after the famine a terrible death. When that great misfortune shall cease, that marvellous bird shall seek the Valley of Galabes and shall there ascend the lofty mountain; on the top of it she shall plant oaks and in their branches she shall make her nest. She shall lay three eggs in the nest; from them shall come a fox, a wolf, and a bear. The fox shall swallow his mother and shall put on himself an ass’s head. Thereafter what he has taken shall appear2 and he shall terrify his brothers, driving them in flight to Normandy. And after they awaken the tusked boar they shall return from the sea voyage to walk together [= congredi] with the fox. When he goes to do battle he shall make himself out dead; and the falsehood of the boar shall raise him up. Straightway he shall go to the corpse and when he comes over it he shall spue3 in its eyes and its face. This is what the fox, without forgetting4 his accustomed treachery, does—bite his left foot and tear it all from his body. He shall make a jump and shall snatch the right ear of the fox and his tail, and shall conceal himself in the caves of the mountain.140 / At that the deceived boar shall seek the wolf and the bear to restore to him his lost members. They, after coming into the controversy, shall promise him two feet of the fox and his ear and his tail, and from them shall be made boar’s members for him. He shall rest and
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wait for the restoration which was promised. Meantime the fox shall come down from the mountains and take the form of a wolf, and as though he were talking1 with the boar shall craftily swallow him all up. Then he shall take the form of a boar and, as though without members, he shall wait for his cousin. And after they come to him, he shall kill them with unexpected teeth and shall be crowned with the head of the lion. In his days shall be born the serpent2 who appears from the death of mortals. With his length he shall surround London, and shall swallow those who go by. A mountain ox shall take the wolf’s head and shall whiten his teeth in the smithy of Severn. He shall take into his company the multitudes of Albany and Cambria, who shall dry up the River Thames with their drinking. The ass shall call the buck with the long beard and shall change his shape. The one from the mountain shall be angry when the wolf is called, and shall mangle the horns of the bull in them. After he has given up indulging his cruelty he shall swallow their flesh and their bones, and shall be burned on the top of Mount Urian.140b / The sparks of the3 burning shall be changed into swans, who shall swim in the dry as in the rivers. They shall swallow fishes in the fishes, and shall devour men in the men. In their old age brightness shall be made4 under the sea, and they shall fashion treachery under the seas. They shall sink the ships and shall gather together no little silver. Thames shall flow a second time, and after the rivers have been called he shall flow beyond the bound of his channel. The nearest cities he shall hide and shall move the opposing mountains. He shall win to him the Fountain of Galabes, full of treachery and wickedness. From that shall be born the treason to call the Venedotians to the fights.
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The strength of the groves shall agree with the slates, with the men of the South they shall walk together [= fight?]. The raven shall go there with the kites and shall swallow the bodies of the slain. An owl shall build a nest on the walls of Gloucester and in her nest shall be born an ass. The serpent of Malvern shall nourish him and shall stir him up in many treasons. The scepter taken, he shall climb the heights, and shall terrify the people of the country with a terrible reverberation. In his days the mountains shall move and the / commots shall be despoiled of their groves.141 For a worm with fiery breath1 shall come, who shall burn the trees when their moisture is expelled. From him shall come seven lions, ugly with the heads of bucks. The stench of their nostrils shall corrupt the women and shall make private things common. The father shall not know his own son for they shall satisfy their lust2 in the manner of animals.

“After that shall come a giant of wickedness who shall pierce3 every one with the sharpness of his eyes. Against him shall arise the dragon of Worcester and shall confirm his destruction. And then they shall walk together and the dragon shall be overcome,4 and shall be oppressed by the wickedness of the victor; for he shall mount upon the dragon and, having taken off5 his clothing, shall sit naked. He shall grow bold under the thresholds of the dragon and shall smite the naked one6 with his upraised tail. Again the giant shall resume his superiority7 and with his sword he shall wound his jaws. Finally the dragon shall be bent under his tail and, poisoned, shall die.

“After him shall come the boar of Totnes and he shall oppress the people with his cruel path. Gloucester shall raise a lion
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who shall ride in / many battles in anger.141b He shall trample him under his feet and shall be pierced by the open jaws. Finally the lion shall have business with his kingdom and shall mount on the backs of the nobles. Thereupon a bull shall come into the business, and shall strike the lion with his right foot. He shall make discord of no avail throughout the island and shall break his horns on the walls of Exeter.1 A fox of Caerdubal shall avenge the lion and shall wholly consume him with his teeth. An adder of Lincoln shall encompass the fox, and in the presence of him and many dragons shall display his terrible hissing. Then the dragons shall return and one shall wound the other. The one with wings shall oppress the one without wings and shall press his poisonous claws into his jaws.2 Others shall come to the conflict and one shall slay the other. The fifth shall draw near to the slain and shall wound the rest by various deaths. He shall mount on the back of one and with a sword shall separate his head from his body. Having put off his clothes3 he shall mount another, and with his right hand he shall strike his bare tail. He shall raise himself upon him naked, since he could not avail when he was clothed. The others he shall torment from their back and shall drive them in the circuit of the kingdom. Thence shall come a timorous lion of great diligence;142 / thrice five parts he shall reduce to one, and he himself shall reign over the people. A giant shall shine forth as white as the color of snow, and the white people shall flourish. They shall recount the exploits of the princes, and those who have been subjugated shall be changed into horrible battles. In them shall be born a lion swollen with human gore;4 under him the sickles shall be put into the corn. While he is
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working with his mind he shall be oppressed by him. The cartmen of York shall pacify them, and the expelled lord shall mount the chariot which he guides.1 With the drawing of his sword he shall threaten the east, and the tracks of his wheels shall be filled with blood. After that he shall be a fish in the sea who, having called to him the hissing of the serpent,2 shall mate with it. After that shall be born three glittering bulls who shall be turned into trees after they have used up their pastures. The first shall wield a poisoned scourge and shall turn his back upon those born after him. These shall try to take the scourge from him and he shall be corrected by the last. Each one shall turn his face from the other until they cast away the poisoned cup. The cultivator of Albany shall draw near to them, he who, as regards his back, is like a serpent.142b / He shall empty the turning of the sod, and the corn of the country shall whiten. The serpent shall labor to pour out poison so that plants shall not come into the corn. The people shall fail because of a deadly tempest, and the walls of the cities shall be destroyed. Gloucester shall be given for healing, which the foster-daughter shall put among those who would whip her, for she shall use the balance of healing and shall quickly renew the island.3 After that two shall follow the scepter, whom the crowned4 dragon shall serve. Another shall come in iron and shall ride on the serpent which shall fly. Having made himself naked, he shall sit on his back and shall hit the right of his tail. His voice shall arouse the seas and the second shall cast his fear. Then the second shall keep company with the lion and they shall walk together with the increase of disputes. With transferred borrowed slaughters5
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he shall die and better is hideous satiety. Then shall come some one in a drum and harp, and shall brighten the fierceness of the lion. Therewith the nations of the kingdom shall make peace and shall call the lion to the balance. In his appointed seat he shall study the weights, / and he shall reach his two hands to Albany.143 Therewith the commots of the North shall be sad, and the doors of the temples shall shine. The starry wolf shall hire companions, and shall surround Cornwall with his tail. The knight in the chariot shall oppose him, he who shall change his people into a boar. With this the boar shall destroy the commots, and shall hide his head in the depths of the Severn. A man shall be clasped to a lion in wine,1 and the flashing of gold shall blind the eyes of the onlookers. The silver shall become white round about it and various businesses shall cease. In the government of the wine mortals shall be intoxicated, and after heaven shall be placed they shall look upon the earth. They shall turn the face of the stars from them and shall destroy their accustomed running.2 Those who are angry shall burn the corn and conglobate moisture shall be denied. The roots and the branches shall exchange functions and the novelty of these things shall be a marvel. The shining of the sun shall vex the amber of Mercury and shall be a terror to the beholders. Stilbon shall change the shield of Archadie, and Venus / shall call for a helmet3 from Mars. The helmet3 of Mars shall mix with the sky;143b the madness of Mercury shall cross his limits. Iron Orion shall make bare his sword and the maritime sun shall vex the sky. Jupiter shall walk his permitted paths, and Venus shall leave her appointed lines. From the star of Saturn shall come
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a jealousy and it shall slay mortals with crooked sickles. The numbers of twice six of the houses of the stars shall lament cross running like their guests. Gemini shall leave nature, letting loose their hold, and shall make the tub angry in the fountains. The bowels of the Pound shall hang1 neglected, until the Ram shall put his crooked horns under them. The tail of the Scorpion shall create sparks, and the Crab shall debate with the sun. The Virgin2 shall climb on the back of the Archer, and the refreshing3 flowers shall turn brown. The chariot of the moon shall trouble the Zodiac, and the Pleiades shall break out in lamentation. No one shall return to the service of Janus, but Adrianus shall conceal himself in the caves of the closed door. In the stroke of the spear the seas shall arise, and the old oath shall be renewed. The winds shall bruise each other with a horrible blast, and they shall mix the sound among the stars.” /

And then after Merlin had finished delivering this deep prophecy,144 all who had listened to him marvelled that the young boy should have so much knowledge.4 Vortigern asked Merlin what death should take him off. And then Merlin5 said to Vortigern, “Avoid the fire of the sons of Constantine6 if you can, for they are7 now spreading their sails on the shore of Brittany coming8 to the Isle of Britain to fight with the Saxons, and they shall conquer that damned9 people. And first they shall burn you in a tower, for you, in your deceit and your evil craft, betrayed their father and their brother and invited the Saxons10 here for the sake of getting help from them, which is a curse to you
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to-day, for two deaths are threatening you: namely, the Saxons who are conquering from you daily,1 and to-morrow of one mind shall come Ambrose and Uther to the shores of Totnes to land. And they shall redden the faces of the Saxons with their own2 blood, and after Hengest is killed Prince Ambrose shall be crowned; and that Ambrose shall rule the countries and renew the churches, and at length he shall be killed by poison.144b After him his brother Uther shall be crowned / and he also shall die of poison and that by the treachery and craft of the Saxons. And after him shall come the boar of Cornwall, and he shall swallow them all.” And it was no longer than the next day before Ambrose and Uther and ten thousand armed knights with them landed in the Isle of Britain. And when their coming was announced, all the Britons with one accord came together to Ambrose and swore allegiance to him.3

And then Ambrose took the crown of the kingdom and was consecrated king. And then he took counsel as to what he should do first, whether to attack Vortigern or attack the Saxons, and after consultation he decided to go after Vortigern toward Cambria. And after they had come to Archenfield they attacked Castle Goronw on the top of Mount Denarth,4 on the shores of the Wye, a river that comes from Mount Clorach, for Vortigern had fled to that spot. And after they had come there, they bore in mind that he had killed their father and their brother and had brought the pagan Saxons, damned deceitful traitors, to the Isle of Britain. And with that he said, “O nobles, fight fiercely of one mind against / that castle there.”145 And without delay they set fires round about the castle and burned it up, with whatever goods and men were in it. And Vortigern was killed and burned.

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The Lord’s age when Saint Bride was born1 was 463 years. And when Hengest heard2 that Vortigern was killed he was afraid, for he was hearing that there was not a man3 in France who could take a stroke from Ambrose without death. And along with this he was generous, and wise, and just, and virtuous, and brave,4 and merciful. Then the Saxons, for fear of Ambrose, fled until they were on the other side of5 the Humber. And there they fortified themselves and dwelt. When Ambrose heard2 this, he and his army with one mind went after them. And it was a grief to them to to see the churches destroyed by the Saxons. And he said, through God’s help, if he came back alive he would have the churches made6 as they had been at their best.7 When Hengest heard that Ambrose had come, he exhorted his men to fight manfully, and told them that Ambrose’s power of knights of Brittany was not great,8 and that they were not afraid of the Britons,9 for there were two hundred thousand armed men of them.145b And / then they came to a place that is called10 Beli’s field, with the intention of making a sudden deceptive attack on Ambrose. Nevertheless Ambrose did not avoid that place. And when they had come there, they drew up11 their army and arranged the men of Brittany in separate places and his own men intermingled with them. And he put the men of Demetia on the top of the hills beside them, and the men of Venedotia in the woods near by, so that Ambrose and his army could pursue the Saxons whichever way they fled. And on the other side Hengest was exhorting his men and giving them instructions. And then many were slain on both sides, and at last Hengest
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and his men fled to the place that was called Conan’s city, and they went into a castle there. And Ambrose followed them, killing them as he caught up with them. And then a second time they mustered their forces and killed many on all sides. And at length the army of the men of Brittany came at the Saxons and pierced them and scattered them, through the teaching of their leading men.1 And Eidol, Earl of Gloucester, was looking for Hengest, to contest with him. And at length the two met and dealt each other fierce blows, until the fire from their arms was seen like flashing lightning before thunder.2146 And as they were thus, behold Gorlois the earl / and his army coming toward them3 and straightway they scattered the Saxons. Then Eidol in that boldness took Hengest by the crest of his helmet and d r agged him into the midst4 of his own army, and at the top of his voice he said, “C rush the Saxons now that they have been beaten, for Hengest is taken by us.5 and from that time on the Saxons fled, and Octa Hengest’s son with a great part of the army fled from that place to York, and Ossa his cousin and another part of the army fled to Dumbarton and there they made a stand against Ambrose.

And after Ambrose had conquered them he took the city, and he remained there three days, having the bodies of those who were slain in his battle buried, and the wounded attended to, and casting off their weariness.6 And then Ambrose went to take counsel concerning Hengest. And in his council was Idwal Bishop of Gloucester—brother was he to Eidol Earl of Gloucester. And when he saw
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Hengest standing,1 he said, “Ha, nobles,” said he, “if every one of you should ask to free Hengest, I would kill him myself, as Samuel the Prophet did when he saw Agag King of Amalek in prison. He had him torn in small pieces, and spoke to him like this, ‘As you have made the sons motherless, I shall make your mother sonless.’ ”146b And then Eidol Earl of Gloucester took Hengest and went with / him outside the city walls to the top of a hill that was near the city, and he was killed and buried there, and a great barrow was made on the top of it2 as was the custom then in the place where a sowdan was buried.

And from there Ambrose went with his army to York to seek Octa. And then by the advice of his chieftains they took3 a chain in the hand of each one of them, and a piece of earth on the head of each one of them, and thus they went at the disposal of Ambrose and spoke to him like this, “Lord king,” said they, “our gods are conquered and we do not doubt that your God reigns, He who is forcing so many nobles as this under your control in this fashion. And here we are, lord, with a chain in the hand of each one of us, and in agreement,4 and we give ourselves up.5 And cause us to be bound, lord, if you desire to.” And then Ambrose went to take counsel concerning them. And then Bishop Idwal arose and spoke like this. “The Gibeonites6 came of their own free will to ask mercy of the people of Israel, and they got it. And our mercy is not worse than that of the Jews.” And then a compact was given to Octa
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and / to all the people who were with him.147 And then Ambrose gave them Scotland to dwell in, in eternal servitude to Ambrose and his heirs. And so they made peace. And after Ambrose had finished everything, he summoned all his earls and his barons and his archbishops and his bishops to York to take counsel with them. And the first advice he got was to have restored1 the churches which the Saxons had destroyed over the face of the kingdom and all this at the expense of Ambrose. And the fifteenth day after that he went to London, and there he caused the churches to be renewed, and the evil laws which were being observed to be amended: that is,2 he caused to be given to the sons and the grandsons and the great-grandsons what was really due them, in lands and territories which they used to own, and which had been taken away from them,3 and he upheld truth and justice in every place. And from there Ambrose went to Winchester to do there as he had done everywhere.

And after he had arranged everything4 there, and had pacified it, he went to Salisbury to see there the multitude of earls and barons and noble knights whom Hengest had slain through deceit. And there were there three hundred monks of the congregation in / the monastery of Ambri,147b for Ambri was the first to establish that monastery. And after the king had been told fully what had happened to the nobles5 who had been killed there, he was sorry because of it and because he saw6 that place as unadorned as he saw it. Then he had called to him all the stone-masons of the Isle Britain,7 and the carpenters, to devise8 an ornamental and enduring work
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that should stand forever over that sepulchre. And after all their ingenuity had failed them, Tramor Archbishop of Caerleon came to Ambrose1 and spoke like this. “Lord,” said he, “have Merlin, Vortigern’s bard, sought out for you, and he, lord, will devise a marvellous, ornamental work of unfailing ingenuity that will last forever.”

And then Ambrose caused Merlin to be sought for everywhere; and he was found at the edge of the fountain Galabes in the country of Ewias, for he was there frequently at that time. And after he had been brought before the king, the king was joyful over him and received him with honor. And then Ambrose asked him to speak in prophecy of what was to come. And then Merlin said, “Lord,” said he, “it is not right to speak of things like that unless there is need; and if I should speak, lord, when I did have need / of the spirit that instructs me he would flee from me.”148 And then the king did not desire to urge him longer2 than that, but3 he asked him what work he could devise there over the sepulchre that would last forever. This is what Merlin advised: to go to Ireland to the place called the Giants’ Circle on Mount Killara, for there there were4 stones of a marvellous appearance, “and there is no one, lord, in this age who knows anything about those stones. And they shall not be got by might or by strength, but by art. And if these stones were here as they are there, they would stand for ever.” And then Ambrose said, laughing,
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“In what fashion,” said he, “can they be brought from there?” And then Merlin said, “Do not stir yourself to laughter or mocking, for I speak nothing but1 seriousness and truth. The stones are stones of great virtues with various healing qualities, and the giants brought them there in former times from the furthest parts of Spain, and placed them in the fashion in which they are now. This is the reason they brought them there: when sickness came upon any of them they would make a bath in the center / of the stones, and then the stones were washed,2148b and that water was put in the bath, and any one of them who was sick, no matter what his sickness was, would be healed by going to the bath. And they put herbs into the bath, and by these herbs they healed their wounds.”

And when the Britons heard of the virtues of the stones, all urged him to go after them; and at once fifteen thousand armed men went to seek the stones, with Uther as chief over them and Merlin with them, for his learning was the best of the age he was in. And at that time Gillamuri was king in Ireland,3 and when Gillamuri4 heard that a fleet was on the Irish Sea he assembled an army and came against the Britons.5 And he sent to them and asked them the meaning of their coming there.6 And when he knew the heart of their business,7 he laughed and said, “No wonder,” said he, “that a sluggish nation can oppress the Isle of Britain, for they are mad when they come to Ireland to make the Irish nation fight with them8 over rocks.”149 And straightway they attacked each other / and
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fought fiercely and killed many of the Irish, and put to flight Gillamuri and those of his men who escaped. And the Britons went at once to the place where the stones were. And then Merlin said to them, “Now try the best arts you know to take the stones away from here.” And after each of them had tried according to his knowledge without it availing him anything,1 Merlin laughed and said, “This is to show2 that art is superior to strength.” And without exerting any effort in the world except his own deep skill he brought the stones from the place where they were until they were in the ships,3 and from the ships he easily came with them to Mount Ambri. And then Ambrose summoned thither all the earls and barons and noble knights and bishops and all4 the scholars in orders that there were, to adorn that place with splendid adornment. And then Ambrose put the crown of the kingdom on his head, and there he held the feast of Whitsuntide nobly and royally for three days at a stretch. And Ambrose gave what was right and just to every one of the noblemen of the Isle of Britain, and he satisfied every one with the quantity of his gifts as they entreated him,149b of gold and silver, and horses and arms, and land and territory. And at / that time there were two vacant archbishop-houses: namely, Caerleon on Usk5 and York. Then by agreement6 of that multitude the archbishopric of York was given to a man who was called Sampson, and to Dubric the archbishopric of Caerleon on Usk.7 And after everything there had been set in order, Ambrose asked Merlin to raise the stones as they were in Mount Kilara8 and Merlin raised them. And then everybody recognized that knowledge and skill were stronger
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than power and strength.

And at that time Pasgen Vortigern’s son had fled into Germany, and there he assembled an army, the largest he could get,1 to come against Ambrose in the Isle of Britain. And in return for coming he promised them every sort of wealth. And the men of Germany believed Pasgen and they came with him, a multitude of fleets, to the Isle of Britain,2 and they began to ravage the countries.3 And when Ambrose heard this, he assembled an army and came against Pasgen and his army, and drove them in shameful flight to Ireland. And then Gillamuri was king in Ireland,4 and he5 welcomed Pasgen, and each of them complained to the other about the sons of Constantine.6 And then the two came to an agreement, and came with fleets to land at Menevia,7 and they began to ravage. And when Uther heard this, he feared / greatly,150 because his brother Ambrose was sick in Winchester and he himself did not have a sufficient number8 to oppose Pasgen and Gillamuri too.9 And when these two men heard10 that Ambrose was sick they rejoiced, thinking that they could get the victory over Uther himself. And while they were at that, this is what11 one of the Saxons—Eppa was his name12—did: he came to Pasgen and asked him how much property he would give to the man who should bring about the death of Ambrose. “I will give,” said he, “a thousand pounds, and my friendship while I live. And if I should be king, I will honor him with land and territory so that he will be content.” And then Eppa said, “I know the language of the Britons, and their customs, and I know medicine. And for this reason give me assurance of that
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which you promised,1 and I shall bring about his death.” And then they exchanged oaths, and Eppa had his head and his beard shaved in the same style as a monk, and in that appearance2 he came to Ambrose’s court with medical instruments, and he showed himself to some of the men of the court and told them that he was a good physician.150b And nothing was then desired except / to get a good physician; and that was announced to Ambrose and straightway he came3 to Ambrose. And he at once prepared a drink for him and put poison in it, and Ambrose drank the drink4 on the spot.5 And the damned deceiver6 advised him to rest and to hide,7 so that he would absorb the poison8 more quickly. And Eppa slipped away from the court at once on the pretext of gathering simples, and he bade them leave the king to rest.9

And then there appeared a star of marvellous size with a single tail on it, and on the end of that tail there was a ball of fire in the likeness of a dragon. And from the mouth of that dragon two beams extended, and one of them was seen to extend over the furthest parts of France, and the other beam was seen over Ireland and dividing into seven small beams. And when that star appeared, all those who saw it over them feared greatly. And then Uther had all his wise men summoned to him and he asked them what that star signified. And then Merlin wept and said, “O this is the heaviest loss of the race of the Britons,10 one that cannot be made good, for you are bereft of / Prince Ambrose.151 And you are not bereft of the other king, for it is you, excellent Uther Pendragon, who are king. And therefore hasten to fight with your enemies and you will conquer them,
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and you will possess the whole of the island. And it is you whom the star that you saw signifies, and the fiery dragon under it. And the beam which extended1 over France signifies a son of yours, lord, and he shall conquer much of the world. And the other beam signifies a daughter you shall have, and her sons and her grandsons shall possess the Isle of Britain, one after the other.”

This is what Uther then did although he was doubtful about what Merlin had said to him: he attacked his enemies and fought fiercely and killed many on all sides. And at length Uther was victorious and drove Gillamuri and Pasgen in flight to their ships and to sea, killing their men as they were overtaken. And after that victory Uther went to Winchester because of the death of his brother Ambrose. And there came there the archbishops and the bishops and the abbots and the honorable scholars of the whole island.2 And then he3 was buried beside the monastery of Ambri within the Giants’ Circle. And after Ambrose was buried, Uther summoned those hosts to him and by the united voice of those nobles / Uther was chosen king.4151b

And then after Uther had been made king there came to his mind what Merlin had said about the star. And then Uther had made5 with artistry an image6 of two dragons of gold in the form he had seen on the end of the beam of the star.7 And one of these images he gave to the chief church in Winchester, and the other he had kept8 before him when he went to battles. And from that time forth he was called Uther Pendragon [dragon’s head].

This is what Octa, Hengest’s son, and his cousin Ossa, Horsa’s son,9151b did after
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Ambrose was dead: they invited to them Pasgen and as many fighting men as they could and they sent into Germany to seek help for them, for they were free from the pledge they had given to Ambrose. And after they had assembled to themselves unnumbered peoples,1 they conquered the countries as far as York. And as they were beginning to fight against the city, Uther and his army came up, and then they fought boldly and2 fiercely, and killed many3 and put the Saxons to flight; and the Britons followed them while day lasted, until they came to the place that is called Mount Damen,152 and that was a strong, high place with many stones. / And the Saxons fled there that night. And then Uther summoned his council and then Gorlois Earl of Cornwall rose and said,4 “Lord,” said he, “since our number is smaller than theirs5 and the night is dark, let us go all together against them and we will win over them cheaply.” And thus they did, and they captured the top of the mountain from the Saxons, and killed many of them, and captured Octa and Ossa and scattered all the others. And after that victory Uther went to Dumbarton, and from there he went about his whole realm, and he strengthened the laws until no one dared to do wrong to his fellow. And after he had settled every place, he went to London and had Octa and Ossa put in prison there. And then he had a great feast made ready there against Eastertide, and he invited all the earls and barons and noble knights that were in the Isle of Britain, and their wives with them. And Uther made them all welcome and seated them all according to their deserts. And they spent the feast in
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ease and enjoyment. And thither came Gorlois Earl of Cornwall, and his wedded wife Igerne daughter of Prince Amlawd. And there was not in the Isle of Britain / either wife or maiden as beautiful as she.152b When Uther saw her he was inflamed with love for her without being able to conceal it, and he would not for anything be without her. And he openly sent her dishes of food and frequent drinks of wine, and frequent1 witty words, until her husband knew of it. And that night when all went to sleep, they went to their lodging, and there she told her husband all the secret things the king had said to her. And then Gorlois became angry, and by common agreement they went that night toward Cornwall without the permission of the king. And after that had been told to the king he became angry, and sent a messenger2 after him to bid him come back, for it was a great insult to him3 to leave the court without his4 permission. And he did not return. And he sent the second messenger and he did not come.5 And he sent the third messenger, swearing that if he did not come he should be dispossessed by fire and iron. And he did not return in spite of that.

And straightway Uther assembled an army and attacked Cornwall and began to kill and burn. Then Gorlois,153 / since he did not have enough men so that he could resist him, strengthened his two castles and put his wife in the strongest castle—that was Tindagol Castle on the shore of the sea. And he himself went to Dimlot6 Castle, lest they should be overcome together.7 And after the king had received notice as to where Gorlois was, he went there, he and his army, and fought angrily and fiercely against the castle three days at a stretch. And in spite of that it did not avail him anything except the murderous loss of his men.
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And then after consultation they decided to withdraw from the castle and to divide themselves around it without letting any one either in or out,1 until they died of hunger. And after they had been there for a week, the king called to him his companion and fellow-knight Ulfin of Caradog’s Ford, and told him all his mind and his love for Igerne, and asked his advice about it. “Lord,” said he, “the best advice I know is to call Merlin Ambrose to us, and he will know how to advise us if anybody knows.” And then Merlin was summoned2 to them and was told all their secrets. / And then Merlin said,153b “Lord,” said he, “you will not succeed in getting the castle Igerne is in, by valor or by strength or by might, for it is on a rock on the shore of the sea, and there is but one road by which to come to it, and three knights could keep it against the whole world. And if that3 is what you want, lord, you must put on you the likeness of Gorlois, and Ulfin the likeness of Jurdan of Tintagol, a man4 dear to Gorlois, and I shall take the likeness of Brithael, Gorlois’s chamberlain, and no one will know that we are not Gorlois and his two dear friends.”

And then he commanded the army to keep good watch about the castle until they came back to them. And then Merlin changed their appearance as has been said above, and then went at dusk to the gate of the castle of Tintagol5 and told the porter that Gorlois was at the gate. The porter announced this to his lady and then came to them with a light and received them honorably, and at once6 that night they went to sleep. And Uther devoted himself,
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in that false semblance, to fulfilling / the desire of his flesh upon Igerne.154 And he said to her that he had come by stealth to visit her, and he could not for anything refrain from coming. And she believed that. And that night Igerne conceived, and from that conception Arthur was born. And when the army knew that the king was not with them, they fought angrily against the fortress without taking advice concerning them. (?) And then Gorlois came out, and his men with him, and fought with them boldly and fiercely and killed many on all sides. And then Gorlois was killed, and his men who were not killed were scattered in flight.1 And straightway word was brought to Igerne that her lord Gorlois had been killed and the castle had been taken. And then he2 laughed and said to her, “Lady,” said he, “I am not killed yet,” and he gave her a kiss. “And since they do not know anything about me they think I am killed. And lady” said he, “it is best for us, as soon as we can,3 to place ourselves at the disposal of the king, for we have lost our men and our strength and we cannot contest with him, and if we seek his mercy I am sure that he will not deny it to us.” “Lord,” said she, / “do as you will.”154b And then they saw the army coming toward them. And then Uther and his two companions with him went to the army in their own form, and the keys of the castle with them. And he was grieved over the fact that Gorlois was killed, and glad over the other thing.

And then after everything was settled4 Uther took Igerne as his wedded wife. And she had by him a son and a daughter, namely Arthur and Anna his sister.5 And then directly after that6 Uther fell sick of a grievous disease and he was sick for a long time until7 the
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men who had been left to guard1 Octa and Ossa in London became angry, and then they struck up an agreement with the prisoners, and set them free,2 and went with them to Germany. And after this had been told to Uther,3 he was very angry lest they should come back from Germany with aid to try to conquer the Isle of Britain. And that is what they did.

After they had got their fleet ready, they came to land in Albany and they began to ravage that country and to burn it.4 And after that had been told to the king, he ordered Lot Kynvarch’s son to go as chief of the army to fight the Saxons, for he / was Uther’s son-in-law through his daughter,155 and was a great, handsome, wise, eloquent, generous, brilliant man, and he loved truth and hated the lie. And after there had been many battles between them, the Saxons often defeated them, and sometimes they the Saxons,5 until the island was near going to ruin. And after Uther had been told that the earl could not subdue the Saxons, his anger was greater than his suffering from the disease. And then he summoned to him all the nobles of the island and reproached them for their slackness against the Saxons. And then he had a litter made for himself, and had himself carried on it before the army. He was taken to the city of Verolam, for the pagan Saxons had come thither to kill and burn.6

When Octa and Ossa heard that Uther was coming against them sick on a litter, they were merry and glad and mocked him with scornful7 words, and called him a half-dead man. And the Saxons went inside the city and left the gates open, out of disregard and
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scorn for Uther and his army. When Uther knew that, he had them followed in, and / he fought bravely with them,155b and he surrounded the city and killed many on all sides until night came. And the next morning the Saxons came outside of the fortifications and fought fiercely against the Britons until the day was far advanced. And in the end, however, the Britons were victorious, and then Octa and Ossa were killed and the others fled shamefully. And then the king for joy raised himself until he was sitting up, and before that he could not, except as he was turned in his bed. And he said through his laughter,1 “Those damned deceitful traitors called me a half-dead man, and the half-dead man who is victorious is better than the live man who is defeated, and it is more precious2 to die famous than to live3 in great and shameful disgrace.”

And after that victory4 the rest of the Saxons who escaped above5 gathered together in Albany and began to make war as before. And Uther desired to follow them, and his advisors would not permit him to, because of his illness and lest he be hurt on the litter. And therefore the Saxons were braver in harrying than before.6 And then after peace had been made7 the Saxons thought about causing the death of Uther, and they sent some of them in the guise of paupers8 / to talk with him.156 They heard that Uther would not drink any drink except water of a fountain that was near the city of Verolam. They poisoned the fountain and the places adjacent to it until one could not get any of the water without poison in it. And then the hour that Uther touched9 the water he died, both he and all who touched it.

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And when the Britons knew that about the fountain, they had it closed with stones and lime, and they made a great mound of earth over it lest any of the water should come out of it. And from there they went to bury the body of Uther in the Giants’ Circle beside his brother Ambrose. That was four hundred and ninety-one years of Christ’s age. And after the Saxons knew that Uther had been killed1 they sent into Germany to seek aid to win the Isle of Britain. There came to them a great fleet and Colcrin as leader over them, and they conquered from Humber to Cape Blathaon. And after the nobles of the Isle of Britain knew of the oppression2 of the Saxons,156b they assembled together clergy and laity in Silchester to / take counsel concerning3 the Saxons. And then after deliberation they decided to make Arthur king, and that because of their great affliction, for Arthur was then but fifteen years of age.4 There was not, however, so far as they had heard, any man5 his equal in excellence, since he was generous, and wise, and brave, and agreeable, and merry when it was time, and serious when there was need, and in short, truly and properly, God did not make6—after the nine men who were made from Adam—a man as complete as Arthur in good feats,7 and that God gave him8 as an innate gift. And Arthur did not get as much property as9 he gave away, for he would not let any of those who came to ask goods of him10 go away empty handed. And who ever has natural good11 in him, God will not permit him to suffer continual12 need.

And after Arthur had been made king by Dubric Archbishop of Caerleon on Usk,13 and had been consecrated and the crown had been put on his head
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the Lord’s age was then 498 years, and then,1 because of the affliction2 of the Saxons pressing on them, Arthur gathered an army and went to York. When Colcrin heard that, he gathered an army of Saxons and Scots and Picts, and came against them on the bank of Dulas with a great army, and there they fought boldly and fiercely and stoutly and strongly, and killed many on all sides. And finally, however, Arthur got the victory,3 / and drove Colcrin and those of his army who escaped in flight to York,157 and Arthur shut them up there. When Baldulf Colcrin’s brother heard that, where he was on the sea-shore waiting for the coming of Celdric Prince of Germany with help for them, he was greatly grieved and hastened there with six thousand armed men until he was within ten miles of York, and he wanted to make4 a night attack on Arthur and his army. And when that had been told to Arthur,5 he sent Cador Earl of Cornwall with six hundred horsemen and three thousand footmen to get ahead of them on the road. And that he did.6 And after he had met them, Cador fought with them fiercely and angrily, and killed many of them and scattered them and put them to flight.

And then Baldulf grieved that he could not help his brother, and he took thought as to what manner he might visit with him.7 And he had his beard and his head shaved and went in the guise of a minstrel and took a harp in his hand,8 and went through the camp until he came beneath9 the city walls, and there he cried out and played until he was recognized from the walls. And then they threw ropes to him and pulled him in over the wall, and his brother welcomed him. And then they took thought /
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by what trick they might free themselves from there.157b And as they were taking counsel1 about that, behold their messengers coming from Germany with six hundred ships full of armed men, and Cheldric as prince over them, coming to land in Albany. When Arthur heard that, he left York and went to London, and there he called all his nobles together to him to seek advice. And after consultation, they decided to send2 to Howel the son of Emir of Brittany—he was Arthur’s nephew his sister’s son, and king in Brittany—to ask help from him. Howel came to him3 with fifteen thousand armed men to help him, and Arthur welcomed him. And then after consultation, they decided to go to Caer Llwyt Coet where the Saxons were—others called it Lindesey, or in another language4 Lincoln. And then straightway they fought with the Saxons boldly and fiercely, and in this battle5 there were lost six thousand of them,6 between killing and drowning. And those of them that escaped fled to the wood of Celidon,7 and Arthur following them thither. And then there was a fierce battle between them,158 and many were slain on all sides, for there / the Britons were wounded from the shade of the oaks. And then Arthur had the oaks cut down and put on high stumps round about the Saxons, and so shut them in there three days and three nights at a stretch without either food or drink. And then, lest they should die of hunger, they gave up all their treasure to Arthur, and tribute from Germany every year, in return for being allowed to go free to their country; and they gave hostages on that.

And after they had gone on the face of the deep, they repented
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of their agreement with Arthur, and they turned their sails until they came to land in the harbor of Totnes. And then they ravaged that country as far as the Severn, and from that to Bath; and there they surrounded the city and fought against it mightily. And when Arthur heard that, he caused their hostages to be hanged. And he went away from the Scots and the Picts. And he left Howel the son of Emyr of Brittany,1 his nephew, sick of a serious illness in Dumbarton among his enemies, and he came against the Saxons at Bath, and he spoke to them like this: “Truly, treacherous robbers,” said he, “you have not kept faith with me; I shall not keep it with you.”158b And then Dubric Archbishop of Caerleon went to the top / of a high hill and said, as loud as he could, “O nobles,” said he, “as many of you as are of the Christian faith, remember to-day to avenge the blood of your kinsmen upon the damned pagans, and by God’s help and His protection of you you will overcome them, and the labor you expend in defending your true rights shall be a washing away of your sins.”

And then they all2 put their armor upon them. And then Arthur put on a corslet that was fit for a king, and on his head a golden helm with the image of a dragon of gold on it; and a shield that was called Gwenn3 with the image of the Lady Mary4 on it and her name written on it, and this Arthur5 called to mind when he went into distress [and] trouble. And by his side6 he put a sword called Caletvulch,7 and it was the best sword of the Isle of Britain, and it had been made in the Isle of Avalon.8 And in his hand he put a lance which was called Ron Gymhynieit.9 And after they had all10 finished putting on their armor, with the blessing of the archbishop
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they attacked their enemies and fought fiercely with them, killing them throughout the day until night came. And when night did come they sought the top of a mountain that was near them, thinking that they would be able to hold out on the top of that mountain.1 And when the next day came, Arthur came with his army and took the top of the mountain from them. And he fought2 with them fiercely, and the Saxons held their ground well until there was little of the day left.159 And / then Arthur became angry and drew Caletvulch, calling to mind the name of Mary, and with a quick rush he attacked his enemies manfully, and whoever met with him in that rush he killed him with a single blow. And Arthur did not rest until he had killed four hundred and seventy of the Saxons, one after another. And when the Britons saw that, they boasted, and called their strength to them and went along with him. And then at last Colcrin and Baldulf his brother were slain and many thousands with them. And then Celdric fled with those of his army who escaped.

And then Arthur bade Cador Earl of Cornwall follow after them with ten thousand armed men. And Arthur went to Dumbarton, for he heard that the Picts and the Scots were seeking to capture the city.3 Cador and his army sought the ships of the Saxons and he filled them with his own men. And then like a rushing lion he followed them into the Isle of Thanet. And there Celdric their prince was slain, and those of the army who escaped being killed were forced to be4 perpetual captives. And after Cador
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had conquered them there he came to Arthur in Dumbarton. And there Arthur forced the Scots and the Picts to flee to Moray,159b and that / was the third flight which Arthur and Howel made1 on them. And from there they fled to Loch Lomond. And in that lake there were sixty islands, and sixty rivers came to it from the mountains of Pictland, and they went to the sea in one river and Leven was its name. And in each of these islands is a great high rock and in each rock there is usually an eagle’s nest.2 And when those eagles come together to cry on the top of one rock, then the men of that country will know3 that an oppression of another country is coming to that kingdom. Arthur had ships brought there by ropes, and he had them surrounded and shut up there for a fortnight continually, until thousands of them were almost4 dead of hunger. And when they were in that state, behold Gillamuri King of Ireland, coming with a great fleet5 of the Irish6 to help them,7 for they came of the same language and the same race.8 When Arthur saw that, he left the Scots and the Picts and fought with Gillamuri and drove him in flight to Ireland. And as soon as he could, Arthur came back to trample on9 the Scots and the Picts.160 / And then all the archbishops and bishops and abbots and priors10 that there were came in their sacred vestments and fell on their knees before Arthur to ask him to have mercy on that people,
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and to take those of them who had escaped into eternal servitude to him,1 and to leave them their lives. And this Arthur did through that prayer of the nobles.

And after peace had been made between them,2 Howel son of Emyr of Brittany3 went to see the nature of the lake, and its surroundings. And then Arthur said4 to him, “Near here is a lake that is more marvellous than this. This is what it is like: twenty feet long and twenty broad and five feet deep, with four kinds of fish in the lake,5 one in each corner6 of the lake, and one of them never mixes with another. And there is another lake,” said Arthur, “near Cambria on the shore of the Severn, and it is called Lake Lliwan. And when the sea fills, it swallows up the sea like a whirlpool, and its banks are not hidden, no matter how much water goes into it. And when the ocean turns, this fills and swells like a great mountain, throwing out waves.160b And whoever / meets the waves with his face to the lake will scarcely escape with his life; and if his back should be to the lake he will not be harmed,7 no matter how close to it he may be.”

And from there Arthur came to York, and he held Christmas court there. And when he saw the churches destroyed and all the men8 of learning killed by the Saxons, he was grieved. After consultation he decided to make Eppir, his family priest, archbishop in York, and to have all the churches made anew and congregations and priests9 put in them to serve God fittingly through men and women. And he compensated all those
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whom the Saxons had deprived of what was rightfully theirs.1 And then Arthur gave Scotland to Arawn son of Kynvarch, and the Earldom of Lindesey to Lot son of Kynvarch, because he was Arthur’s son-in-law2 by his sister, and she was the mother of Gawain and Modred.3 And to Urien the son of Kynvarch was given the country that was called Rheged. And after Arthur had settled the Isle of Britain in the best way it had ever been,4 he sought as his wife Guinevere the daughter of Ogvran the giant; and her mother was descended from the nobles / of Rome,161 and Cador Earl of Cornwall had brought her up, and she was more beautiful than any wife or maiden5 of her time.

And then Arthur prepared a fleet against the coming6 summer, to go to Ireland; and when the time came Arthur went to Ireland.7 And against him came Gillamuri with his army to seek to fight8 with him; and he had no success,9 but he fled and in that fight he was captured and he had to do homage10 to Arthur, he and his whole army. And then he11 went to Iceland and conquered that country without delay.12 And when the kings of the other islands heard that Arthur was conquering wherever he came,13 and no one could prevent him, Doldav King of Sweden and Gwynwas King of Orkney came of their own accord to do homage to Arthur and to give him tribute every year. And after the winter had gone by, Arthur returned to the Isle of Britain, and there he remained continuously for twelve years,14 resting. And then he had them summon to him praiseworthy and approved men15 of every country,161b / to increase
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his retinue and his household. And then his praise, and that of his soldiers, for man ners and courtesy and generosity1 flew until he was renowned over the face of the-kingdoms from here to Rome, and there was neither king nor lord, neither earl nor baron,2 who could be compared to Arthur, and until every king was afraid that he would be conquered by him. And for this reason every king3 had his castles strengthened, and other new ones made, out of fear of him. When Arthur heard that, he thought that he would perfect4 by his deeds the fame that had come to him by report, and his intention was nothing less than to conquer all Europe—that is, a third of the whole world. And then there was not a king or a lord this side of Rome who was not seeking to school himself in the manners and courtesy of Arthur’s court.

And then Arthur had a fleet prepared to go to Norway, for Asychelym King of Norway had died. And he had bequeathed his kingdom to his nephew Lot son of Kynvarch. And the Norwegians did not want him, but chose Rickulf as king over them and strengthened themselves in their castles to seek to keep the country from them.162 / And then Gawain son of Lot son of Kynvarch,5 twelve years old, was in the service of Pope Supplicius, and Arthur his uncle, his mother’s brother, had sent him there to learn manners and courtesy and knighthood from the men of Rome. And that pope was the first who ever gave arms to Gawain.6 And when Arthur came to the land of Norway, behold Rickulf with a great army. And they attacked each other
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and killed many on all sides. And at last Arthur won and killed Rickulf, and conquered the whole country. And he conquered Denmark and forced that nation to do homage to him. And then he left Lot Kynvarch’s son as king in Norway, and he himself1 came to the Isle of Britain.

And from there Arthur2 went with a fleet to France and began to conquer France.3 And against him came Frollo, the man who then possessed France4 under Leo the Emperor of Rome, with a great army. And he fought with Arthur boldly and angrily,5 and he had no success,6 for Arthur’s knights were more numerous and also better than his.7 And then Frollo fled to Paris and collected an army to him,8 and closed the city on him. / And then Arthur came and surrounded the city,162b and hemmed them in for a month continuously until many died of hunger. And then Frollo grieved at that, and sent to Arthur to propose to him that they should both go to an island in the sea,9 which was near there, to fight, and the stronger10 of the two of them should take the realm of the other, and leave the two armies idle. Nothing pleased Arthur better than that, and they came11 to the island, both equipped with horses and arms, and the two armies were watching them. Immediately Frollo attacked Arthur angrily with his spear; then Arthur avoided that stroke and quickly charged on Frollo, and Frollo was not slow in falling to the ground. And then Arthur drew his sword and tried to kill Frollo. Then Frollo rose up boldly and quickly,
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and killed Arthur’s horse, and then Arthur fell to the ground. And when the Britons saw that, it was hard for them to restrain their tempers from breaking the treaty with the French. And then1 Arthur got up angrily and quickly, and turned his shield between him and Frollo’s blow,2163 and then they exchanged / blows fiercely and mightily, and each of them trying3 to kill the other as best he could. And when Frollo got a chance to give a blow to Arthur, he gave it to him until4 his blood ran down his face and his breastplate. And then Arthur became angry, and in his anger he raised Caletvulch with all his strength and struck Frollo on the top of his head until he split him and his armor to the middle of his girdle, and until Frollo fell dead to the ground and beat the earth with his heels,5 and let out his spirit with the breeze.

And then Arthur took the homage of all France, and after he had got the victory there he6 divided his army into two parts. And the one half he gave to his nephew Howel, son of Emyr of Brittany,7 to go to conquer Poitou, and the other half for himself to go to conquer Gascony and Anjou. And then Gwittard Prince of Poitou was forced to do homage to him.8 And Arthur was nine years in conquering those countries. And after that was done he went to Paris to hold9 court there.10 And he invited to him all the princes of the islands and their wise men, both their scholars and their laymen.163b And by agreement11 of all that number, good laws were made12 / and maintained13 over the face of the kingdom.14

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And then Arthur gave to Bedivere his chief butler the Earldom of Normandy, and to Kay his chief officer the Earldom of Anjou, and to all of his nobles besides these as they deserved, and by generosity and love he bound them in one thought and one energy with himself. And after he had settled these countries and spring was at hand, he came1 back to the Isle of Britain again. When Christ’s age was five hundred and thirty-five years,2 Theophilus the scholar was trampled under foot3 by the devil; and through the virtue of the Lady Mary he was strengthened [against him] who had put him in subjugation to him.4

And after Arthur had come to the Isle of Britain he held his court at Caerleon on Usk, for that was the fairest place in the Isle of Britain, and the most wealthy, and the most suitable for a king to hold a feast5 in. For on the one side of the city was a large, beautiful, noble river so that ships from the furthest parts of the world could come as far as was proper.6 And on the other side of the city were fair broad meadows, level and dry, and beautiful pleasant7 forests and fair, high, splendid hills. And within the city were / fair, royal houses and that city was compared to Rome,8164 and in it were two great and distinguished churches; one of them was consecrated in the name of Julius the martyr, and that was a monastery of virgins, and the other was consecrated in the name of Aaron the martyr, and that was a monastery of canons. And the third archbishop-house of the Isle of Britain was there. And there were there of schools, two hundred schools of various arts, and there were there especially the seven arts, for Caerleon on Usk was then the chief place of schools of the Isle of Britain.9

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And then Arthur had an immense feast prepared at Whitsuntide, and he sent messengers to every country to invite the kings and the earls and the barons and the noble knights, and other goodly nobles innumerable besides that, to come1 to Caerleon to be given the best honors they had ever had, as their noble descent and their deserts and their blood might appear. And then there came from Albany Arawn son of Kynvarch, King of Scotland, and Urien son of Kynvarch, King of Rheged. And from Venedotia Caswallaun Longhand, and Merrick King of Demetia, and Cador Earl of Cornwall, and the three archbishops of the Isle of Britain. And the chief over these was the Archbishop of Caerleon, for he had the dignity of a legate2 and he was a heavenly,164b holy3 / man. And then there came Morud Earl of Gloucester, and Mor Earl of Worcester, and Anarawt of Shrewsbury, and Marchudd of Durham, and Owen of Vallawc’s City—or Salisbury in the other language4—Gursalem of Cynvarch’s City, and Urien of Bath, and Jonathal of Dorchester, and Bosso of Oxford, and Dunod, son of Pabo the Support of Pictland, Ceneu Coel’s son, Peredur Pruth’s son, Griffith Nogoed’s son, Regin Clawd’s son,5 Kynvarch, Gorbonian, Edlym Clydawc’s son, Cyngar Angen’s son, Maxwic the Lame, Rhun Nurthon’s son, Gurgant, Gweir Gwedyl’s son,6 Cadvan, and with them many other nobles whom it would be too tedious to number. From the other islands came7 Gillamuri King of Ireland, and another Gillamuri King of Alont,8 and Doldav King of Sweden, and Melwas King of
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Orkney, and Lot, Kynvarch’s son, King of Norway, and Achel, King of Denmark. From beyond the sea came Holdin Prince of Rutenia, Burel Prince of Conoman, Leodegar of Boulogne, Bedivere Prince of Normandy, Kay the Tall1 Prince of Anjou,165 Gwitard Prince of Poitou, and the twelve peers of France / with Geraint of Chartres as their leader, and Howel the son of Emyr of Brittany, and with them many others, to tell of the dignities2 of whom, each one separately, would be too tedious. But in short and truly I say3 never did so many noble men and noble women, fine horses and birds and dogs, and jewels of great price, and gold vessels and splendid clothes of brocaded silk and purple and sendal4 and ermine come to one feast5 as came there. And from Spain to this place,6 of those who did not come out of love for Arthur or because of his invitation, there was not a man who wanted property who did not come there to receive it joyfully according to his wish and desire—all sorts of gifts, many and abundant, of every kind of goods that every one wanted.7 And there came there many to look at8 the customs and manners of Arthur’s court of noble men and noble women.

And after the hosts mentioned above had assembled there, the three archbishops were called to robe Arthur and put9 the crown upon his head. And then they bade Dubric Archbishop of Caerleon celebrate the mass.165b And when they had finished robing Arthur and had gone to the church, two archbishops held up his royal / robes about him.10 And before him were four11 men bearing four naked swords
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(namely Arawn Kynvarch’s son, King of Albany, and Caswallaun Longhand, King of Venedotia, and Merrick King of Demetia, and Cador Earl of Cornwall), for this was their privilege by the custom of the emperor. And the congregations were singing various songs all about them to the most beautiful and most harmonious notes music was ever sung to.1 And in another place2 the queen was going to the church clad in royal robes with a crown of laurel about her head, and bishops and nuns with her. And before her were the four wives of the four men mentioned above, each of them with a pure-white dove in her hand. And after they had come3 to the churches,4 then the divine services5 were begun by the best clerks and in the most beautiful notes men had ever sung.6 And then all the men7 were seen running from one church to the other to listen to the delightful songs, because they were so delightful everywhere that they did not know where they were the most delightful.8

166And after the service was finished, they came to the court and took off their royal robes and put on lighter clothing, and went into the hall to dine. And to one part9of the hall went Arthur and all10 his guests to dine, and to the other part9 of the hall went Guinevere11 and the women with her as was the custom then when a king held his court with guests on a special festival. And after all had been given seats according to their rank, then Kay and a thousand men with him got up to serve from the kitchen, each with a robe of ermine about him.

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And in another place Bedivere the chief butler, with a thousand men all adorned with the same kind of garments, arose to serve from the mead-cellar, with plenty of gold and silver vessels. And in the other part of the hall1 an equal number of handsome and fine men were waiting on the queen and the women,2 and pouring out in that part of the hall.

And at that time there was not a kingdom over the face of all Christendom that could be compared to the Isle of Britain for multitude of all good things, and generosity and goodness3 and customs and manners and bravery,166b / for all Arthur’s knights had one fashion, and the women who were the lovers of those men4 had one fashion, of customs and manners and clothes. And not a wife and not a maiden at that time5 would have a lover except a proved knight. And for that reason the men were braver and the women were more chaste.

And after they had finished dining, they went outside the city to look at the different kinds of games and especially the jousting. And you couldn’t imagine a game that wasn’t seen there; and the women were on the towers and at the embrasures of the city wall and at the windows, looking at them, each one with her eye on the man she loved most, and very willingly6 the women showed themselves to the men, for it made the men rejoice7 to see them.

And whoever was victorious in those games was paid for his labor as he would be paid in a battle for the defense of land and territory, and all that at Arthur’s expense. And after they had kept that feast for three days and three nights,167 on the fourth / day
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all those who had served were summoned to come to one place to be paid for their service. And then to some of them were given cities, to others castles, to others archbishoprics, to others monasteries, wherever these were vacant.1 And then Dubric the Archbishop became a hermit and gave up his archbishopric. And in his place was put2 David son of Sant son of Ceredic son of Prince Cunedda,3 as archbishop, and he was a holy, moral man and uncle4 to Arthur. And in place of Sampson, Archbishop of York, was placed Teilo, Bishop of Llandaff, and that at the entreaty of Howel son of Emyr of Brittany, for Teilo was a holy, moral man. And then Morgant was made bishop in Silchester, and Julian in Winchester, and Ethelbert bishop in Dumbarton.

And as they were arranging everything thus, they saw coming to them twelve men, grave, handsome, mild, with a branch of olive in the hand of each, and coming to the place where Arthur was, and saluting him, and greeting him from Lucius Emperor of Rome,167b and / putting a letter into his hand. And this is the sense of the letter.

Lucius, Emperor of Rome, sends greeting to Arthur, King of the Britons,5 such as he has deserved. I, Lucius,6 marvel at your cruelty, Arthur, and your folly and your pride, for, foolish by nature, you have insulted the Roman Empire, and it is high time you made amends to the Roman Senate, for it is a great sin to affront Rome
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when the kings of the whole world, except you, submit to her; and you withhold the the tribute which Rome ought to get from that island, and Julius Caesar got, and other emperors after him. And besides this, you have spoiled many other1 islands which are tributary to Rome. And the Roman Senate has condemned you, in the August next coming, to come2 to Rome to receive the judgment they may see fit to pass on you. And to summon you have we twelve come here, and if you do not come there at that time, know3 that they will come here to ask justice of you for the insults to Rome, as the swords may judge / between you and them.”168

And after Arthur had heard what was in the letter, he went to seek advice. And then Cador Earl of Cornwall said, “Lord king,” said he, “I am afraid that we Britons have been overcome by sloth because we have been idle so long, and have given ourselves up to feasts and levity and talking4 with beautiful5 women, and vanity; and for the last five years that has taken away our bravery and our courage,6 and it is more proper for us to thank the Romans for7 coming to stir us up than if they had not come.”8

And then Arthur said, “Ha, nobles,” said he, “you are my fellow-knights and you have always given me good, profitable, successful advice hitherto, and now I need good advice; and therefore let each of you think of strong and profitable advice, and if our counsel is unanimous we shall overcome the Romans. And when they used to get tribute from here, they got it for coming from Rome with armies
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to defend this island from the foreign race,168b and this they neglected to do,1 / and they do not deserve anything from here. And since they are asking of us something that is not due, we will ask of them tribute by destroying them, and let the stronger of us take tribute from the other, for our ancestors—that is Beli and Bran the sons of Dyvynwal Moelmud—conquered them2 in olden times, and they brought from Rome twenty hostages of the most noble people3 there. And after that, Constantine Helen’s son and Prince Maxen, true nobles of the Isle of Britain, were emperors in Rome, one after the other. And for that reason we are entitled to tribute from them and they are not entitled to anything from us.”

And then Howel, son of Emyr of Brittany, said, “Between me and God,” said he, “if every one of us should speak his speech4 separately it would not be as good as what Arthur himself has said,5 for it is out of natural wisdom and an eloquent, bold heart, daring, true, profitable, and making good by his deeds the word and the thought and the temperament, which may God put in him.6 And with one mind, lord, let us go to defend the justice and the privilege of the Isle of Britain. For the men of Rome had begun to demand something that is not due to them;169 / it is for you, lord, to demand something that is due from them. And the Sibyl prophesied that there should be three emperors from Cambria7 in Rome; two of them were Beli son of Dyvynwal Moelmud, and Constantine Helen’s son,8 and you, lord, shall be the third. Therefore, lord, hasten thither, for all of your men are of one mind with you.9 And to help go there I shall give you ten thousand armed knights.”

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And then Arawn Kynvarch’s son said, “Between me and God, lord, I cannot tell how great are my joy and my glory over the speech you delivered1 about going to Rome. And how pleasant it will be to receive wounds2 from the Romans in exchange for those we shall give them to avenge our fathers and our ancestors, and to raise your dignity,3 lord, and your right. And as a help for you4 to go there I shall give you two thousand armed knights, and footmen also.”5

And when each of them had finished speaking and mentioning the estimate of armed men he would give,6 to go to Rome, then Arthur thanked each of them in turn. And then they reckoned up for Arthur the number that had been promised to him. This is an estimate of what he got / from the Isle of Britain,169b besides those that Howel gave him:7 sixty thousand armed knights, skilled and proved in battles, and the footmen could not be numbered. This is an estimate of what it was reckoned he would get from the six islands: six score thousands. The names of these islands were Ireland, Iceland, Sweden, Orkney, Norway, Denmark. And from all France, eighty thousand knights. And from the twelve peers of France,8 who came with Geraint Erbin’s son, twelve hundred. This is an estimate of the knights he got:9 two hundred and ninety-two thousand and two hundred, and as for the footmen, no one knew their number.

And after Arthur had seen the desire of all and their love towards him, he permitted all of them to go home to make preparations against August. And then he announced10 to the messengers of the Romans that he would come there in August to demand tribute from the Romans and not to pay them.

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And then the messengers went to Rome. And when Lucius the Roman Emperor heard1 the words2 of Arthur about him, straightway he came to confer with the whole3 Roman Senate.170 / On deliberation they decided to send messengers to the kings of the East to ask their help to subjugate Arthur. This is the number he got: Epistrophus King of Greece, Anustensar King of Africa, Anafacinia King of Spain, and Hirtacus King of Syria,4 and Boctus King of Media, and Sertorius King of Durrea, Pandrasus King of Egypt, Mitipan5 King of Babylon, Polytetes King of Bithynia, Teuter Duke of Phrygia, Evander King of Syria, Eschilon King of Boeotia,6 Hippolytus King of Crete; and with them princes and earls and barons, and many nobles who were subject to the Roman Senate, and whom it would be too tiresome to name. And of the Roman Senate there were Lucius the Emperor, and Merrick, and Lepidus, and Gaius, and Metellus, and Cocta, and Quintus, and Milvius, Catullus, Quintus, Cauricius. In number they were in all four hundred thousand, one hundred and forty thousands7 of men.

And after they had arranged everything, towards August they came toward the Isle of Britain. And when Arthur knew that, he made himself ready, and his host with him, and he commended to Modred son of Lot son of Kynvarch,8 his nephew, son of his sister,170b and to Guinevere, his wedded wife, all9 / the government of the Isle of Britain, to keep without guile, truly and faithfully, until he should come back.10 And then Arthur went to the sea, and as soon as he got a wind he set out.11 And he saw a dream that was terrible to him.12
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What he saw was a bear with a harsh voice flying from the south and landing on the shore, and he saw a dragon coming from the west, and with the light of his eyes he1 lighted up the shore. And he saw the dragon and the bear attack each other and fight terribly together. And after a long fight, he saw the dragon throw sparks on the bear and burn him all2 to ashes. When Arthur awoke he told his dream to those that were about him. This is the way they explained it:3 it indicated that Arthur should fight with some monster of a giant and Arthur should conquer him. And Arthur did not believe that that was the explanation, but [that it was] about his going to contest with Lucius the Roman emperor.4

And when the next day came, they landed in the harbor that is called Barfleur, and there they pitched tents and waited until all the men of the islands came.171 / And as5 they were like that, behold a messenger coming to Arthur and telling him that a giant of marvellous size had come from Spain and had carried away Helen, the niece6 of Howel son of Emyr of Brittany, by force from7 her guardian, and had gone with her to the top of Mount St. Michael, and the knights of the country had gone8 after her; and they had had no success by land,9 and if they went in ships to follow them, he would sink them in the waves, or10 if he caught them he would swallow them half alive. And when night came, Arthur went with Bedivere Pedrawt’s son, and Kay Kynyr’s son, until they were near the mountain.11 And they saw two fires; one was on top of the big mountain, and another12 was on top of a lesser mountain.

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And a river surrounded the mountains and did not let anybody wade to it; they got a boat to carry them through it. And then Arthur sent Bedivere to see which one of the two mountains the giant was [on.] And he went first to the little mountain, and he heard beside the fire a woman’s lament, and silently and in fear, with his sword bare in his hand,171b / he came there, and he saw an old woman sitting by the fire, and a newly dug grave beside her. And the woman was lamenting over the grave.1 And when the old woman2 saw Bedivere coming toward her she said to him, “O you most wretched of men!” said she. “O you whose fate is most miserable! You shall be slain at this instant by an appointed death, for the damned monster is coming here now, he who took Helen, niece3 of Howel son of Emyr of Brittany, here by force. And here he killed her,4 trying to have to do with her. And because I am her nurse he brought me here, and I have just buried my daughter and my life in this grave. And for that reason it is best for you to flee, since he will come here again to try to have to do with me, and he will kill you.”5

And then Bedivere went to tell Arthur all that he had seen, and Arthur was grieved at losing Helen. And swiftly, discreetly, and silently, they went to the place where the giant was. And Arthur asked the men not to come near him until they saw more than6 death on him. And when Arthur came near to him, the other7 was turning spitfuls of the flesh of a wild pig over a good fire. And after he had finished eating a lot of the flesh half-raw,8172 and / when he saw Arthur coming, he hurried to eat the meat, and he quickly took his staff—and the weight of his staff was not less than
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what was difficult for a powerful soldier to raise from the ground. And he rushed at Arthur and struck him on the shield so that the reverberation was heard far off, and Arthur lost his hearing because of the intensity of the blow.1 Then Arthur became angry and drew his sword2 and struck the giant on his forehead,3 so that the blood hid his eyes and his face. And then the giant became angry and attacked Arthur4 within the guard of his sword, (?) as a wild boar would rush on the boar-spear of the hunter, and he grappled with Arthur and threw him down to his knees. And then he, calling to mind Mary, slipped away from the giant quickly, violently, terribly strongly, and he fought with the giant nimbly, firmly, quickly, swiftly, until he reached his brains with the sword. And then the giant gave a terrible shriek and fell all at once5 to the ground like an oak in the wind. And then Arthur laughed and told Bedivere to cut off his head and bring it to show to the army because of the marvellousness of it.172b

And then Arthur said that he had never met6 any creature / as strong as he except Ritta, the giant, who fought with him7 over his pelisse. This is the way it was about the pelisse. Ritta the giant had made for himself8 a pelisse of the skin of kings’ beards, and he left the place of9 Arthur’s beard on the top of the pelisse as a mark of honor to him. And he bade Arthur cut off his beard himself and send it to him, and he bade him, if he would not do that, to come and fight with him, and the stronger of them might take the pelisse and the beard of the other. And Arthur chose to fight, and in this fight Ritta the Giant was killed.10 And then Arthur got11 the pelisse from Ritta. And after Arthur had killed that second12 monster, they came to their tents with the head, in the third hour of the night. And Howel the son of Emyr of Brittany13 grieved over losing his niece, and that mountain is called Helen’s Grave from that day to this.

And after the host had come together
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they went to the city of Autun. And after they had come through the river that was called White (Gwenn), he was told1 that Lucius the Roman Emperor had encamped close to them with an immense (?) army.2173 / And that night Arthur encamped on the bank of that river and sent messengers to Lucius to bid him leave the borders of France or to give open battle to Arthur on the next day. The messengers who were chosen to go there were Gawain, and Bosso Earl3 of Oxford, and Geraint of Chartres. And Arthur’s army rejoiced4 at having Gawain go there, thinking that he would do something perverse so that they would have to fight with them. And after they had given their message to Lucius, he said that it was more proper for him to rule France than to go out of5 it. And then Gaius the emperor’s nephew said, “It is true with you Britons,” said he, “that your tongues are much longer than your swords.” Then Gawain drew his sharp6 sword and quickly cut off Gaius’7 head with the one blow.8 And they mounted their horses quickly and came away. Then the Romans followed them, trying to avenge their man who had been killed. Then Geraint of Chartres,9 for he was nearest the pursuit, turned on the one nearest him and ran him through with a spear so that he lost his life.10 And Bosso was grieved that he was of no use in the world,11173b and he turned on the man nearest / to him and killed him without delay. Then Marcellus Mutius drew near to Gawain to try to avenge Gaius. Then Gawain struck him with a sword so that he split his head and his neck down to his breasts, and he told him to tell to his companions in hell that
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the Britons had lots of that kind of blows. And then by Gawain’s advice they turned on the men who were following them and killed the first man that each of them encountered.1 And after they had come near to the wood which was at hand,2 behold they saw3 six thousand armed men of the Britons coming to them out of the wood to help them. And at once they gave battle to the Romans, and they struck them down and killed them, and others of them they captured and put to flight. And when Petreius a senator from Rome heard4 that, he took with him ten thousand armed men and went to help the Romans. And at once they drove the Britons in flight until they came to the wood they had been in before, and then they slew many on all sides. And as they were in this distress, behold Edern Nudd’s son, and five thousand armed men with him, coming / to help the Britons;174 and then they withstood the Romans anew, and bravely and fiercely upheld their fame and their pride. And Petreius acted like a wise man, directing5 his men to attack and to await their opportunity. When Bosso Earl6 of Oxford saw that, he called to him a good number of nobles and ones who satisfied him well,7 and he said to them like this, “Ungracious8 retainers,” said he, “since without Arthur’s advice we and the Romans began this, let us take care in a united, profitable way lest we get the worst part of the fight, and get shame for ourselves and our lord.9 And for that reason let us draw together bravely and boldly to seek to serve on Petreius, either to kill him or to capture him.”

And then they went against Petreius and grappled with him and pulled him from his horse to the ground.

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And then there was a fierce battle over Petreius, and finally the Britons were victorious and took Petreius and brought him into the midst of their own men.1 And from there they went to fight the Romans again, and they put them to flight, and those who were not worth capturing they killed without mercy. And then Arthur’s men came with the prisoners to the place where Arthur was, and told him all that had happened, and Arthur rejoiced that it had happened when he was not there. And then Arthur ordered Bedivere and Cador and two other princes—namely, Richart and Borellus—to go to convey2 the prisoners / to Paris,174b lest the Romans should come and take them away on the road before they got to the castle. When the Romans heard that, the Emperor had fifteen thousand armed men selected and sent ahead by night to get ahead of the prisoners, and to try to free them.3 And as leaders over these went Ulteius, a senator, and Cadell, and Quintus Cauricius, and Evander King of Syria, and Sertorius King of Lybia, and they went to the place where they had decided to wait for the prisoners. And the next morning, Arthur’s men came with the prisoners to the place where the ambush was. And then the Romans arose up at once against them and scattered them.4 They, by sensible advice, separated in this way: they left Bedivere and Richart to keep the prisoners, and Cador Earl of Cornwall, and Prince Borellus were the leaders of the forces that were fighting.5 And then the Romans bravely attacked
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the Britons and they would have managed to let their prisoners go if Gwittard Prince of Poitou had not come1 with three thousand good men to help the Britons, because he knew that they were in danger; / and as soon as they met,175 the Britons opposed the Romans manfully and retaliated on them for their deceit and their treachery. And there Prince Borellus was lost, for Evander King of Syria pierced him with a spear so that he lost his life. And then there were lost four of the British nobles—namely, Hirlas of Wyemouth, and Merrick Cador’s son, and Calliduc of Tintagol, and Her Ithel’s son. And although those men were lost, the Britons did not let one of the prisoners go, but ultimately put the Romans to flight and pursued them. And in this battle2 Evander King of Syria, and Ulteius the senator were lost.3 After the Britons had been victorious they sent the prisoners to Paris, and also those whom they had captured that day. And from there they came joyfully to Arthur.

And Lucius the Roman Emperor grieved greatly over what had happened, and he went to take counsel as to what he should do, whether to go back to Rome after help from the Emperor Leo, or whether they should go by themselves to fight with Arthur.4 After consultation they decided to go / that night to Navern,175b to the place that is called Langres, and there they were that night. When Arthur heard that, he went to the place that was called Glen Soesia,5 for Lucius the Emperor6 and his army had come to that valley. And there they waited until the next day, and
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then he placed his knights on one flank with Morud Prince of Gloucester as leader. And he drew up his army, except for these, in eight divisions, and in each division there were five thousand, five hundred, and fifty men, skillful and proved in many hard battles. And after he had drawn them up, Arthur instructed them to attack and to await their opportunity.1

And over one of the divisions were placed Arawn Kynvarch’s son and Cador Earl of Cornwall, one on the right and the other on the left; and over the second division were placed2 Bosso of Oxford and Geraint of Chartres; over the third of them were placed2 Achel King of Denmark, and Lot Kynvarch’s son; over the tourth were placed2 Howel son of Emyr of Brittany, and Gawain. And behind these four divisions3 were placed2 four others.176 / Over one of them were placed2 Kay the Tall4 and Bedivere; over the second of them5 were placed Holdin Prince of Rutenia, and Gwittard Prince of Poitou; over the third of them were placed Owen of Chester, and Gwynwas of Canterbury; over the fourth division3 were placed Urien from Bath, and Gursalem of Dorchester. And behind all these was Arthur with a legion of men. And he had the image of a gold en dragon placed before him, for this was a sign from Arthur to draw the wounded men to it.6 A legion was, at a guess, six thousand, six hundred, and sixty-six men.

And then Arthur said to his army,7 “Ha, nobles,” said he, “it is well known that it is by your strength and your advice that the Isle of Britain has come to be chief of8 thirty kingdoms;
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and still, through the help of God and of yourselves, we shall overcome the men of Rome, and shall take vengeance upon them for trying to imprison us without our freedom;1 and remember now the idleness you have had for so long a time,176b / and the chattering2 with fair3 women, and the playing at chess and checkers and backgammon. And remember also to be enkindled in your boldness and your warlike qualities, and be united and unshaken4; when you meet the Romans cut them down like animals; and they do not think that we dare give them open battle. And if you nobles will obey my orders, I shall honor you to your full content with every kind of good thing that I have.” And each of them promised5 to follow his orders as best he could.

When Lucius heard that Arthur was preaching to his men, he too preached to his men, and he told them that the whole world ought to be subject to the Roman Senate. “And remember,” said he, “that it is your fathers and your grandfathers who maintained Rome in the leading place in the whole world by their courage and their military prowess and their valor. And for this reason do not shun death to-day in keeping Rome as the leader and in taking tribute from6 other islands, and you will get the things you desire / out of what you conquer7 with me.177 Therefore remember that we did not come here to flee, but to fight with one mind against our enemies; and therefore, although they may be bold in the beginning, stand8 strong and united and you will thereby be victorious.”

And after he had finished his speech he drew up9 his army in twelve divisions, and in each
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division1 a legion of knights in number. And at the head of the first division were placed Cadel the Wolf and Alifantina King of Spain; at the head of the second were placed Hirtacus King of Parthia2 and Mar the Hare, a senator from Rome; at the head of the third were placed Boctus King of Media, and Gaius the senator; at the head of the fourth were placed Serrex King of Libya, and Quintus Milvius, a man from Rome. Behind these four were placed3 four other divisions. At the head of one of them was placed3 Serrex King4 of Iturrea; at the head of the second was3 Pandrasus King of Egypt; at the head of the third was placed5 Politetes King of Phrygia; at the head of the fourth / was placed5 Tenetus Prince of Bithynia.177b And in back of these were four other divisions. At the head of one of them was placed3 Ypymet [=The-fifth] a senator6 from Rome; at the head of the second was placed Lellius Dryllur a prince of Rome; at the head of the third was3 Supplic the Blue;7 at the head of the fourth was placed5 Merrick of the Woods. And behind that was the Emperor Lucius himself, instructing his men where he saw most need. And in the middle of the army he had them place8 the figure of an eagle of gold as a sign and standard, and to it they brought the privilege of sanctuary for anybody who was in any danger in the world.9

After they had drawn up their divisions, they engaged. And first of all the division that the King of Spain commanded engaged the division of Arawn Kynvarch’s son, and of Cador Earl of Cornwall, and it was not easy for any10 of them to separate from the other. And while they were like this, behold Geraint of Chartres and Bosso of Oxford coming with their division and piercing through the divisions of the Romans; and from then on they smote each other mightily (?), so that the sound of them
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and / their noise were heard resounding in the air,1178 and until the ground was heard to quake from the heels of the warriors who were losing their lives. And then there was a great slaughter on both sides until it would be too toilsome to reckon it. And then Boctus king of Media pierced Bedivere through with a spear so that he lost his life.2 And then3 Kay was mortally wounded, and in spite of that he and his division took Bedivere’s body with them until the division of the King of Libya met them; and in spite of that they brought Bedivere’s body4 to the place where the golden dragon was. Then Hirlas, Bedivere’s nephew, took with him three hundred powerful, proved knights and, like a wild boar among a lot of dogs, he made a rush through the divisions5 until he got hold of Boctus6 and pulled him from his saddle and dragged him with him until he was over Bedivere’s body, and then he cut him into small pieces. And from there Hirlas went to his companions and exhorted them manfully, and then many were lost on both sides.7 And then there were lost of the Romans, Alifantina King of Spain, Anntipan King of Babylon, and Quintus Milvius a senator from Rome. And of Arthur’s men were lost8 Holdin Duke of Rutenia, and Leodegar of Boulogne, and three / princes of the Isle of Britain, namely, Gursalem of Canterbury,178b and Gwallauc of Shrewsbury, and Urien of Bath.9 And Kay died of the mortal wound he had received.

And then the leading divisions were weakened10 and they retreated until they came to the division of Howel son of Emyr of Brittany, and Gawain. And then they enkindled their courage unanimously11 like fire in a dry forest, and they attacked their enemies boldly and fiercely, and whomever Gawain met with there,
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he killed him with a single stroke or made on him a deadly wound.1 And Gawain did not rest then until he came to the division of the Roman emperor. And then the Britons were greatly weakened because Kynvarch Prince of Treguier, and two thousand men with him, were killed. And then were slain also three nobles whose performances were not less than those of the princes.2 Then Howel and Gawain stood together in their anger and slew all whom they met, so that they did not rest but gave great blows or received them. And at last Gawain got what he desired, which was3 to meet with / Lucius,179 the Roman emperor. And then the emperor was in the midst of his bravery,4 and nothing suited the emperor5 more than to fight with him. And after they had come together they struck each other mighty blows on their shields; and when they were fighting most fiercely, a great multitude of Romans came against Howel and Gawain, so that they had to retreat until they came to6 Arthur’s division. When Arthur saw that, he was greatly angered and he drew Caletvulch, calling Mary to mind, and he began to cut down the Romans, and he called loudly to his own men, “Nobles, do not spare to avenge the wrong of your fathers and your grandfathers on these effeminate folks; give them angry, stout, fierce, violent blows. And summon your strength to you and maintain your memory and your valor, as you have always done, and do not withdraw from them one step.”

And he attacked his enemies like a rushing lion, and whomever he met he killed with a single blow, or wounded him, or [caused his] fated death,7 and
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for that reason everybody fled before him as weak animals flee before a hungry lion,179b and no armor in the world offered any protection against him.1 And then / he met Sertorius King of Libya, and Politetes King of Bithynia, and he killed them each with a single blow. When the Britons saw Arthur thus, they enkindled their glory and their ardor and anger, and fought manfully and fiercely from that time on, through the directions of their lord, and his success. And the Romans likewise exhorted their men, until one could not count the number who were killed on both sides. And both of the two kings exhorted their men and directed them in the best way that they knew.

And as they were fighting thus,2 behold Morud Prince3 of Gloucester coming with a legion of men, those who had been left at one side up to this time,4 and then he cut down the Romans anew and killed and wounded them without mercy. And in the midst of this strife one of the Britons pierced Lucius the Roman emperor through with a spear so that he fell dead to the ground. And then at length the Britons were victorious and drove the Romans in flight anywhere that their fates led them, killing and wounding them without mercy where they overtook them, for God was taking vengeance upon them for trying to enslave free nobles to pay tribute to them.5

180And then Arthur had / the bodies of his men separated from the bodies of the Romans, and had them taken in honor to monasteries and had them honorably buried.6 And he sent the bodies of his nobles and his favorites to their own country to be buried in honor.7 And then they went8 with the body of Bedivere
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to Normandy, the city he had made there himself, and he was buried with honor in a burial ground which was on the south side of the city. And Kay’s body was taken to Castle Diarnum which he himself had made, and within the monastery of hermits beside that castle he was buried in honor. And Holdin Prince of Rutenia was taken to Flanders and he was buried in the city of Terouanne. And Arthur had all the other nobles—earls and barons and princes—taken to the nearest monasteries to be buried in honor. And he had the bodies of the Romans all buried, and the body of the emperor taken before the Roman Senate. And he ordered them not to come a second time to the Isle of Britain to ask1 tribute from the Britons.

180bAnd then Arthur remained that winter subduing Burgundy. And when it was the first week of summer and he / had begun to go over the Alps toward Rome, messengers from the Isle of Britain overtook him and told him that Modred his nephew, his sister’s son, had put on the crown of the kingdom2 and had taken Guinevere as his common law wife, and this publicly and openly. When Arthur heard that that was true, he returned to the Isle of Britain, and left his nephew3 Howel, son of Emyr of Brittany, to subdue the countries there. Then Modred sent Selix, a prince of the Saxons, to Germany to invite the accursed folk who were there, the greatest number he could get, to come to the Isle of Britain to help him, and he would give them as much as Vortigern had given them before—that was4
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from the Humber onwards and all1 the shire of Kent. And then Selix went to Germany and straightway2 he came back with seven hundred ships filled with armed pagans. And Modred at that time3 joined himself with the French and the4 Picts and the Scots and the Irish, and every sort of nation that he knew hated / Arthur,181 until he got together eighty thousand united with him, and with that host he came to Southampton to try to keep Arthur from land. And many on both sides were slain there, and in particular Arawn5 Kynvarch’s son and Gawain, nephew to Arthur and brother to Modred,6 were slain. And in place of Arawn, his brother7 Urien Kynvarch’s son was made king. And with great effort and the loss of many of his men, Arthur8 came to land9 in spite of Modred.

And straightway he put to flight Modred and his whole10 army, and scattered his men and killed them until night came. And after night had come, Modred sought out his scattered men and they gathered together11 and went to Winchester and fortified the city about them. And when Guinevere saw this, she fled from York to Caerleon on Usk. And in the church of Julius the Martyr she was clothed in the same order as the nuns who were there awaiting their deaths.12 When Arthur heard that, his anger increased because he could not avenge his anger on Modred, the damned traitor.

And at the end of the third day, after he had had his men buried,181b Arthur came to Winchester. / When Modred saw Arthur coming with his army, he went outside the city13 to give battle to Arthur in the open field.

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And then there was a battle of terrible size on all sides,1 and at length Modred fled to Cornwall with those of his army who escaped. And Arthur did not pause there to have his men buried, but followed Modred the traitor, sad2 and full of care because he had escaped from him3 both of those times. And at the River Camlan Modred awaited him. The number of Modred’s army there was sixty thousand, six hundred and six men, for he preferred to await Arthur there rather than fly from place to place. And then he drew up his men in nine divisions; he put into each division about a legion of men. And then he promised them all that if he won he would satisfy them with land and territory and every other good thing that he possessed.4

And in opposition to him Arthur made nine divisions with skilled and strong princes at their heads, and the footmen he set apart to right and left. And then Arthur said, “Ha, nobles,” said he, “know that those people there will never fight with a single mind,182 because they are a collection / of damned foreigners and they are not of the same heart as other mortal men, for we are Christians and in the right, and they are5 damned pagans and in the wrong.”6 And [he was] exhorting his men and teaching them to mix the divisions7 and to fight bitterly, violently, fiercely, mightily, and terribly. And so they fought until the living went out of their senses listening to the moaning8 of those who were dying on all sides. And after they had spent much of the day fighting in this fashion, Arthur, with his division, attacked
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Modred’s division, and pierced it and scattered it like an insatiable hungry lion among meek animals. And in this rush Modred was killed, and thousands1 with him. And in spite of the loss of Modred, those of his army who escaped did not cease to fight until the slaughter was as great2 on all sides as the greatest that ever was, before or since.3 And there were slain of Modred’s princes: Eiaes, Ebrut, Eburiawc, and these all Saxons; Gillamuri, and Gillafadric, and Gillassor, and Gillarch—these were Irish. And all of the Picts and the Scots were killed. /

Of Arthur’s party4 were lost5 Ebrut King of Norway, and Achel King of Denmark,182b and Cador the Bounding, and Caswallaun, and many thousands besides6 who had come from every country to that place with him. And there Arthur was mortally wounded in his head, and he was taken to the Isle of Avalon to be healed. And then he entrusted the crown of the kingdom to Constantine Cador’s son, his cousin.7 That was five hundred forty-two years after the birth of God’s son. And then were written these verses:8

Qui nunc mores probitas commendat laude perhenni

Hic iacet Arthurus flos regum gloria regni

Qui meruit celos uirtutum prole fecunda

Arthuri iacet hic coniunx tumulata secunda.

And the story does not tell about the death of Arthur more fully than that.9

And after Constantine had taken the government of the kingdom and had put the crown upon his head, two sons of Modred rose, and the Saxons with them, against the king; and they had no success.10 And at that time Deiniol the bishop died, and Theon Bishop
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of Gloucester / was chosen archbishop in London.183 And at that time David the son of Sant,1 Archbishop of Caerleon, whom Merlin had foretold in his prophecy,2 ended his life; and Maelgwn Gwynedd had his body taken3 from Caerleon on Usk, where he was archbishop,4 to Menevia and buried with honor in the monastery he himself had built. And Saint5 Patrick before his birth had foretold this place for him. And then Cynog was chosen Bishop of Caerleon on Usk in his place.6 And after many battles between Constantine and the Saxons, the Saxons and one of the sons of Modred fled to London and there he was slain in the monastery of the brothers. And the other fled to Winchester and there he was slain in the church of Amphibalus, before the altar. And in7 the third year after this, Constantine was slain by Prince Conan, and he was buried with honor beside Uther Pendragon in the Giants’ Circle near Salisbury.

183bAnd then Prince Conan took the kingdom8 into his own control, and he was a famous young man and it was proper for him to wear the crown;9 and he was desirous of quarrels between his fellow-citizens.10 / And his uncle should have ruled after Constantine;11 and he fought with him and captured him and put him in prison, and killed his two sons and took the kingdom into his own control. And in the second year of his kingdom’s age12 he died.

And next to him Vortipore became king, and the Saxons rose against him and drew to them a great13 number from Germany. And in spite of that, Vortipore14 was victorious over them and he was king for four years continuously.

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And then Maelgwn Gwynedd became king over all the Britons. And a great and handsome man was Maelgwn and the conqueror of many fierce kings; and he was strong and brave in arms, and all of his accomplishments would have been good if he had not given himself up to1 the sin of Sodom and Gomorrha. And for this reason he was hateful to God. And he was the first king after Arthur who conquered the six islands besides the Isle of Britain.2 These were Ireland and Iceland3 and Sweden and Orkney and Norway and Denmark; and he made them tributary to the Isle of Britain. And he died in the church / of Rhos in the Creuddyn,184 when he saw4 the Yellow Plague through a hole that was in the door of the church; this was sent against him in punishment for his amorous sin. And he made Caer Deganwy and Caer Ddigol which is called to-day Shrewsbury, and Caer Gyffin and it is called to-day Conway-mouth, and Caer Gollwyn and it is called Harlech to-day.5

And after him6 Ceredic became king, and he loved strife between his citizens. And for this reason he was hateful to God and to the Britons. And when the Saxons knew that, they sent messengers to Ireland to a cruel man who was there who was called Gormond King of Africa (and he had come with a great fleet to conquer Ireland), to ask7 him to come to help them conquer the Isle of Britain, and they would hold it under his lordship,8 and they would give him tribute every year from it. And then at the summons of the Saxons, that damned pagan came to the Isle of Britain with sixty ships full of armed men. And then in one part of the island the Saxons / were damned9 pagans,184b and in the other were the Britons with their true rights and their faith in Christ [was] good.10 And there was ill feeling between them and the Saxons. And then after
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Gormond and the Saxons had come together, they fought1 with Ceredic, and at length2 in that fight3 Gormond got the victory and Ceredic was driven in flight to Caer Vuddei [Silchester] or, in the other language, Cirencester.

And after that Gormond had won the victory over them, Imbert, nephew of the King of France, came and did homage to him, for the sake of his coming to help him try to win France from his uncle, for that man had previously driven him out of France from his true right. And after he had done homage to him, together they came against the city and they fought fiercely against them every day, and they shut them up inside and did not leave them any way to get out. And in spite of that they did not gain a thing, except to get their men slaughtered. And then, after deliberating, they decided to have every one capture as many live sparrows as he could, and shut them up until it was near night, and then take nutshells4 and fill them full of sponges and brimstone and pitch, and set fire to them and tie them on to those birds and turn them loose at night. These flew to the roofs of the houses in the city and to the stacks and to the hay-cocks; and as they flew they fanned the fire by the wind from their wings so that the town was in flames before the next day. And then Ceredic came out to give them battle in the open field and he had no success, but he was driven in flight until he came through the Severn to the land of Cambria.5 And they followed him,6 killing and burning the cities and the castles and the towns and the open country without sparing anybody, clerk or layman, whom they met
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until not one of the citizens cared1 to what land or what place in the world he fled.

What then2 could the slothful, wretched nation do, oppressed by the very great burden3 of the sin of pride, they who were thirsting for blood4 and riot and disunion between the citizens themselves? And so, wretched nation of the Isle of Great5 Britain, / you have become weak,185 for you used to force the furthest kingdoms to submit to you and to your lordship, and now you are like a good and noble vineyard turned to bitterness and bondage,6 so that you cannot defend your country or your wives or your sons from the hand of the enemy. Therefore, wretched and proud nation, accept your penance and recognize the word which God himself7 spoke in the Gospel, “Every kingdom shall be divided and separated from itself, shall be weakened and laid waste until one house falls upon the other.”8 Therefore because the conflict and the disunion of the citizens themselves, and the smoke of tumult and jealousy have darkened your heart, because your pride would not submit to any king—and9 for this reason the cruel pagans are destroying your country and are wasting it while your heirs are alive, for they shall possess the best part of the island.

And after the cruel pagans had ravaged the island, either killing or burning, from one sea to the other, as was / said above,185b Gormond gave all Loegria to the Saxons. And then the remains of the wretched nation of the Britons had to withdraw to the furthest parts of the island, to Cornwall and to the land of10 Cambria, and their enemies made frequent attacks on them, killing and burning them without mercy.

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And after Theon Bishop of London, and the Archbishop of York had seen the churches destroyed and the1 congregations that were serving in them, they took all the relics and bones of the saints and fled into the most waste place in Snowdon out of fear of the pagans. And many of them fled into Brittany, for in the two archbishoprics there was not a church that had not been destroyed by the cruel pagans with the slaughter of the men of learning.2 And then for a long time the Britons lost the crown of the kingdom and their dignity. And besides that, the part of the island they did inhabit they held not under one king but3 under three cruel kings, and there were frequent wars between themselves.4 And for this reason the5 Saxons did not get the crown there either,186 but6 the Britons7 / had to submit to the three kings mentioned above, and in spite of that they fought with the Britons as before.8 And at that time Austin came from Pope Gregory9 to the Isle of Britain to preach to the Saxons, and to try to lead them to the faith of Christ, for they had wholly destroyed the faith of Christ from among them; and the Britons had been holding the faith of Christ strongly from the time when it first came into the Isle of Britain in the time of Pope Eleutherius.

And when Bishop Austin first came into the Isle of Britain he landed at Dover and he preached to the cruel Saxons, and many more mocked him than believed in him, and yet as many as God wished to give the good10 spirit to, believed in him. And from them he came to the
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mountains of Kent with a great number following him. And after they had come to a desert valley, more extensive than anything, water failed them and every one wanted it.1 Austin prayed to the Lord2 to get water, and an angel came to him in secret to bid him have no doubt about his purpose,186b for God was giving / him everything he asked that was right.3 And then water came out of the earth so that every one of them could use all he needed.4 And then Austin called that place Cernel—that is, in Greek, “secret place”—[a name which it bears] from that day to this. And then Austin rejoiced and went on to Kent, and preached there and drew the king and all his hosts to the faith. And from there he went to Rochester and while he was preaching there they5 sewed a lot of different kinds of tails to his bishop’s robe, in mockery of him. And then Austin prayed to the Lord that whoever should be born in that town should have a tail6 from that time on. And so it was.7

And from there Austin came to London to preach and draw many of them there8 to the faith. And then he asked about the archbishop-houses and the churches and the scholars who had been destroyed. And then he was told that there was an archbishopric9 in Caerleon on Usk, and seven bishoprics under it, full of devout Catholic prelates, and many monasteries with congregations serving God in them.187 And among / them was a distinguished monastery in the place called Bangor the Great in Maelor. And in it there were such numbers of monks serving God that, not counting the priors and10 their officers, if they were divided
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into seven parts there would be three hundred monks in each part; and all these were living by the labor of their hands. And the abbot of that monastery was named Dunod, son of Pabo the Support of Pictland, son of Arthwys, son of Mor, son of Ceneu, son of Coel Godebog.1 And he2 knew more of the arts than any man.3 And when Austin knew that, he rejoiced in it, and he sent to Dunod to ask him to come to help him preach to the Saxons and lead them4 to the faith. And then Dunod sent back to Austin to tell him that it was not proper for him to preach to that cruel race, for those foreign nations had come from another country to be a plague to the Isle of Britain,5 and through their deceit and their treachery they had killed our ancestors and our race, and they had forced us out of our rightful inheritance and had exiled us and harried us, and had driven some from the island, others to the fringes of the island.6187b And for that reason it is not for us either to preach to / them7 or to be submissive to anybody except the Archbishop of Caerleon on Usk,8 for he is primate over the Isle of Britain.

When Ethelbert King of Kent knew that Dunod had refused to come with Austin to preach to them, he sent to the king of the North and the King of South Loegria9 and asked them to come with the strongest force they had,10 to Bangor to take vengeance upon Dunod for his cruelty to the Saxons. And after the Saxons had collected the greatest power they had,11 they came to Chester, and there was Brochwel of the Tusks, and with him as many of the Britons as he could get. And in that city was a great number of monks and hermits, from every monastery that was in the
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Britons’ part of the island, and especially from Bangor the Great. And when Brochwel saw the Saxons coming to the city, he came against them and fought with them boldly and fiercely and killed many of them. And at length, because the Saxons were so numerous, he had to leave that city and go to Bangor the Great. And / there he summoned to him all the Britons. And when Ethelfrid knew that,188 and saw the slaughter they had made on the Saxons, he was greatly grieved. And after the coming of Ethelfrid had been told to Dunod,1 he sent to him two hundred of the wisest monks to ask him for his mercy to that holy house2 and to offer him every good thing that might come to him as a return for leaving them in peace in their monastery to praise God and to serve God,3 for they had done him no harm.4 And after their message was told to Ethelfrid he had those saints killed.5 And he came with his army against the monastery, and against him came Brochwel, and fought with him boldly and fiercely and killed many on all sides. And that fight6 was called the Battle of Bangor Orchard. And after they had been fighting thus for a long time, Brochwel had to retreat through the River Dee,7 because of the numbers of the Saxons. And then he guarded the fords and the landing places until help came to him. And then there were slain more than a thousand scholars, not counting the lay brothers and the hermits.8 /

And then to help Brochwel came the following: Bledrus Prince of Cornwall,188b Meredith King of Demetia, and Cadvan King of Venedotia. And then they attacked their enemies, and fought boldly, fiercely, and terribly, and killed many on all sides.9 And at last the Britons were victorious
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and Ethelfrid was mortally1 wounded and was put to flight, accompanied by those of the pagans who escaped. This is the number of the pagans who were lost2 there: ten thousand and sixty-six men. And on the side3 of the Britons were lost Bledrus Prince of Cornwall, and many of his men4 with him. And Bledrus was one of the handsomest of men and the chief one who sustained the fighting.5 And then all the Britons came together in Chester. And then after deliberating they decided to make Cadvan, the son of Iago, the son of Beli, the son of Rhun, the son of Maelgwn Gwynedd,6 king.

And after Cadvan had been made king, he fought with the Saxons and Ethelfrid until they went through the Humber. And then Ethelfrid gathered an army to fight with Cadvan. And after they had come near to each other, peace was made / between them—that is,189 to Ethelfrid was left the other side of the Humber, and to Cadvan this side, and the crown of the kingdom as a distinction for him. And after they had bound themselves in that fashion through a bond and hostages, things came to an end between Ethelfrid and his wedded wife7 because of a mistress that he had. And he drove his wedded wife out of the kingdom, and she heavy8 with child by him. And she went to Cadvan’s court to ask him to make peace for her, but in spite of that Ethelfrid would do nothing. She dwelt in Cadvan’s court until a son was born to her, and the same night a son was born to Cadvan by his wedded wife. The name of Cadvan’s son was Cadwallon,9 and the name of Ethelfrid’s son was Edwin. And they were reared10 together in Cadvan’s court until they were large boys. And then they were sent to Solomon King of Brittany, to learn civility
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and manners and the laws of a court, and the use of horses and arms and every good thing that one could learn in Brittany. And Solomon made them welcome and they were dear to him and they grew in all good achievements until there were not in battle and in fight / two better men than they to satisfy the needs of a lord.1189b

And after Cadvan and Ethelfrid were dead, they came home2 from Brittany, each of them in his father’s place; and they bound themselves in fellowship as their fathers had been before them. And at the end of two years after that, Edwin asked3 Cadwallon for permission to make a crown for himself, that he might wear it when he did reverence on the festivals of the saints4 on the other side of the Humber, as the other did on this side. And then a time was appointed between them about that, on the bank of the River Dulas, to submit to the wise nobles the division between them over that affair.

And after they had come there,5 sleep fell on Cadwallon,6 and he put his head on the thigh of his nephew Braint the Tall, son of Nevydd. While they were deliberating over that, Braint the Tall7 wept, and the tears fell from his eyes until they moistened Cadwallon’s face and beard,8 and with that he woke up, thinking that it was rain. And he looked at Braint9 and asked him why he wept. “The cause of the weeping,” said Braint, “is what has come to me and the Britons from this day forth,10 for you have given away what was an especial distinction to you and to your nation. And this has been / an honor to you11 from the time of Maelgwn Gwynedd until to-day.190 And to-day you have permitted the damned, treacherous, faithless Saxons12
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to make a king of their own. They will assemble1 and will conquer the whole of2 the Isle of Britain with their deceit and their evil wiles. And for that reason it was better for you to put them down than to raise them up.3 And it is strange to me,4 lord, that you do not remember what they did to Vortigern Gortheneu when he detained5 them in the guise6 of loyal, faithful, believing men to fight along with him. And as soon as they got a place and a time they let loose their deceit and their treachery to repay evil for good, when they killed the princess of the Isle of Britain at Salisbury with their deceit,7 and seized Vortigern and took the kingship away from him. And after that they betrayed Prince Ambrose and killed him with poison. And after that they killed Uther Pendragon with poison also. And after that they broke their oaths and8 their faith and their treaty by joining9 with Modred against Arthur. And last of all they brought here10 Gormond King of Africa to win from Ceredic his kingdom and to drive him out of it11 shamefully.”

190bAnd after Braint the Tall12 had finished speaking, / Cadwallon sent messengers to tell Edwin that he had been advised not to permit any crown in the Isle of Britain except the crown of London.13 Edwin said that he would make himself a crown whether Cadwallon liked it or not; Cadwallon said he would cut off14 his head under the crown if he wore it within the bounds of the Isle of Britain. And from that time on the dispute between them grew greater and greater,15 and most
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of their men on both sides encouraged it. Then each of them assembled the largest army he could get, and they set a day for the battle between them. And in that battle Edwin was victorious and Cadwallon was driven in flight to Ireland.

And then Edwin conquered by killing and burning all of Cadwallon’s realm. And while Edwin was at that, Cadwallon was trying to come to the Isle of Britain, without any success, for wherever he tried to land Edwin had a wizard named Pellicus who, through his divination with the wings of birds and the courses of the stars, had Edwin and all his force there keeping him from the land.1 When Cadwallon saw that, he was in great despair, thinking / that he would never get any of his realm.191 After consultation he decided to go to Brittany to complain to Solomon King of Brittany, and to ask his help and advice to seek2 his realm again. And while he was going with his fleet to Brittany, behold an obstinate wind coming upon them and scattering them so that not one of them remained with another. And the steersman of the ship in which Cadwallon was3 was in great fear and drew in the steering oar and left it to God and to the force of the waves to take them wherever their fates might lead them. And when night came they did not know anything about what had happened to them.4 And when it was day they saw a little island, and with difficulty they landed there. The name of that island was Guernsey. And after they had come
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to land there, Cadwallon fell sick of a grievous disease from the worrying he did over the scattering of his fleet by the terrible wind and from the tempest of the sea journey, so that he could not enjoy either food or drink for three nights and three days on end.1 And on the fourth day a longing for venison came upon him where it couldn’t be had.2 Then Braint took his bow and his arrows and went walking over the whole of the island to try to shoot the wild animal, but he got nothing. And then Braint was greatly grieved;3 after deliberating he decided to cut with his knife a great4 hole in the flesh of his thigh,191b and put it on a spit to roast5 and cook it with various / good herbs, and take it to Cadwallon as the meat of a wild animal. And after he had eaten some of it he said to his attendants that he had never had meat that tasted like that. And before the end of three days after that he got up entirely well.

And as soon as they got a favorable wind they sailed for Brittany and landed in the place6 called Kidalet. And when this had been told to Solomon he bade them welcome and invited them [to come] to him for as long as they wanted to remain in the country. And after he had learned the gist of their business with him,7 he promised them his advice, and the best aid he could, in friendship and kindness. And it was grievous to him that a foreign nation should be able to drive the King of the Britons out of the Isle of Britain against his will, while every island round about it except the Isle of Britain8 was able to defend itself against the Saxons. And he told them that since the time when Prince Maxen and Conan Meriadoc had first come to Brittany with the nobles
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of the Isle of Britain, from that day to this there had been no one who had been able to increase their privilege or to maintain it.1 “And for that reason I am sorry that you are so weak that you cannot avenge yourselves on them.”

When Solomon had finished his speech, Cadwallon was ashamed, and thanked him for his friendship and his honor,2 and spoke to him like this: “Lord,” said he, “do not wonder that the people who were left in the Isle of Britain are sluggish, for not a single noble man was left there,192 but they came here with / Maxen and Conan Meriadoc. And when the possession of the island came into the hand of unworthy, sluggish, ignorant people, they could neither govern it nor maintain it, but they gave themselves up to an over-abundance3 of food and drink, and to commerce, and incontinence with women, and they kept up their arrogance by reliance on their wealth,4 as every villain does. And they do as Gildas said, that is: hold up their sins among the nations, and that shall bring down the whole world by the sight of it—that is to hate the truth5 and hold a lie a good thing, and take good for evil, and honor iniquity more than amiability, and welcome the devil more than a good angel, and honor cruel kings who do evil tricks. And if there is one faithful man they reject him and insist6 that he is a traitor. And they desire nothing more from the Physician of the whole truth7 than a miserly villain does.8 And for that reason, lord, do not wonder that the wretched nation that acts thus is hated by God, and that he has put a foreign race over them to take vengeance on them9 for those sins.

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And for that reason, lord, have I come here to claim kinship with you. For Maelgwn Gwynedd was the fourth king over the Isle of Britain after Arthur; and he had two sons, Einion and Rhun, and son to that Rhun1 was Beli, and son to Beli was Iago,192b and son to / Iago was Cadvan, my father. And Rhun, after his brother Einion was dead and he himself driven out and to this place by the Saxons, gave his daughter to Howel Junior, son of Howel, son of Emyr of Brittany, the man who with Arthur was conquering many countries.2 And that daughter of the Rhun mentioned above3 had by Howel Junior, her husband,4 a son who was called Alan, and son to that Alan was Howel, your father, lord. And he was a mighty and powerful man.5 And so our two fathers are two second cousins.”

And then Cadwallon dwelt that winter with Solomon. And then, after deliberating, they decided to send Braint the Tall to the Isle of Britain to listen for stories about Edwin and about the wizard.6 And after he had come to the Isle of Britain, he came to York where the king7 then was, in the guise of a needy man asking alms,8 with a staff in his hand, and a sharp9 spike of iron on the end of it. And after he had come among the needy men, he saw his sister coming from the court with a vessel in her hand to seek water for the queen from the fountain that was beside the court.10 And Edwin had brought this girl from Worcester to wait upon the queen. And after they had seen11 each other, and had talked in fear, the girl told Braint the whole appearance of the court, and pointed out the wizard to him. And when the wizard distributed the alms
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to the poor,193 / Braint drew near to him1 and as soon as he got a chance he pierced2 the wizard through with the staff so that he lost his life; and he slipped away3 boldly among the needy men and left his staff in the wizard so that no more was known about him in connection with it than about any one else.

And from there Braint the Tall4 came to the place5 where he had promised his sister to come when6 it was night. For when they had been talking they made an appointment to come, when it was night, near to an old temple that was near by7 to talk together. And the girl got no opportunity to come out of the court because the wizard had been killed and garrisons8 and other blockades had been put at the gates that night different from the ones on other nights. And after Braint the Tall4 had seen that his sister was not coming to him, he went to Exeter and summoned to him many of the Britons and strengthened the city and the walls, and sent a messenger9 to Brittany to tell Cadwallon that the wizard was killed and to ask him, if he loved the Isle of Britain, to come to it as soon as he could. And he10 had the Britons warned to be ready against his coming.

When Peanda Prince of the Saxons heard that, he assembled the largest army that he could11 and came to fight against Exeter.193b And when / Cadwallon heard12 that, he came to the Isle of Britain with ten thousand armed knights from Solomon King of Brittany to help him. And he did not rest until he came to Exeter. And then he divided his men into four divisions and
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then they attacked and fought mightily. And Peanda was taken on the spot and all of his army1 was killed. And then Peanda had to do homage to Cadwallon and to give hostages for his fidelity to him. And then Cadwallon sent to all the Britons to ask them2 to come to him to attack Edwin through the Humber. When Edwin heard that3 he assembled an army and came against him to the field of Heathfield, and then he fought with him boldly and fiercely so long as he had success.4 And there Edwin and the greater part of5 his army were slain. And there were slain Edwin’s son6 Offric, and his two nephews; and Gotbolt King of Orkney, and Eanda King of Scotland, and all who had come to help them were all slain.

And after Cadwallon was victorious there, he tried to exterminate7 the Saxons by cruelty: that is, he killed them and burned them, and he loosened the unborn children of the pregnant Saxon women from their bellies to the ground with swords and knives,194 and thus he tried to drive them out of the Isle of Britain.8 And after the Saxons had seen that, they decided, after deliberating, to choose Saint9 Oswald as king over them in Edwin’s place to try to resist the cruelty of Cadwallon; and they had no success but were driven in flight10 from place to place and were murderously slain. And then they fled to the wall that Severus Emperor of Rome had in former times made between Deira and Bernicia. And then Cadwallon sent Peanda King of Mercia11 with a great part of the army12 to fight with Oswald. And
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after he had come there, Peanda surrounded him (lest he should break away from him) in the place that is called in English Hevyn Felt and in Welsh Heavenly Field. There Oswald raised the image of the Cross and spoke to his companions like this: “Fall down on your knees with your full devotion and pray to Almighty God to free you1 from that proud host there and from that cruel prince—that is, Peanda—for God knows that we are defending the safety of our race.”

And the next morning Oswald and his army rose up and attacked their enemies fiercely,2 trusting in God, and Oswald was victorious that day. When Cadwallon heard that, he collected an army and went to fight Oswald, and he overtook him in the place that was called3 Burnei. And then Peanda slew Oswald the king.4 Christ’s age was then six hundred and fifty-two / years. And after Oswald was killed,194b Oswi White-eyebrow, Oswald’s brother,5 became king in his place.6 And after he had become king, he collected a great treasure of gold7 and sent a great deal of it8 to Cadwallon, for he was high king over all the Isle of Britain. And then Oswi did homage to him and was reconciled to him. Then two nephews, sons of his brothers, rose up to fight against Oswi. And when they had no success in fighting with him, they came to Peanda King of Mercia to ask help from him to fight with9 Oswi. And then Peanda said that he did not presume to break with Cadwallon the faith10 he had promised
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him, without his permission while he lived.

And when the feast of Whitsunday arrived, Cadwallon held court in London. And he wore a crown1 on his head, and all of his princes, Cambrians and Saxons, who were in the Isle of Britain came there, except Oswi himself. And then Peanda asked the king why Oswi did not come2 there. “Because he is sick,” said the king. “Truly, he is not, lord,” said Peanda; “he sent messengers to me to ask me to join3 with him, me and my forces, to avenge his brother. And because I would not join4 with him he sent5 messengers to Germany to invite the Saxons / to him to avenge his brother on me and on you, lord.195 And here he is, breaking the peace and tranquillity in the Isle of Britain when he drove out his two nephews and when he sought union with me,6 lord, against you. And give me permission, lord, to kill him if I can or else drive him out of the Isle of Britain.”

And then the king summoned his council to him to know what to do about that, and7 Meredith8 King of Demetia said to him, “Lord,” said he, “why did you break the first plan you willed concerning the Saxons? And there was no need [of anything] but9 to destroy them wholly from the island. And since this is so, lord, give your permission to Peanda to go fight with him,10 so that each one of them may kill the other, for faith should not be kept with the faithless, and so they may all be destroyed11 from this island.” And then Peanda got permission to make war on Oswi; and then he came
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through the Humber with a great army, and began to kill and burn in Oswi’s realm. And then Oswi sent to him to offer him gold and silver and jewels, such as he might desire, in return for peace from him; and he wanted nothing except to keep on fighting. Then Oswi relied on God to decide between them, and he went to fight with him on the shore of the river that was called Winwaed and there Peanda was killed. Christ’s age was then six hundred and sixty years.

And after Peanda was killed, Cadwallon gave / his realm1 to his son Wulfhere,195b and he took it and did homage to him. And then he and Edbert Prince of Kent came to make war on Oswi, and in the end Cadwallon caused them to be reconciled. And then Cadwallon ruled in peace and love,2 and as the foremost king in the Isle of Britain, and the possessor of the crown of the kingdom, for forty-eight years, and until he was well advanced in age.3 And on the fifteenth day of the month of November he died. And the Britons took his body and anointed it with precious ointments,4 and put it in an image of cast bronze made with faultless art. And this image was placed on a horse cast of fair bronze, over the top of the gate in London toward the west, as a terror to the Saxons. And underneath it there was made a church which was consecrated in the name of God and Martin, and masses were sung there for the soul of Cadwallon. And Merlin Ambrose foretold
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that the brazen prince1 should keep the gates of London. Christ’s age, 655.2

And next to Cadwallon his son Cadwaladr the Blessed became king, and he held the crown of the kingdom and the direction of it profitably and peacefully for twelve years.3196 / And then Cadwaladr fell sick of a grievous disease,4 and he was sick for a long time. And then quarrels sprang up between the Britons themselves. (Cadwaladr’s mother was sister to Peanda on her father’s side, and her mother was a noblewoman of the aristocracy of Archenfield and Ewias. And in the old days, when Cadwallon was reconciled to Peanda, he took her as his wife and she was the mother of Cadwaladr.)5 And then along with their quarrels a plague and a terrible hunger came upon them and it killed them murderously, and this was as a vengeance of Almighty God upon them for their sins and their excess of pride.6 And then over the face of the Isle of Britain there was not found one morsel of food except what wild game was found in the desolate woods or the forests. And the plague was so strong that7 the living could not bury the dead. And those who could go to other countries went, amid lamenting and wailing,8 and they said to God, “Thou didst put us here in this island9 like sheep as food for wolves, and Thou hast scattered us here10 to various countries as wolves scatter sheep.”11

Then Cadwaladr had a fleet prepared for himself, and he went to Brittany amid lamenting like this. “Woe unto us sinners because of the multitude of our sins whereby
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we have raised God up over them; while we were getting a respite to repent of them and to come to terms with God about them we did not do it.1 And for that reason God is driving us / out of our rightful possession.196b And neither the Romans nor any other sort of nation were ever able to drive us out of this island or to scatter us like this—only God himself.2 And for that reason the Scots and the treacherous Saxons are now coming back to the Isle of Britain, since it is emptied of its rightful people. And let them remember, however, that it is not they who are driving us all3 out of the Isle of Britain, but God himself.

And then Cadwaladr went4 to Brittany, to Alan King of Brittany (and he was a nephew of Solomon), and Alan made him welcome. And then there was not left in the Isle of Britain, between plague and famine, any one except those who were able to go to the desolate woods to feed5 upon wild game. And that plague lasted eleven years in the Isle of Britain. And those of the Saxons there who escaped alive6 sent messengers7 into Germany to announce that the Isle of Britain was empty, and to ask them to come to take the island for nothing. That damned8 people collected a great number of their men and women and landed in the North, and occupied the country9 / from Albany to Cornwall, for there was no one to hinder them.197 And from that time on the Britons lost their rule over the Isle of Britain. And at the end of a time after that, and when Christ’s age was 683,10 Cadwaladr heard that the plague had ceased, and he asked Alan for help to win the Isle of Britain from the pagans who occupied it.11 And he promised it to him.

And when Alan was mustering his realm and Cadwaladr
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making ready his fleet, he heard the voice of an angel from heaven speaking to him and bidding him not to plan for them to go to the Isle of Britain, for God did not wish the Britons to dwell there until the time should come which Merlin Ambrose foretold before Vortigern Gortheneu. And then the angel bade Cadwaladr go to Rome to Pope Sergius to do penance, and there he was numbered among the blessed. And then the angel said that, through the merit of his faith, the Britons would get the government of the Isle of Britain after he had fulfilled the fated time.197b And that would not be until the bones of Cadwaladr1 / should come to the Isle of Britain from Rome, and that should happen at last when the bones of all the saints which had been hidden for fear of the pagans in Rome should be revealed. And when that happened the Britons should get their old status and the possession of all the Isle of Britain.

And when the angel had finished his speech Cadwaladr came to Alan King of Brittany and told him all that the angel had said to him. And then Alan King of Brittany2 took all the books of the prophecies of Merlin Ambrose, and that of the eagle, and the hymns of the Sibyl, to see if they agreed with the words of the angel. And when he saw that they agreed,3 he rejoiced, and urged Cadwaladr to go to Rome. And he sent Ivor his son and Ynyr his nephew to try to maintain the Isle of Britain in blood and true rights, lest the family stock of the Britons should be lost. And then Cadwaladr put aside
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every sort of worldly affair, out of love for God.1 And then he went to Rome as the angel had bidden him. This was six hundred and eighty-three years of Christ’s age, / and there he lived for five years.198 And the pope made him welcome and he confirmed him among the holy saints. And then he fell sick of a grievous disease, and on the twelfth day of the month of December2 he died and his soul went to heaven. That was six hundred and eighty-eight years of Christ’s age.3

And when Cadwaladr went to Rome from Brittany, Ivor Alan’s son, and Ynyr his nephew,4 went with a fleet to the Isle of Britain to fight the Saxons; and they had no success, for the plague and the famine had left scarcely any of the Britons alive, and those5 had been driven to Camber’s part of the island. And they were not called Britons there but Cambrians. And from that time on, the Saxons boldly kept the peace6 between themselves, and they cultivated the best lands and built castles and walled cities and towns. And by that means they took the possessions of the Britons from them. And from that time on the Cambrians lost their position,7 and they8 had to suffer the Saxons / to be rulers over them.198b

And the princes who were over the Cambrians after that, in turn,9 I have left to Caradoc of Llan Carvan,10 my contemporary was he; and to him

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I have left1 the materials for writing about the kings of the Saxons from this time on; and [let them] leave the Cambrians alone for they do not have the Welsh book2 that Walter Archdeacon of Oxford turned from Latin into Welsh. And he treated of it all truly and fully, in accordance with the history of the aforesaid Cambrians.3 And all of this I turned back from Welsh into Latin. And so ends the history of Brutus.


 [1 ] hyt ar Gywaladyr. vab

 [1 ] yny

 [2 ] y mae . . . yn llawenhau

 [3 ] The translation of parts of this dedication is merely conjectural.

 [1 ] gyuan a chyuanned = complete and inhabited

 [1 ] o bobl

 [2 ] a phedwar ugain mil (mil has been deleted in C.) = eighty-eight thousand

 [3 ] yn

 [4 ] paryw bobyl = what sort of people

 [1 ] dracheuyn

 [1 ] ef = him

 [2 ] anvonet = sent

 [3 ] hwy

 [4 ] ar i anedigaeth

 [5 ] o nadunt = of them

 [6 ] geuyn y keiriw = the back of the stags

 [1 ] “for . . . servitude” is not in B.

 [2 ] trwm uu ganthaw maint . . . a chyt doluriaw = with him and he was sad that their pain and their suffering were so great and he sympathized

 [3 ] i vab

 [4 ] i kowsit ef

 [1 ] lit. “what estimate;” B. has y maint = the number

 [2 ] lit. “they got in their council”

 [3 ] gyt a hwyn

 [4 ] ystyr = gist

 [1 ] lit. “murderously”

 [2 ] brawt Pandrasus

 [1 ] ith daly

 [2 ] velly

 [1 ] Sef a oruc Brutus erchi bawb nat engene = Brutus bade each not to utter

 [2 ] llef

 [3 ] heb dregared

 [4 ] y goruu vrutus arnadunt ac y goruu vdunt hwynteu diodef

 [1 ] ar i rrieni hwynt a vedyliynt ac a wneynt achos i ymdiala = inflicted upon their kinsmen, they would think about it and would make an occasion to avenge themselves.

 [2 ] medyliaw = thought about

 [3 ] Ac i dodet i eiste yn anrydedus Ac y doeth brutus ai oreugwyr ger i vronn gan ovyn idaw a wnai eu hewyllys nyt amgen no chanhiadu ignogen i verch yn wraic bwys i vrutus Ac yna y rodes pandrasus yn atteb vdunt nat oed dym [well ganthaw no chaffael brutus yn dywedi iw verch. Ac os. am hynny y tyuassei ryngthunt dywedut a oruc pandrasus y roesei y verch i vrutus. a rann oe gyuoeth genthi kyn bot dyrnot cledyf y ryngthunt pe brutus ai govynnassei.49b Ac yna y rodas/sant yn atteb i Pantrasus na cheissient namyn llongeu a gwyr ar kyfreidieu a henwit vchot i vynet i bresswyliaw lle y teruynei duw vdunt Ac yna yr adewis Pandrasus hanner i gyuoeth gida i verch i vrutus er trigaw ai verch yn yr vn ynys ac ef. Ac nys mynnynt = Greek king. And he was given a place to sit in honor. And Brutus came before him with his chieftains, asking him if he would do what they wanted—that is, grant his daughter Ignogen as a bride to Brutus. And then Pandrasus gave answer to them that nothing was more pleasing to him than to get Brutus as a husband for his daughter, and if it was on that account [the quarrel] had arisen between them, Pandrasus said he would have given his daughter to Brutus, and part of his kingdom with her, before there was a sword blow between them if Brutus had asked it. And then they gave answer to Pandrasus that they desired nothing but ships and men and the supplies that were mentioned above, to go to dwell in the place that God should determine for them. And then Pandrasus promised Brutus half his kingdom with his daughter, in return for his living with his daughter in the same island with him. And they did not want it.

 [1 ] prouedic

 [2 ] rroi = put

 [1 ] ith anrydedu yn dragywyd Ac my a wnaf = to honor thee forever. And I shall make

 [2 ] yn drwm

 [3 ] yn i gwledychu. Ar ynys honno

 [4 ] yw = is

 [5 ] yspeit

 [1 ] ac pann gysgen y deuent = and when they slept they came

 [2 ] ystopio ev klustiev a chwyr = stop their ears with wax

 [3 ] pob vn ai gilid

 [4 ] y dir = his country

 [5 ] ef ae gwrthlade hwynt

 [1 ] mewn

 [2 ] or kennadeu = of the messengers

 [3 ] ac

 [4 ] gyfrang

 [5 ] a damweunawd idaw gaffael = and he chanced to get

 [1 ] lu = army

 [2 ] anvatodwrd

 [3 ] yn y mod hwnnw

 [4 ] y goruu i lu Brutus = Brutus’s army was forced to

 [1 ] i wyr ffrainc = the Frenchmen

 [2 ] yn hynny o ymffust = in that engagement

 [3 ] a ladassei

 [4 ] anvon a oruc Brutus = Brutus sent

 [5 ] adeilawd = built

 [1 ] gwr

 [1 ] sef oed i henw = its name was

 [2 ] a

 [3 ] y mynnws corineus alw i ran ef = Corineus wanted to call his part

 [4 ] y honn a elwyr Temys = which is called Thames

 [5 ] racdywedededic

 [6 ] y catwo = it keeps

 [7 ] arni = it

 [1 ] y ryngthunt

 [2 ] nit amgen no

 [1 ] ellwng essyllt = send Iseult away

 [2 ] ynys = island

 [3 ] i gariat = his mistress

 [4 ] y ryngthaw a chorineus ac a gwendolev = between him and Corineus and Gwendolen

 [5 ] i = his

 [6 ] yn y lle

 [7 ] gwyrda = nobles

 [8 ] ar vntu

 [1 ] ran Gamber a rann Locrinus ac o hynny allan dodi . . . avon nyt amgen no hafren = Camber’s part and Locrine’s part . . .

 [2 ] Ac hafren yw henw yr avon

 [3 ] vab locrinus

 [1 ] dwfyr

 [2 ] Ac wedi dyuot oet y dyd = and after the appointed day had come

 [3 ] a henw y mab oed efrawc = and the boy’s name was Evroc

 [4 ] ac val yr oed diwyrnawt yn heli mewn fforest = and as he was hunting, one day, in a forest

 [5 ] pla o vleidiev

 [6 ] yno

 [7 ] yn varw

 [8 ] ym mlaen llaw

 [9 ] brenin = king

 [1 ] ar y = on the

 [2 ] ac

 [3 ] ar siluius eu kar

 [1 ] darian las

 [2 ] mo.ccc.olixo

 [3 ] dyrnas = kingdom

 [4 ] m.occc.olxxv

 [1 ] a digwydei rac llaw yn ynys brydein nit amgen noc val hynn m cccolxxvi diliw = that were happening before this in the Isle of Britain, that is like this. 1376 flood.

 [2 ] a gynnyd = shall increase

 [1 ] reading “diang” instead of “etiang” of both the MSS.

 [2 ] wen

 [1 ] yw

 [2 ] ac

 [3 ] gwynn = white

 [1 ] etiued o vab = son as heir

 [2 ] gyuoetheu

 [1 ] i gyuoeth = his kingdom

 [2 ] bot hynny oll

 [3 ] heb hi

 [4 ] dat

 [1 ] digiawd

 [2 ] y verch honno = that daughter

 [1 ] Literally “and joyful over him was Henwin.”

 [2 ] mawr = a lot

 [3 ] y holl uarchogion

 [4 ] drigawd = remained

 [5 ] mawr

 [6 ] pob vn oe

 [7 ] ieuaf

 [1 ] wyr = men

 [2 ] pam = why

 [3 ] i mynneu

 [4 ] y gwir

 [1 ] yn llwyr

 [2 ] gorthrwm uu ganthaw

 [3 ] brydein

 [4 ] wyr ffrainc

 [5 ] iw brenhines = to his queen

 [1 ] pet vai i gyt a hwynt

 [2 ] ac ydi doethant

 [3 ] y dyrnas = the kingdom

 [1 ] yn i herbyn

 [2 ] oe helbul ae charchar hi a gymyrth i chyllell ac ae brathod y dan eu bronn e hun yn y wahanod i heneit ae chorff. = raising herself out of her trouble and her prison, she took her knife and stabbed herself under her own breast so that she separated her soul and her body.

 [3 ] doeth = came

 [4 ] y

 [5 ] yn ran

 [6 ] heuyt

 [7 ] drwy

 [1 ] kydarnaf = strongest

 [2 ] gwr

 [3 ] y ryngthunt

 [4 ] yr unfed dyd ar dec o galane mawrth (added in margin)

 [5 ] mal y bu uarw llawer or bobyl = so that many of the people died

 [1 ] yn ol Riwallawn = after Riwallon

 [2 ] mil de lvii

 [3 ] y hedwch

 [4 ] y uab unteu = his son

 [5 ] yn briawt megis y gallei oresgyn = for himself (?), so that he might conquer

 [6 ] pob peth

 [1 ] yn wastat

 [2 ] divnaw

 [1 ] dwfyr

 [2 ] y rodet

 [3 ] y ryngthaw ae urawt yr honn a oed

 [1 ] llu

 [2 ] o neb ryw

 [3 ] a gasglawd = collected

 [4 ] yr aethant = they went

 [1 ] vwyaf = as many as

 [2 ] aerua uaur a

 [1 ] totneis

 [2 ] breinieu a noduae a oruc ir ffyrd = he made privileges and sanctuaries for the roads

 [3 ] ar y ffyrd hynny = on those roads

 [1 ] or duc = the duke

 [2 ] a phob ryw helwyriaeth a wydiat yn ragorawl a marchogaeth ac ymwan = and every sort of hunting he knew excellently, and horsemanship and jousting

 [3 ] gan i ganiat = with his permission

 [1 ] un agos y gyt = close together

 [2 ] yn y lle

 [3 ] ac ir y boen ar dolur a diodeuais i erot ti kyn dy dyuot ir byt hwnnw ac cruyn ytty arafhau dy yrlloned. Ac na phar di lad y sawl waet bonhedic a ry gynullwyt o bob gwlat hyt yno a choffau na wnaethoed i urawt idaw ef dim or cam. namyn ti a wnaethoed y cam ith uraut ac yt dy hun pan elut i geisiaw porth brenin llychlyn i oresgin ynys brydein iar dy urawt yr honn a oed mwy dyledus ith urawt noc oed iti ac arwyd na wnaeth dy uraut yt dim cam namyn yn ymdiffin i gyfiownder ac ef ehun. dy yrru di o vrdas uechan i vn uawr
and for the sake of the pain and anguish I endured for you before you came into this world, and asking you to moderate your anger, and not to cause the shedding of so much noble blood as has been assembled there from every country and to remember that your brother had done him no wrong, [sic] but that you did the wrong to your brother and to yourself when you went to seek the help of the King of Norway to wrest the Isle of Britain from your brother which more properly belonged to your brother than to you; and it shows that your brother did you no wrong but, in defending his equity and himself he drove you from a small honor to a great one.

 [4 ] gan yr ymadrodeon tyner a dywedassei tonwen i uam

 [1 ] yr aethant = they went

 [2 ] a phob gwlat o hynny hyt un ruvein

 [3 ] y ymlad = to fight

 [1 ] hi

 [2 ] a dodet yn lludw = was put in ashes

 [1 ] vdunt

 [2 ] diffeith oed yr amser hwnnw heb neb yn y chyuanhedu

 [3 ] A

 [4 ] disgybyl ir plato hwnnw uu = pupil to this Plato was

 [1 ] gwledychawd = ruled

 [2 ] elwir = are called

 [3 ] urenhines

 [1 ] dwfyr

 [2 ] yn wir

 [3 ] blinaw = be vexed

 [4 ] ryw ormes denghetuennawl = some kind of fated oppression

 [5 ] greulonder ae

 [6 ] mal y / llyngkei bysgodyn mawr. vn bychan = as a large fish swallows a small one

 [1 ] a uai

 [2 ] dwfyr

 [3 ] gwledychaud = ruled

 [4 ] ar kyuoethogion

 [5 ] ac a gynnullei = and collected

 [6 ] hynny = that

 [7 ] llwy = spoon

 [1 ] idaw

 [2 ] uelly

 [1 ] Sef oed hynny

 [2 ] mlyned

 [3 ] dwfyr

 [1 ] y waith honno

 [2 ] gwbyl o

 [3 ] heb na mwy na llai

 [4 ] Sef oed hynny

 [5 ] anwydeu

 [6 ] y doeth = came

 [7 ] Edwin

 [8 ] o vlynydoed

 [1 ] o ulynyd

 [2 ] ar = over

 [1 ] namyn

 [2 ] bu = was

 [3 ] i uab ynte = his son

 [4 ] Ac yn ol kelydawc y gwledychaud. klytno y vab ynteu = and after Celydauc his son Clydno reigned

 [5 ] dwfyr

 [6 ] Ac yn ol klytno y gwledychaud Gorwst i uab ynteu = And after Clydno his son Gorust reigned

 [7 ] Ac yn ol Gorwst y gwledychaud Meiryawn y/y uab unteu = And after Gorust his son Merion reigned

 [1 ] diliw = the flood

 [2 ] Sef oed hynny

 [3 ] dwfyr

 [4 ] ac a wledychawd teir blyned = and he reigned three years

 [5 ] Ac yn ol ewein y gwledychawd. Seisill y uab ynteu = and after Owen, Cecil his son reigned

 [1 ] Ac yn ol Rydeon y gwledychaud Ryderch i uab ynteu = and after Rydeon his son Rhydderch reigned.

 [2 ] Ac yn ol Rydderch i gwladychodd Sawl i vab yntev

 [3 ] yn heddwch

 [4 ] Ac un ol sawl y gwladychodd Pyrr

 [5 ] Sef oedd hynny gwedy diliw z c l o vlynyddedd

 [6 ] Ac yn ol pyrr i gwladychodd kapoir nev pabo bvmp blynedd yna bu ef varw = And after Pyrr, Capoir or Pabo (perhaps Capoir nephew of Pabo) reigned five years; then he died

 [7 ] Ac yn ol Kapoir y gwladychodd mynogan ap Kapoir ap pyrr ap sawl ap Rydderch ix mlynedd yna y bv varw. Sef oedd hynny wedi diliw z c lxiiii o vlynyd = And after Capoir, Manogan, son of Capoir, son of Pyrr, son of Saul, son of Rhydderch, reigned 9 years; then he died. That was 2164 years after the flood

 [8 ] mawr

 [9 ] ac yr beli hwnnw i bv bedwar o veibion nid amgen llvdd a chaswallon a nynniaw oi wraic bwys a llevelys oi gariadwraic i kowsai = And this Beli had four sons; that is, Lud, and Caswallaun, and Nennius by his wedded wife, and Levelis he had by his mistress

 [10 ] wedi marw

 [1 ] a phorveydd

 [2 ] ymravael = different

 [3 ] holl

 [4 ] dyrnas

 [5 ] llynges gyd a

 [6 ] a lywiodd y dyrnas = he ruled the kingdom

 [7 ] a ddoethant i = came to

 [8 ] kanys = for

 [9 ] argyoedd = rebuke

 [10 ] ormes

 [11 ] a grynai galonnav pawb yn gymeint = which terrified the hearts of everybody so much

 [1 ] holl

 [2 ] ar ddaiar oll

 [3 ] llys y brenin = the royal court

 [4 ] yr oer ormes gyntaf = the first dismal oppression

 [5 ] ky = a dog (a scribal error for kyhoed = open)

 [6 ] vali gallai = that he might

 [7 ] ymddidan = conversation

 [8 ] kythrel = a devil

 [9 ] y kiliodd y anysbryd = the evil spirit withdrew from

 [1 ] yr vn lle

 [2 ] holl

 [3 ] oll

 [4 ] argyhoeddai = censured

 [5 ] val i soddo y gerwyn vwyaf a geffych yno a llanwa hi or medd gorav a aller i wnevthur = so as to put in it the largest cauldron you can get and fill it with the best mead that can be made

 [6 ] Pan = when

 [7 ] sawr y medd ai vlas i = the smell of the mead and its taste

 [1 ] or ynys = of the island

 [2 ] mewn kraic = in a rock

 [3 ] gorvod = overcomes

 [4 ] neidia yr gerwyn ar dwfr = jump into the cauldron and the water

 [5 ] ymgynghori = conferring

 [6 ] ynys = island

 [7 ] yr vn lle

 [8 ] argyoedd = censure

 [9 ] gladdv pwll a rroi y gerwyn ar medd ynddo

 [10 ] dywedasai i vrawd iddo = his brother had said to him

 [1 ] lle ynialaf = most deserted place

 [2 ] yn ddiogel

 [3 ] maen kadarn = strong stone

 [4 ] yn wrol

 [5 ] neitio yny = jumped into

 [6 ] lawe

 [7 ] r yn ddiddial

 [8 ] yma . . . yn wychr

 [9 ] wedi treulio yw harvav

 [10 ] ludd

 [11 ] y gormesur = the oppresso

 [1 ] ac a eilw y saeson lwndysgate = and the Saxons call it Ludysgate

 [2 ] argannood = caught sight of

 [3 ] Ryngtho ar = between him and the

 [1 ] Llyma lyn yn kenedl = this is the line of our race

 [2 ] eneas ystwydwyn

 [3 ] orwyr = great-grandson

 [4 ] hwnnw

 [5 ] yr

 [6 ] a phob ynys yn drethol yno = and every island there was tributary

 [7 ] brutus ai lin / olynol = Brutus and his line, one after the other

 [1 ] amerawdr Ruvain lythr val hynn

 [2 ] kennym ni

 [3 ] veint syched a chwant . . . i eur ac arian = so great is the lust and desire for gold and silver

 [4 ] yn yr ynys honn y sydd

 [5 ] yr ym yn dioddef = although we suffer

 [6 ] A hwyntev yn deisyf = and they seek

 [7 ] yrioed

 [8 ] digon

 [9 ] beth yw keithiwet = what servitude is

 [10 ] yn dwywev ni = our gods

 [11 ] ac ni ai caseym hwynt

 [12 ] a dyvod = and came

 [1 ] ynys brydain i aber temys = Isle of Britain, to the mouth of the Thames

 [2 ] i nai arall

 [3 ] The translation follows B. which has “king” only once.

 [4 ] oll

 [5 ] ap Beli

 [6 ] i ddyrnodiev = his strokes

 [7 ] A gyrrv vlkasar ar ffo = And Julius Caesar was driven in flight

 [1 ] o aur = of gold

 [2 ] yn i

 [3 ] a elwid = which was called

 [4 ] i llongav

 [5 ] ac / wedi bod aerva vaur a lladd llawer o bob parth kaswallon a gavas = and after there had been a great slaughter, and many were killed on both sides, Caswallaun got

 [1 ] a orugant Yny wledd honno y llas

 [2 ] ac ednod

 [3 ] yr duwiav

 [4 ] Ac velly y nos ar dydd = and so the night and day

 [5 ] yn hynny

 [6 ] dyvv

 [7 ] A pharaw oedd avarwy i hynny = And Avarwy was ready for that

 [1 ] rac kolli kuhelyn = for fear of losing Kuelyn

 [2 ] wrth

 [3 ] y brenin = the king

 [4 ] Llyma y llythr a anvones avarwy ar vlkassar amerodr = This is the letter that Avarwy sent to Julius Caesar the emperor

 [1 ] pryd = when

 [2 ] i lu = his army

 [1 ] vddvnt

 [2 ] ai karai

 [3 ] Avarwy a aeth = Avarwy went

 [4 ] A phan weles Avarwy = And when Avarwy saw

 [5 ] aur ac

 [1 ] o vlynnyddoedd. Diwedd kaswallon

 [2 ] Sef oedd hynny . . . o vlynyd

 [3 ] i vab yntav = his son

 [4 ] yn vrenin

 [5 ] yn arglwydd ni

 [6 ] yn dragwyddol

 [1 ] or “the lake”

 [2 ] goruwydav

 [1 ] B. omits “and Naso”

 [2 ] ynys y bont = the island of the bridge

 [3 ] o oed krist

 [4 ] add yn anroddonen = in the Jordan (?)

 [5 ] diwyrnod

 [6 ] lle y ymbroves y kythrel ac ef = where the devil contested with him

 [7 ] y porthes Jessu Grist y pvmil pobl ar pvm torth bara ar ddav bysc = Jesus Christ fed the five thousand people on five loaves of bread and the two fishes

 [8 ] i vyw

 [9 ] yr ffydd = to the faith

 [10 ] a noethi

 [1 ] India

 [2 ] asira = Assyria

 [3 ] roi = put

 [4 ] gwedy geni krist

 [5 ] evengylwr

 [6 ] ac yr vrddwyd gwydr i vab yn vrenin yr ynys = And Gwyder his son was made king of the island

 [7 ] teyrnged ruvain yna doeth gloywkasar ymerawdr rruvain a llu mawr gantho i ynys brydain. = the tribute of Rome. Then Gloyw Caesar the Emperor of Rome came with a great army to the Isle of Britain

 [8 ] or brenin = the king

 [9 ] noi holl llu = than his whole army

 [10 ] gwr o ruvain = a man of Rome

 [11 ] gymraec = Welsh

 [1 ] lladd gwydr o dwyll = he killed Gwyder by deceit

 [2 ] wyr Ruvain = men of Rome

 [3 ] ac ymladd oed Krist

 [4 ] kymryd brenhinwisc y vrawd amdanaw = he put on his brother’s royal garments

 [5 ] a chynnal yr ymladd yn wrol = and maintained the fight manfully

 [6 ] ef = he

 [7 ] yna = then

 [8 ] aeth = went

 [9 ] roedd gloywkasar yn ymladd achaer beris = Gloyw Caesar was fighting against Caer Peris.

 [10 ] eisioes gwyr rruvain a orvv = yet the Romans were victorious

 [1 ] ynys = island

 [2 ] yr ynys

 [3 ] Ac yny lle y briodas ar neithior y gwnaeth Gloywkasar ddinas / = And in the place of the wedding and the marriage feast(?), Gloyw Caesar made a city

 [1 ] nid amgen

 [2 ] xxij ovlynyddoedd = 22 years

 [3 ] ac oed krist y vlwyddyn honno cxvi o vlynyddoedd

 [4 ] marw

 [5 ] attaw

 [6 ] dyst = testimony

 [7 ] ato

 [8 ] o fyddlonn vedydd = in faithful baptism

 [1 ] Ac yny tri dinas pennaf or ynys yr oeddynt nid amgen llvndain kaer evroc kaer llion ar wysc wrth archesgopty llondain y Roed kernyw a lloegr val y keidw hafren a bod yn benn ar y ddwy archesgobod eraill wrth arch esgob gaer efrawc y rroed deifr a brynaich ar gogled oll val y gwyhana hvmyr i wrth loegr wrth archesgopty kaer llion ar wysc y rroed kymry oll
And they were in the three chief cities of the island: namely, London, York, Caerleon upon Usk. To the archbishop-house of London were given Cornwall and Loegria, as the Severn bounds them, and to be chief over the other two archbishoprics;to the Archbishop of York were given Deira and Bernicia and all the north as the Humber separates them from Loegria; to the archbishop-house of Caerleon on Usk was given all of Cambria.

 [2 ] “Trajan” is not in B.

 [3 ] lestair = hindered

 [4 ] gwnai = do it

 [5 ] o oed krist = of Christ’s age

 [6 ] A gwedy marw lles ap coel yn ddietivedd oi gorff = And after Lucius Coel’s son died with no heir of his body

 [7 ] A phann glybu seneddwyr Ruvain hynny = And when the senators of Rome heard that

 [8 ] long = ships

 [9 ] brydain

 [10 ] a Roi mvr kerric arno

 [11 ] Ac yna y goresgynnodd sevirus yr ynys oll = And then Severus conquered the whole island

 [1 ] y Rai oedd = who were

 [2 ] ai gladdv

 [3 ] gwedy gwladychv o hono v blwyddyn

 [4 ] a oedd idaw = he had

 [5 ] mam y getta hwnnw oedd wraic o ruvain = the mother of that Geta was a woman of Rome

 [6 ] sevirus

 [7 ] tyvv

 [8 ] hwnnw

 [1 ] ac a elwid = and he was called

 [2 ] gadw = keep

 [3 ] ar y mor

 [4 ] kael

 [5 ] nad argyhoeddai = should not rebuke

 [6 ] holl

 [7 ] o bobtv = on all sides

 [8 ] ganthaw = with him

 [9 ] wynt a welsant = they saw

 [10 ] ond a wnaethoedd o dda a lles = but he had done good and profitable things

 [11 ] am hynny

 [1 ] ar y ynys = over the island

 [2 ] i ba le = whither

 [3 ] oed krist yna oedd clxxxiiii o vlynyddoedd

 [4 ] wedi gwybod o seneddwyr Ruvain = after the Roman senators knew

 [5 ] a bod karawn yn vrenhin = and that Carausius was king

 [6 ] llong = ships

 [7 ] oed krist yna ccxvi

 [1 ] wedi bod aerva vawr o bob tv = after there had been a great slaughter on both sides

 [2 ] drylliav

 [3 ] ervyn

 [4 ] ai = and their

 [5 ] ai llad oll = and killed them all

 [6 ] ccl

 [1 ] Ilywiodd

 [2 ] bu = was

 [3 ] ar kreiriev

 [4 ] o bob tv = on both sides

 [5 ] oed krist yna cclxviij o viyn

 [6 ] ac i ostwng ynys brydain i sened ruvain val y buasai gynt yr oedd ef yn dyvod yna = and to subjugate the Isle of Britain to the Roman Senate as it had been formerly was he coming there

 [1 ] yr aeth = went

 [2 ] wedi geni krist = after the birth of Christ

 [3 ] Ai ffryd hi oedd ragorol rrac neb = and her beauty was notable beyond everyone’s

 [4 ] luyddawc kanis hi a ynillodd y groes

 [5 ] ef = he

 [6 ] i vab

 [7 ] kustenin = Constantine

 [8 ] am geithiwaw = should be enslaved

 [1 ] Kustenin = Constantine

 [2 ] i gustenin = for Constantine

 [3 ] Elen i vam ef = Helen his mother

 [4 ] yr ynillodd

 [5 ] oed krist yna ccc = Christ’s age then 300.

 [1 ] llong = ships

 [2 ] i = he

 [3 ] oddyno

 [4 ] kynnvll llu a dyvod yn / ev herbyn a oruc = he assembled an army and came against them

 [5 ] ar vaes

 [6 ] oed krist yna

 [7 ] oll

 [1 ] dyrys

 [2 ] yn diannod

 [3 ] yna = then

 [4 ] drychevn

 [5 ] oed krist yna

 [6 ] a chynnvll = and collected

 [7 ] a elwid elen = who was called Helen

 [8 ] neb

 [9 ] Ac yn i henaint = and in his old age

 [10 ] iddo

 [11 ] eraill a archai roi y goron yn i ol ef = others bade give the crown after him

 [1 ] a nerth rrac llaw = peace and help at hand

 [2 ] or ynys honn a ddyly yno ac ymma yn well no neb = from this island who have a better claim, there and here, than anybody

 [3 ] i briodi Elen = to marry Helen

 [4 ] ac i gael y goron = and to get the crown

 [5 ] yno

 [6 ] yn yr vn = in any

 [7 ] dioddef

 [8 ] goddiannav

 [9 ] cael = get

 [10 ] ar goron gyd a hi = and the crown with her

 [1 ] namyn

 [2 ] elen = Helen

 [3 ] gostwng hwylav a

 [4 ] ai kymell yn drethol = and forced it to pay tribute

 [5 ] evdaf brenin = King Eudav

 [6 ] i nai

 [7 ] mor = defend the sea

 [8 ] myndd = mountain

 [1 ] ef = he

 [2 ] a llawen vv y brenin wrthvnt ac anvon y kennadav yn ol maxen i roddi = and the king was joyful over them and sent the messengers after Maxen to give

 [3 ] yr ynys = the island

 [4 ] dros = over

 [5 ] myned = gone

 [6 ] mawr

 [7 ] ac y doeth maxen yn erbyn

 [1 ] “And that . . . Britain” is not in B.

 [2 ] dywysoc = prince

 [3 ] hevyd

 [4 ] oi dervynav ef = out of his territories

 [5 ] y kavas y bryttaniaid gyntaf veddv llydaw = the Britons first got possession of Brittany

 [6 ] yno i gwladychodd = ruled there

 [7 ] yr aeth

 [8 ] i ruvain = to Rome

 [9 ] fordd y kerddai ef = where he came

 [1 ] na ellynt ym gyvathrachu ac vn genedl o bob tu rrac gelyniaeth onid arreiddvn i hvn a hevyd nad oedd wiw ganthunt Ac yna anvon = they could not, because of hostility, ally themselves with any race on any side of them, except their own; and besides it would not be fitting for them. And they sent

 [2 ] dvnod

 [3 ] oll

 [4 ] a gwasgarv y llongav i amravaelion draethev = drowned, and the ships were scattered to various shores

 [5 ] amerodr

 [6 ] morynion

 [7 ] long = ships

 [8 ] yn dywysawc arnvnt = prince over them

 [1 ] o drin

 [2 ] or grasian vchod

 [3 ] varw = was dead

 [4 ] oll

 [5 ] yr llall = to the other

 [6 ] yn lofrudd

 [7 ] y seneddwyr = the senators

 [8 ] long = ship

 [9 ] B. omits “killed”

 [1 ] kymryd yn ev kyngor a orugant wneithur = they decided after consultation to make

 [2 ] a hynny yn gowraint ymarver marchogaeth a dwyn arvav val i gellynt ymerbyn ac estronion o bai raid vddvnt = and that through skillful practice of horsemanship and bearing arms, so that they might resist the foreigners if they needed to

 [3 ] ai da

 [4 ] teiyrged [for teyrnged?] = defend their tribute

 [5 ] hynny = announced that

 [6 ] roes

 [7 ] yw gwlad = for their country

 [8 ] oll

 [1 ] hwynt = them

 [2 ] hynny = that

 [3 ] dygyn vv ganthvnt a gorthrwm oedd i girad oer gwyn = it was grievous for them and very heavy was their dreadful dismal lament

 [4 ] a wahoddes y brenin i drigo yno tra vynnai = and the king invited him to dwell there as long as he would

 [5 ] wledic

 [1 ] nad oedd fordd i gynal ynys brydain onyd drwyddo ef = there was no way to maintain the Isle of Britain except through him

 [2 ] y maes = the field

 [3 ] Ar konstans hwnnw a wisgwyd y mynachloc = and that Constans was clothed in the monastery

 [1 ] at ladd = and killed him

 [2 ] y goron = the crown

 [3 ] “and even . . . of age” is not in B.

 [4 ] hyd y vynachloc = to the monastery

 [5 ] o gonstans = Constans

 [6 ] benn

 [7 ] ynys brydain

 [1 ] ai bwyllwr dair blynedd gyd ac wynt = and their rations for three years with them

 [2 ] ai dwyn = and brought them

 [3 ] B. adds here ai Roi i galyn penn i varch = ana appointed them to follow his horse’s head, and omits the idea from the preceding sentence

 [4 ] os Ryvel a ddelai yr ynys oddyno y gellid i hatal = if war came to the island from there they could be held

 [1 ] mynegi . . . yr brenin

 [2 ] ynn hir gyveddach = in a long carousal

 [3 ] ar ychydic vywyd

 [4 ] y geisio da yw dreulio = to seek goods to spend

 [5 ] gwybod = known

 [1 ] bod = was

 [2 ] y gelynion = his enemies

 [3 ] a brad

 [4 ] nev erbyn a ddelai atto = or take what might come to him

 [5 ] ai bod yn berigl enaid o thrigai ynddi hwy = and that he was in danger of his life if he dwelt longer in it

 [6 ] Ac val yr oedd yn dyvod y dros vynydd kent = And as he was coming over the mountain of Kent

 [1 ] i kenedl hwy = their race

 [2 ] Sef oedd hynny gwedi geni krist pedwar cant a phedair ar ddec a deugain / o vlynydd. oedd. Sef oedd hynny wedi dechrev b pvm mil a chwechant a thair blynydd ar ddec a devgain. Sef oedd hynny gwedi dilyw pedeir mil a thrychant ac vn vlynedd a thrugain. = That was four hundred and fifty-four years after the birth of Christ. That was five thousand six hundred and fifty-three years after the beginning of the w[orld.] That was four thousand and three hundred and sixty-one years after the flood.

 [1 ] parth

 [2 ] Ac yn ol y vuddygoliaeth honno = And after that victory

 [3 ] ynddaw = in it

 [4 ] led kroen ych o dir i adeilad

 [5 ] dethol = chose

 [6 ] hwyaf = as long

 [7 ] adeilad y dinas a elwid = built the city which was called

 [8 ] ac a elwynt hwy dongcchestr = and which they called Thongchester

 [9 ] a elwyd Ronwen = who was called Ronwen

 [1 ] yno = there

 [2 ] o bryd a

 [3 ] king

 [4 ] y mae

 [5 ] o ddysc yr ieithydd

 [6 ] a llyna y wasael kyntaf a doeth yr ynys honn = and that was the firstwassailthat came to this island

 [7 ] na allai vod hebddi yr dim = he could not be without her for anything

 [8 ] attvnt

 [9 ] yr brenin = the king

 [10 ] ar ail achos = and the second reason

 [11 ] A chan

 [12 ] i ddigowethv

 [1 ] arglwyddi = lords

 [2 ] a gowsai ef or wreic kyntaf kyn no hynny = whom he had got by the first wife before that

 [3 ] vlynedd

 [4 ] kanis y sadwrn oedd or blaen

 [5 ] nesaf

 [6 ] garmonn a bloid i gydymddaith gyd ac ef o ruvain = Garmon and Bleid his companion with him from Rome

 [7 ] y

 [8 ] Instead of “ef a doeth heresys (heresies came)” B. has a chyd ac wynt vn a elwid hersensys, a gav bregeth pelagiau gantho = and with them one who was called Hersensys, and the false preaching of Pelagian with him.

 [9 ] ac yn wir

 [10 ] a iawn i bob mab vod wrth orchymvn i dad a iawn i tithav

 [11 ] vyngorchymvn innev = my command

 [1 ] ac at vydd = perhaps; C. may have the same meaning.

 [2 ] gadarnhau = strengthen

 [1 ] i ddiangk

 [2 ] a gavas = got

 [3 ] Rwng i wyr = divided it among his men

 [4 ] i lowio y deyrnas

 [5 ] y brenin = the king

 [6 ] hynny = that

 [7 ] ev teyrnas = their kingdom

 [8 ] Ac yna Rannv i sswllt Ryngthunt = And then he divided his wealth among them

 [9 ] pan vai ef varw

 [10 ] lle

 [11 ] i mewn = come in

 [12 ] A diev ddywedut byth na devwei yr estronion = And surely, he said, the foreigners would never come

 [13 ] ai hwyneb attvnt

 [14 ] “after . . . dead” is not in B.

 [1 ] myned gortheyrn yn vrenin = Vortigern had become king

 [2 ] A gwedy gwybod marw gorthevyr / llawen vv hengistr = And when he knew that Vortimer was dead, Hengest rejoiced

 [3 ] a dyuod = and came

 [4 ] or tir = from the land

 [5 ] y germaniaid = the Germans

 [6 ] yr i dyvod = though they had come

 [7 ] nid amgen

 [1 ] yr brytaniaid . . . ac

 [2 ] B. omits “and”

 [3 ] or to hwnnw

 [4 ] i Ryngthvnt

 [5 ] “how . . . desire” is not in B.

 [6 ] argyhoeddu = rebuke

 [7 ] yn hosan ledr pob vn = in the leather hose of each one

 [8 ] dywetai = should say

 [9 ] draw sekys

 [10 ] o bob vn onaddvnt

 [11 ] a gyvarffai ac ef or brytaniaid yn ddiarwybod vddvnt = any of the Britons taken unawares whom he met

 [1 ] hengistr dwyllwr = Hengest the deceiver

 [2 ] draw hwr sexes

 [3 ] or saeson

 [4 ] a leddesid

 [5 ] y gair bradedic = the treacherous word

 [6 ] brydain

 [7 ] gollyngwyd

 [8 ] yn drist

 [1 ] gan na wyddynt pa ateb = since they did not know what answer

 [2 ] drwy lythyrav a chennadav = through letters and messengers

 [3 ] llawer o gymry = much of Cambria This whole page is greatly abridged in B.

 [1 ] y mab arall = the other boy

 [2 ] For “cywira” in the sense of “contendere” see B.B.C.S., II, 23.

 [3 ] A thithav sydd heb vn tat

 [4 ] y mab

 [5 ] kenadav = messengers

 [6 ] y brenin = the king

 [7 ] yr ioed

 [8 ] gwisgwyd = was dressed

 [9 ] trymhau a wnevthvm

 [1 ] rai = some

 [2 ] natur gwr = a man’s nature

 [3 ] pob peth = everything

 [4 ] y vynaches = the nun

 [5 ] yn gystal

 [6 ] y lleddy di vi

 [1 ] a ddywedesynt

 [2 ] noi air ef e hvn = than his own word

 [3 ] or wlad = in the country

 [4 ] o vaen gadarn = of strong stone

 [5 ] wedy ymladd

 [6 ] gloddio

 [7 ] reading “welas” for “welaf;” B. has oni gad y llynn anoddyn = until they came to the very deep lake

 [8 ] Ac wedy methv i wyhynnv = and after they had failed to empty it

 [9 ] y brenin = the king

 [10 ] ef = he

 [1 ] Ac yna y gellyngodd y mab y llyn drwy gelvyddyd yn pymp ffavd y redec = And then the boy, by art, let out the lake in five running jets.

 [2 ] an ap y lleian

 [3 ] y gelwid ef = he was called

 [4 ] gollwng

 [5 ] Ac wedi egori y gist y kyvodes dwy ddraic vali tystia proffwydoliaeth verddin nid amgen

 [6 ] arall = the other

 [7 ] a gymhellodd = pressed

 [8 ] Kymry = Cambrians

 [9 ] genedl

 [1 ] oni vo llithredic yr llawr oll yna y grymha = until he slips to the ground all in that place shall grow strong. From the Latin it seems clear that the original reading must have been “yny bo llithredic y llauur.”

 [2 ] arverant = use

 [1 ] gwyhana = shall separate

 [2 ] braidd y kaiff

 [3 ] argyhoedda = shall reprove

 [4 ] reading “a vygir” for “a dygir;” B. has a ddygyrch = shall attack

 [5 ] yr hwnn ar i vrefiad yr ergryna = who, with his roaring, shall make tremble . . .

 [1 ] divanheir = shall be decayed (?)

 [2 ] argyhoeddir = shall be reproved

 [3 ] oni vo galwedic yr ystlysav = until she is called to the sides

 [4 ] heyrnolion; “ancient” omitted

 [5 ] llwynev a symvdir = groves shall be changed

 [6 ] yny dechrev ef a ymddyry = in the beginning he shall crowd

 [1 ] yny diwedd yr ymddyrchaif i oruchelder = in the end he shall rise to sublimity

 [2 ] gwerynolion = refreshing; C. may have the same.

 [1 ] or “fountain of noon,” or “fountain of horsemen.”

 [2 ] “Every soil . . . fornication.” is not in B.

 [3 ] mewyn = ?

 [4 ] “and his tongue . . . thirsty.” is not in B.

 [5 ] argyhoeddus = culpable

 [6 ] koedydd = woods

 [1 ] a gymerw = shall boil

 [2 ] argyweddus

 [1 ] llithr

 [2 ] argyhoedda = shall censure

 [3 ] i ffordd = his road

 [1 ] narwol = ?

 [2 ] yr amddenngys = he shall appear

 [3 ] B. also has chwyd, but the original text doubtless had chwyth = breathe

 [4 ] heb ryvygv = without daring

 [1 ] ymddivan = expostulating

 [2 ] “the serpent” is not in B.

 [3 ] honno = that

 [4 ] y gwelir = shall be seen

 [1 ] adyl = ?

 [2 ] Ridiant

 [3 ] drywana

 [4 ] y goresgynnir

 [5 ] diosgedic

 [6 ] yn noethedic = naked (adj.)

 [7 ] ddrych = appearance

 [1 ] ai gyrn a vriw y mvroed exsestr = with his horns he shall break the walls of Exeter.

 [2 ] genev

 [3 ] ddiosgedic

 [4 ] a symvdir yn ddybryd. Brwydrav y Rai hynny a gymer llew chwyddedic o ddyniol grav = shall be horribly changed. A lion swollen with human gore shall take their battles;

 [1 ] ac a dywysa = and shall guide

 [2 ] yr hwnn o adchwibanad y neidr alwedic = who, called by the hissing of the serpent

 [3 ] ac arver yr ynys a adnewyddha = and shall renew the custom of the island

 [4 ] Or “tonsured; B. has korvniawc. Both probably stand for “cornawc = horned”

 [5 ] aerav

 [1 ] Yna damblygir y llew yny gwin = Then the lion shall be enfolded in the wine

 [2 ] rydid = freedom

 [3 ] help = help

 [1 ] a ddyvynnant = shall summon

 [2 ] Y wyr = the man

 [3 ] probably for “gweryuolion = maidenly;” B. has gwerinolion = vulgar

 [4 ] Ryveddu hynny = marvelled at that

 [5 ] ef = he

 [6 ] dau [dan?] meibion kustenin = the two sons of Constantine

 [7 ] y rai y sydd = who are

 [8 ] i dyuot = to come

 [9 ] enwir = wicked

 [10 ] y saesson

 [1 ] bevnydd

 [2 ] i hvn

 [3 ] i emrys ac Vthyr = to Ambrose and Uther

 [4 ] Cotton Cleopatra appears to have “mynyd deu arth = Two-bear Mountain.”

 [1 ] oed y arwydd y vlwyddyn honno pann aned sanffraid = the age of the banner that year when Saint Bride was born

 [2 ] wybv = knew

 [3 ] neb = anyone

 [4 ] a dewr

 [5 ] ffo dros = fled over

 [6 ] adeilad = built

 [7 ] gynt = before

 [8 ] nad oedd vawr o varchogion gan emrys o lydaw = that Ambrose did not have many knights from Brittany

 [9 ] nad ofnai ef yr y bryttanieit = that he was not afraid because of the Britons

 [10 ] elwid = was called

 [11 ] namyn pan ddoeth yno byddino a oruc = but when he came there he drew up

 [1 ] drwy y gwyr pennaf o naddvnt = through their leading men

 [2 ] “like . . . thunder” is not in B.

 [3 ] i doeth gwrlais iarll / kernyw atto = Gorlois Earl of Cornwall came to him

 [4 ] ynghanol

 [5 ] o honam

 [6 ] yn kladdv y kalanedd ac ynn meddiginiaethv y Rai briwedic = burying the dead bodies and attending to the wounded

 [1 ] yn rwym = bound

 [2 ] ar y vedd = on his grave

 [3 ] y kymerth Octta = Octa took

 [4 ] reading “gyuunawl” for “gymunawl”; B. has gymvnawl.

 [5 ] ac ymroi

 [6 ] Gwyr gobonitte

 [1 ] una peri kyweiriaw = then [he] caused to be restored

 [2 ] “and the evil laws . . . that is” is not in B.

 [3 ] yr hwnn y daroedd yr saeson dreissiaw ev tadav ohonvnt = which the Saxons had taken from their fathers

 [4 ] pob lle = every place

 [5 ] golledigaeth y dyledogion yno = the loss of the nobles there

 [6 ] trist uu ganthaw am weled = he was sad to see

 [7 ] yr ynys = the island

 [8 ] a dychmygv = and devised

 [1 ] atvnt = to them

 [2 ] mwy = more

 [3 ] onid

 [4 ] y mae = there are

 [1 ] onid

 [2 ] golid = were buried

 [3 ] Sef oedd henw brenin ewerddon yna gilamwri = the name of the King of Ireland then was Gillamuri

 [4 ] ef = he

 [5 ] yn i herbyn = against them

 [6 ] hynt = journey

 [7 ] dyvodiad = coming

 [8 ] i ymladd = to fight

 [1 ] Ac wedi ffaelu ganthvnt pob peth or a vedrynt = And after they had failed in everything that they knew how to do

 [2 ] Llyma ddangos ywch = This is to show you. For “diwynnic” as a synonym of “arddangos” see B.B.C.S., I, 332, and II, 240.

 [3 ] Ac yna y dvc ef e hvn yn ddilavur y main oddyno yr llongheu = And then he himself without effort brought the stones from that place to the ships

 [4 ] ac esgyb ar holl

 [5 ] ar wysc

 [6 ] gytvndeb

 [7 ] i Roed . . . yn archesgob kaerefroc wr a elwid sampson Ac ynghaer llion wr a elwid dyfric = There was placed as Archbishop of York a man who was called Sampson, and in Caerleon a man who was called Dubric

 [8 ] y mynydd kilara

 [1 ] “the largest he could get” is not in B.

 [2 ] “And in return . . . Britain” is not in B.

 [3 ] y gwledydd

 [4 ] lle yr oedd gilamwri yn vrenhin = where Gillamuri was king.

 [5 ] yr hwnn = who

 [6 ] “And each . . . Constantine” is not in B.

 [7 ] ac yna kynvll llu a oruc a dyvod yll dav hyd y myniw i dir = And then they collected an army and both came to land at Menevia

 [8 ] wyr = have men

 [9 ] ymerbyn a hwynt = oppose them

 [10 ] wyby basgen a gilamwri = Pasgen and Gillamuri knew

 [11 ] nychaf = behold

 [12 ] properly “her name”; B. has a elwid eppa = who was called Eppa

 [1 ] am a eddewaist

 [2 ] modd = fashion

 [3 ] ducpwyd ef = he was taken

 [4 ] i = it

 [5 ] ar hynt = at once

 [6 ] y bradwr = the traitor

 [7 ] i gysgv = to sleep

 [8 ] lladdai y gwenwyn ef = the poison would kill him

 [9 ] yn Rith llysieva. A gorchymyn gadaw y brenin i orffowys

 [10 ] Llyma golled = Here is a loss

 [1 ] A thydi a arweddoka y seren ar ddraic a welwch yn danawl Ar paladr a welwch yn estynnv = And the star and the fiery dragon that you see signify you. And the beam which you see extending

 [2 ] holl wyr llen annRydeddus = all the honorable scholars

 [3 ] Emreis = Ambrose

 [4 ] Instead of “And after . . . chosen king,” B. has Ac yn ol emrys / y gwladychodd vthr y vrawd = And after Ambrose his brother Uther reigned.

 [5 ] wnevthur

 [6 ] delwev = images

 [7 ] y seren

 [8 ] a arweddid = was borne

 [9 ] mab hors

 [1 ] wyr = men

 [2 ] yn wychr

 [3 ] a lladd llawer

 [4 ] Ac wedi myned vthr yni gyngor y dyvod gwrlais iarll kaerloyw = And after Uther had gone to his council, Gorlois Earl of Gloucester said

 [5 ] gan vod yn niver ni yn llai nor Revddvnt hwy

 [1 ] mynych

 [2 ] kenadav = messengers

 [3 ] yr brenin = to the king

 [4 ] i

 [5 ] Ac nid ymchwelai yr anvon yr ail gennad = And he did not return in spite of the sending of the second messenger.

 [6 ] Dunod

 [7 ] yn yr un lle = in the same place

 [1 ] heb adel neb i vyned i mewn na neb i ddyvod allan = without letting anybody go in or anybody come out

 [2 ] y doeth = came

 [3 ] myned yno = to go there

 [4 ] gwr

 [5 ] Ac yna gwedy symvdo o verddin ev drych hwynt yr aethant hyd ymhorth castell tindagol ymhyryd gwr a llwyn = And after Merlin had changed their appearances they went to the gate of the castle when a man and a bush look alike

 [6 ] yn gynnar = early

 [1 ] ac ar ny las oi wyr a ffoasant = Those of his men who were not killed fled.

 [2 ] vthr

 [3 ] i mi po gyntaf = for me, as soon as I can,

 [4 ] gwedy llonyddv pob peth

 [5 ] ac ef a gavas ohoni arthur ap vthr a merch a elwid anna = and he got of her Arthur the son of Uther and a daughter who was called Anna

 [6 ] yn ebrwydd ar ol hynny

 [7 ] ef a vv yn hir nych oni = he was in a long infirmity until

 [1 ] oedd yn kadw = were keeping

 [2 ] Ai gollwng

 [3 ] A phann wybu vthr hynny = and when Uther knew that

 [4 ] anreithiaw yno a lladd a llosgi = ravage there and kill and burn

 [5 ] ar saeson Ar saeson yn gorvod yn vynychaf = between them and the Saxons; and the Saxons were most frequently victorious

 [6 ] dan ladd a llosgi = killing and burning

 [7 ] dirmygvs

 [1 ] dan chwerthin = laughing

 [2 ] gwell = better

 [3 ] byw

 [4 ] y vatel honno = that battle

 [5 ] a ffoesynt = who had fled

 [6 ] A hevyd gwanach oedd y saeson i volestv arnvnt noc oeddyn gynt. = litter. And the Saxons were also weaker to harry them than they had been before.

 [7 ] gwedy tangneveddv hynny

 [8 ] Reidusion

 [9 ] yvodd = drank

 [1 ] varw = was dead

 [2 ] gydernyd = strength

 [3 ] oblegid

 [4 ] i kowsant yn ev kyngor vrddo arthur yn bymtheng mylwydd o oed = after deliberation they decided to make Arthur [King] at the age of fifteen years

 [5 ] neb

 [6 ] wnaeth

 [7 ] bob kamp dda = every good feat

 [8 ] a gowsai gan dduw = he got from God

 [9 ] o da gymaint ac

 [10 ] ar a geisiai nev a weddai Roddi vddvnt = who sought or prayed to have [something] given them

 [11 ] haelioni = generosity

 [12 ] wasgedigaeth = the pressure of

 [13 ] ar wysc

 [1 ] oed yr arglwydd yna cccclxxxxviij o vlynyddedd Ac yna

 [2 ] gorddwy = oppression

 [3 ] a orvv

 [4 ] ar vedr dwyn = with the intention of making

 [5 ] A phann wybu Arthur = And when Arthur knew

 [6 ] “And . . . did.” is not in B.

 [7 ] pa vodd y gallai ymweled ai vrawd = how he might visit with his brother

 [8 ] ganthaw = with him

 [9 ] y ymyl = near

 [1 ] yn ymgynghori

 [2 ] i gymryd kyngor anvon att hywel = to him to seek advice: to send to Howel

 [3 ] ato

 [4 ] ac a elwir heddiw = and it is called to-day

 [5 ] yna = there

 [6 ] or saeson = of the Saxons

 [7 ] A later gloss in B. has “sylva caledonia.”

 [1 ] ap emyr llydaw

 [2 ] pawb

 [3 ] Blessed or White; B. has a a tharian wenn = and a white shield

 [4 ] a del [=delw] vair = and the image of Mary

 [5 ] ef = he

 [6 ] literally “on his hip”

 [7 ] Hard-Breach

 [8 ] a gorav kleddyf oedd hwnnw a wnaethesid yn ynys avallach = and it was the best sword that had been made in the Isle of Avalon.

 [9 ] Spear of Command

 [10 ] o bawb = all

 [1 ] Ac yna yr aeth y saeson i benn mynydd gan dybio gallv ymgadw yno = And then the Saxons went to the top of a mountain, thinking that they could keep themselves there.

 [2 ] ymffust

 [3 ] ynnill y gaer

 [4 ] y gwnaethbwyt = were made

 [1 ] a barasai = caused

 [2 ] ymhob karrec nyth = in each rock a nest

 [3 ] adnebydd

 [4 ] haiach

 [5 ] llu = army

 [6 ] or gwyddyl

 [7 ] i nerthi yr ysgotiaid ar ffichdiaid = to help the Scots and the Picts

 [8 ] kanis or vn wlad yr hanoeddynt ac or vn ieith ar gwyddyl = for they were descended from the same country and the same language as the Irish

 [9 ] ymladd ar = to fight with

 [10 ] a phrioriaid

 [1 ] iddo

 [2 ] heddycho pob peth = everything had been pacified

 [3 ] ap emyr llydaw

 [4 ] dyvod

 [5 ] ynddo = in it

 [6 ] chwarter = quarter

 [7 ] argyhoeddai = reproved

 [8 ] gwyr

 [9 ] ac effeiriaid

 [1 ] ar a ysbeiliasai y saeson = whom the Saxons had despoiled

 [2 ] The meaning required is “brother-in-law,” but I find no authority for this meaning of daw. B. and Peniarth 21 also have daw.

 [3 ] ai plant oedd walchmai a medrod = and their children were Gawain and Modred.

 [4 ] wastaw pob peth = settled everything

 [5 ] a theckaf dyn oed = and she was the most beautiful woman

 [6 ] rac wyneb

 [7 ] myned a oruc ef yno = he went there

 [8 ] yn godde ymlad = with the intention of fighting

 [9 ] ac ny bu wiw

 [10 ] ymroi = surrender

 [11 ] arthur

 [12 ] heb ohir

 [13 ] yr oedd yn kerdded

 [14 ] ddengmylynedd = ten years.

 [15 ] bawb a vai gampus a moladwy = everyone who was excellent and praiseworthy

 [1 ] o voes a champav = for manners and excellencies

 [2 ] nid oedd neb = there was no one

 [3 ] brenhinedd pob ynys = the kings of every island

 [4 ] berffeithiaw

 [5 ] ap kynvarch

 [6 ] a roes henw gwalchmai arno = named him Gawain

 [1 ] Arthur

 [2 ] ef = he

 [3 ] yno = there

 [4 ] brenin ffraingk oedd hwnnw = the King of France was he

 [5 ] grevlon = fiercely

 [6 ] ny bu wiw

 [7 ] Rai ffrolo = those of Frollo

 [8 ] Kanis ffo a oruc ef ai lu hyt ymharis = for he and his army fled to Paris

 [9 ] yny mor

 [10 ] trecha

 [11 ] aethant = went

 [1 ] yna

 [2 ] derbyn arvod ffrolo ar i darian = received Frollo’s blow on his shield

 [3 ] mynnv = wanting

 [4 ] o ddehevyd i bryd Ac yn hynny y trewis ffrolo ddyrnod ar arthur oni = with eager heart. And in that Frollo struck a blow on Arthur until

 [5 ] oni vv ddir i ffrolo daly angav = until Frollo had to die

 [6 ] Arthur

 [7 ] ap emyr llydaw

 [8 ] gweddu nev ddarostwng i arthur = do homage or submit to Arthur

 [9 ] a daly = and held

 [10 ] yno

 [11 ] gyttvndeb

 [12 ] i gwnaeth ef = he made

 [13 ] yw kynnal = to be maintained

 [14 ] teyrnassoedd = kingdoms

 [1 ] aeth = went

 [2 ] o vlynyddoedd

 [3 ] sathyr; C. has “ssarthyr.”

 [4 ] a thrwy . . . y nerthwyd ef a roddasai wrogaeth iddo. The text in both MSS. is corrupt and the restoration conjectural; Pen. 21 does not have the sentence.

 [5 ] llys = court

 [6 ] ddyvod yr dinas = come to the city

 [7 ] hyddail = leafy

 [8 ] “and that city . . . Rome” is omitted here, and inserted later.

 [9 ] Ar drydedd eglwys oedd archesgopty. Ar dinas hwnnw a gyfflybid i ruvain kanis yno roedd yr ysgol bennaf ar saith gelvyddyd yn gwbwl. = And the third church was the archbishop-house. And that city was compared to Rome, for there was the chief school and the seven arts all complete.

 [1 ] a gwyrda y teyrnasoed oll ar ni ellid Rif arnvnt. Ac wedy ev dyvod = knights, and nobles of all the kingdoms beyond number. And after they had come

 [2 ] canys brawd legad oed = for he was brother of a legate. Another (?) hand has added iddo, which may make the phrase mean for he had the judgment of a legate.

 [3 ] santaidd

 [4 ] henw = name

 [5 ] “Regin Clawd’s son” is not in B.

 [6 ] ap gwedl (gwectl?)

 [7 ] oedd = were

 [8 ] Eislont = Iceland

 [1 ] hir

 [2 ] niveroedd = numbers

 [3 ] y dywedaf

 [4 ] siric a bliant = silk and fine linen

 [5 ] vn wlad = one country

 [6 ] hyd yno

 [7 ] a ddamvnynt

 [8 ] i weled ac i ddysgv = to see and to learn

 [9 ] roddi

 [10 ] Arthur

 [11 ] y bedwar = the four

 [1 ] o bob parth ir vrddasolion niver or pyngkiav tecaf ac vrdasaf or mvsic = on all sides to the most stately number of the fairest and most noble notes of the music

 [2 ] yn ol hynny = after that

 [3 ] a phann ddoethant = and when they came

 [4 ] eglwys = church

 [5 ] gwasanaeth = service

 [6 ] yny mvsic = in music

 [7 ] pobl = people

 [8 ] i edrych pa wasaneth dekaf. Ac ni vedrynt varnv pa le ddigriva Rac digrifed pob vn. = to see which service was the most beautiful. And they could not decide what place was most delightful because each was so delightful.

 [9 ] tv = side

 [10 ] oll

 [11 ] gwenhwyva

 [1 ] yr nevadd

 [2 ] ar gwragedd

 [3 ] dewrder = courage

 [4 ] vddvnt = to them

 [5 ] amser

 [6 ] or gwaith goddef

 [7 ] ymogoni

 [1 ] “whenever . . . vacant” is not in B.

 [2 ] gwisgwyd = was clothed

 [3 ] ap karedic ap kvnedda wledic

 [4 ] a chyvyrderw = and second cousin

 [5 ] ynys brydain = the Isle of Britain

 [6 ] Lles

 [1 ] eraill

 [2 ] i vod = to be; “dy vot yn ruvein” might mean “that you should be in Rome”

 [3 ] gwybydd

 [4 ] ymddifan = expostulating

 [5 ] tec

 [6 ] gwroliaeth

 [7 ] am

 [8 ] i beri yn goffav yn dewrder yr hwnn yr oeddym yni heb govi = for making us remember our courage which we were not remembering

 [1 ] a hynny a ballodd ganthvnt

 [2 ] Ruvain = Rome

 [3 ] meibion = young men

 [4 ] gyngor = advice

 [5 ] ni ddywedym ni i gyd gystal ac a ddyvod arthur ehvn = all of us together would not say as good a thing as Arthur himself has said.

 [6 ] y gwna duw gywiro y gair ar meddwl = God will make good the word and the thought

 [7 ] or kymry = of the Cambrians

 [8 ] ac ni bu eithr dav = Rome, and there have been but two

 [9 ] kanis dyhvn yw pawb oth wyr i vyned gyd a thi = for all of your men are of one mind to go with you

 [1 ] a ddywedasoch = said

 [2 ] ys hyfryd o weliav vydd ym o gorvydd i kymryt = how pleasant wounds will be to me if I must receive them

 [3 ] vrddas

 [4 ] nerth ytt

 [5 ] ar vn Riv o bedid = and the same number of footmen

 [6 ] a dogni y maint a roe bawb = and apportioning how many each would give

 [7 ] Sef oedd y swm o wyr a eddowsid iddo / o ynys brydain heb a eddowsai Howel ap emyr llydaw = This was the sum of men who were promised him from the Isle of Britain, besides those that Howel son of Emyr of Brittany promised him

 [8 ] ffraingk

 [9 ] Sef a gavas Arthur oll o bob ynys = Arthur got in all from all the islands

 [10 ] dyvod = said

 [1 ] glybu

 [2 ] amadrawdd = speech

 [3 ] holl

 [4 ] assiria

 [5 ] “King of Turrea . . . Mitipan” is not in B.

 [6 ] persia

 [7 ] B. omits the last “thousands”

 [8 ] vab llew ap kynvarch

 [9 ] holl

 [10 ] adref = home

 [11 ] hwyliaw a oruc = he sailed

 [12 ] vreuddwyd aruthr y nos honno = a terrible dream that night

 [1 ] a than oi llygaid = and the fire from his eyes

 [2 ] oll

 [3 ] Sef i dehongles gwyr doethion a dywedud = The wise men explained it and said

 [4 ] Ac ni chredei Arthur na bai y brevddwyd yn arweddokav yr ymwrdd ar kyvarvod Ryngtho ef a lles amerawdr Ruvain = And Arthur did not believe that the dream did not signify the strife and the meeting between him and Lucius the Roman Emperor.

 [5 ] val

 [6 ] verch = daughter

 [7 ] o anvodd = against the will of

 [8 ] aethesynt

 [9 ] ar y tir

 [10 ] ac = and

 [11 ] i emyl y mynyd

 [12 ] ar llall = and the other

 [1 ] ar wrach yn wylo yn drist = and the old woman was weeping sadly

 [2 ] hi = she

 [3 ] verch = daughter

 [4 ] i lladdodd yn varw = he killed her dead

 [5 ] ac ym lladd = and to kill me

 [6 ] “more than” is not in B.

 [7 ] y kawr = the giant

 [8 ] “And after . . . half raw” is not in B.

 [1 ] “Arthur . . . blow” is not in B.

 [2 ] kaledvwlch

 [3 ] ynghyvwng gwallt a thal = between hair and forehead

 [4 ] ac yna kyrchv arthur yn grevlon a oruc y kawr = and then the giant attacked Arthur fiercely

 [5 ] syrthio = fell

 [6 ] na chyvarvv

 [7 ] a ymladdasai ac ef

 [8 ] iddo

 [9 ] i = for

 [10 ] Ac y dewisodd arthur ymladd Ac yn yr ymladd hwnnw y llas Ritta gawr

 [11 ] ynillodd = won

 [12 ] yr ail

 [13 ] ap emyr llydaw

 [1 ] vddvnt = they were told

 [2 ] ac aneirif o lu gantho = with a mighty army

 [3 ] iarll

 [4 ] da oedd gann lu arthur = Arthur’s army was glad

 [5 ] gadaw = leave

 [6 ] llynn for llym

 [7 ] i = his

 [8 ] ar vn dyrnod

 [9 ] karnwys

 [10 ] troi a lladd y nesaf atto a gwayw trwyddo = turned and killed the nearest to him with a spear through him

 [11 ] Bosso o weles hynny = life. Bosso saw that

 [1 ] blaenoriaid kyntaf dan giliaw = the first leaders as they fled

 [2 ] oedd gar i llaw.

 [3 ] y gwelynt

 [4 ] wybv = knew

 [5 ] a anoges = encouraged

 [6 ] iarll

 [7 ] galw i niver a oruc a dywedvd = he called his host and said

 [8 ] Emending “avnbyn” to “anuwyn”; the scribe has apparently read the tall w in his copy as b; Pen. 21 has a vn byn deulu. B. has instead byddwch ddyvn a glewion = be deep and bold

 [9 ] brenhin = king B. has many omissions on this page.

 [1 ] i llv = their army

 [2 ] anvon = send

 [3 ] yw dwyn i ar wyr arthur = to take them away from Arthur’s men

 [4 ] ymgyrchv a orugant ai gwasgarv a oruc gwyr Ruvain = they attacked, and the Romans scattered them

 [5 ] Sef a orugant wyntav ymrannv yn ddwy rann nid amgen gado bedwyr a Richart i gadw y Karcharorion ac ymdrinaw a orugant yn ddiryol = They separated into two parts—that is they left Bedivere and Richart to keep the prisoners and they strove pressingly [in disorder?]

 [1 ] Ac val yr oedd y Ruveinwyr yn goresgyn y brytaniaid nychaf gwyttart . . . yn dyvod = And as the Romans were getting the better of the Britons, behold Gwittard . . . coming

 [2 ] yny ffo = in the flight

 [3 ] llas = were killed

 [4 ] ai myned parth a Ruvain ai aros arthur ai niver = whether to go to Rome or to wait for Arthur and his army

 [5 ] mena

 [6 ] amerodr

 [1 ] i dysgv ai hannoc a oruc arthur = Arthur instructed them and encouraged them

 [2 ] yr oedd = were

 [3 ] byddin

 [4 ] hir

 [5 ] yr ail vatel = the second battle

 [6 ] yno = there

 [7 ] wyr = men

 [8 ] or = of the

 [1 ] a dwyn yn Ridid i arnom = and taking our freedom from us

 [2 ] gan amddivan = protecting (?)

 [3 ] tec

 [4 ] reading “diysgog” for the “diosgo” of both MSS.; Pen. 21 has dvhvn diosgo.

 [5 ] eddewis

 [6 ] i ynill = to win

 [7 ] yr hynn a ddamvnoch or a enilloch. / Ac a oresgynnoch = what you want out of what you win, and you will conquer

 [8 ] byddwch = be

 [9 ] gossod = placed

 [1 ] reading byddin as in B.

 [2 ] Parsia

 [3 ] yr oedd = was (or were)

 [4 ] brenhin

 [5 ] y roed

 [6 ] y pymed o seneddwyr = the fifth of the senators

 [7 ] las

 [8 ] roi

 [9 ] y dygid pawb y bai beriglav arnvnt kanis braint noddva oedd yno = all were brought who were in perils, for the privilege of sanctuary was there

 [10 ] yr vn = the one

 [1 ] wybr

 [2 ] ai ladd = spear and killed him

 [3 ] yno

 [4 ] “with them until . . . Bedivere’s body” is not in B.

 [5 ] drwyr byddinoedd

 [6 ] ymgyvarvv bottus = met Boctus

 [7 ] “and then . . . both sides” is not in B.

 [8 ] llas = were slain

 [9 ] Ragvaddon = from Bath

 [10 ] gwyhanwyd = were divided

 [11 ] ddyvn = deeply

 [1 ] “or made . . . wound” is not in B.

 [2 ] Ac yno y llyas tri tywysawc eraill anveidrol i klod = And then there were slain three other princes of immense renown

 [3 ] nid amgen = namely

 [4 ] dewrion = brave men

 [5 ] les = Lucius

 [6 ] hyd ar = retreat to

 [7 ] nev a anavai yn adyn = or wounded wretchedly (?)

 [1 ] Ac nis daliai arvav mwy no Rwyd adar = and armor didn’t hold together any more than a bird net

 [2 ] pan weles. y brytanieid hynny enynnv i llid ai glewdwr a orugant ac ymladd yn wrol ffennedic. A gwyr Ruvain yn lewion ar i to hwyntav oni las o bob parth val na ellid Rif arnwnt A phob vn or ddav vrenin yn annoc i gwyr yn wrol Ac ar hynny = When the Britons saw that, they enkindled their anger and their courage and fought manfully and fiercely. And the Romans, on their side, were bold so that so many were killed on both sides that they could not be counted. And each of the two kings exhorted his men manfully. And thereupon

 [3 ] iarll = earl

 [4 ] y Rai a detholesid or blaen = those who had been chosen before

 [5 ] geisio kristynogion dyledawc i dalv teyrnged vddvnt hwy beganiaid anffyddlonion = for trying to get Christian nobles to pay tribute to them who were pagans without